Interim Report of Task Force 2 on Hunger

Interim Report of Task Force 2 on Hunger February 1, 2004 Coordinators Pedro Sanchez M. S. Swaminathan Comments are welcome and should be directed to...
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Interim Report of Task Force 2 on Hunger February 1, 2004 Coordinators Pedro Sanchez M. S. Swaminathan

Comments are welcome and should be directed to: [email protected] Note to the reader This Interim Report is a preliminary output of the Millennium Project Task Force on Hunger. The recommendations presented herein are preliminary and circulated for public discussion. Comments are welcome and should be sent to the e-mail address indicated above. The Task Force will be revising the contents of this document in preparation of its Final Task Force report, due December 2004. The Final Task Force report will feed into the Millennium Project’s Final Synthesis Report, due to the Secretary-General by June 30, 2005 Disclaimer This publication does not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), its Executive Board or its Member States.

Interim Report of the Millennium Project Hunger Task Force

HALVING HUNGER BY 2015: A FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION

February 1, 2004

Please cite this paper as: Millennium Project Task Force on Hunger. (2004) Halving Hunger by 2015: A Framework for Action. Interim Report. Millennium Project. New York

This report was prepared by: Don S. Doering (Hunger Task Force), Lawrence Haddad and Manohar Sharma (International Food Policy Research Institute) and the Members of the Hunger Task Force, with final edit by Pedro Sanchez (Columbia Earth Institute).

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The Millennium Project Hunger Task Force Task Force Coordinators: Pedro Sanchez, The Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York MS Swaminathan, Chairman, MS Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai Members: Abenaa Akuamoa Boateng, Head of Nutrition, Ashanti Region, Ghana Ministry of Health, Kumasi Tom Arnold, President, Concern Worldwide, Dublin Richard Beahrs, President and COO (Retired), Court TV, New York David Beckmann, President, Bread for the World, Washington Bo Bengtsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala Roland Bunch, Coordinator, COSECHA, Tegucigalpa Kevin Cleaver, Director, Agriculture and Rural Development and Chair, Rural Development Sector Board, The World Bank, Washington Graeme Clugston, Director, Dept. of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization Geneva William Dar, Director-General, ICRISAT, Patancheru, India Philip Dobie, Director, Drylands Development Centre, UNDP, Nairobi Don S. Doering, Senior Associate, Winrock International, Washington Christopher Dowswell, Sasakawa Global 2000, Mexico City Hans Eenhoorn, Unilever, Rotterdam Robert Horsch, Vice President, Product and Technology Cooperation, Monsanto Company, St. Louis Bashir Jama, Senior Scientist and East Africa Coordinator, World Agro-forestry Centre Nairobi Monty Jones, Executive Secretary, Forum for Agricultural Research in

Africa, Accra Freddie Kwesiga, Southern Africa Coordinator, World Agro-forestry Center, Harare Justin Lin, Director, China Center for Economic Research, University of Beijing Peter Matlon, Deputy Director for Food Security, The Rockefeller Foundation, New York Njabulo Nduli, Deputy Director-General for Agricultural Production and Resources Management, South Africa Dept. of Agriculture, Pretoria Johnson Nkuuhe, Member of Parliament, Uganda Timothy Reeves, former DirectorGeneral, CIMMYT, Adelaide Sara Scherr, Director of Ecosystems Services, Forest Trends, Washington Meera Shekar, Senior Nutrition Specialist, World Bank, Washington Kostas Stamoulis, Chief, Agricultural Sector in Economic Development, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome Joachim von Braun, Director-General, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington Florence Wambugu, Director, A Harvest Biotech Foundation International, Nairobi Patrick Webb, Chief of Nutrition, UN World Food Programme, Rome Lars Wiersholm, Consultant, Retired from Norsk Hydro Corporation (Retired), Oslo

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................... iii List of Figures ..........................................................................................................................................iv List of Tables ...........................................................................................................................................vi Preface .................................................................................................................................................... 9 Executive Summary............................................................................................................................... 11 1

Halving Hunger by 2015 is Possible ............................................................................................. 26

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The Human and Economic Costs of Hunger ................................................................................ 33

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The Faces of Hunger .................................................................................................................... 42

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The African Hunger Hotspots ....................................................................................................... 69

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Strategies and Actions for Alleviating Hunger .............................................................................. 82

6

Creating the political actions for hunger alleviation ...................................................................... 89

7

Align critical policies to support hunger alleviation objectives .................................................... 103

8

Improve nutrition of mothers and children .................................................................................. 128

9

Improve markets to benefit poor consumers and food producers .............................................. 146

10

Raise the productivity of smallholder farmers in more- and less-favored lands ......................... 163

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Early Actions for Africa ............................................................................................................... 189

12

Work plan for 2004...................................................................................................................... 196

Annex 1: Major International Anti-Hunger Initiatives .......................................................................... 202 Annex 2: Measuring Hunger................................................................................................................ 209 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................... 212

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1-1: The Hunger Task Force Strategy to Halve Hunger by 2015 .............................................. 31 Figure 1-2: Creating the Context for Ending Hunger............................................................................ 31 Figure 2-1: The overlapping concepts that describe the hungry and food-insecure ............................ 34 Figure 2-2: Faltering Progress Towards the MDG on Hunger: Undernourishment Data (FAO, 2003) . 35 Figure 2-3: Trends of underweight with 95% confidence interval (CI) in children 25-30 and obesity as Body Mass Index BMI > 30.

Stunting

Low height for age, reflecting a sustained past episode or episodes of undernutrition

Undernourishment

Inadequate consumption of food. Individuals in households consuming less than about 1900 kcal per capita, depending on age, sex, and height, are considered undernourished, using FAO’s measure based on distribution of household consumption and availability of dietary energy.

Under-nutrition

The result of undernourishment, poor absorption and/or poor biological use of nutrients consumed.

Underweight

Low weight for age in children, and body mass index below 18.5 in adults, reflecting a current condition resulting from inadequate food intake, past episodes of under-nutrition or poor health conditions.

Vulnerability

The presence of factors that place people at risk of becoming food-insecure or malnourished, including factors that affect their ability to cope.

Wasting

Low weight for height, generally the result of weight loss associated with a recent period of starvation or disease.

Figure 2-1: The overlapping concepts that describe the hungry and food-insecure

Hungry Undernutrition

Hungry, Food insecure, & Undernutrition

Temporary hunger and food insecurity

Undernutrition due to non-food reasons Food insecure due to hidden hunger undernutrition

Food insecure due to risk of loss of access

Food insecure

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Although the percent of those experiencing over-nutrition is growing fast, especially in Asia. 34

2.1

A framework to understand causes: Physical, Economic, Sociopolitical, and Physiological Access to Food

Using either indicator “undernourishment” from FAO or “underweight “ from WHO, overall progress towards the MDG goal seems steady, but progress is not rapid enough and it is highly uneven. Figure 2-2 shows progress in the FAO indicator, with the numbers of hungry in 2015 predicted to be approximately 600 million, well short of the Hunger MDG goal of approximately 400 million. If China is removed from the data, the numbers of undernourished are actually increasing. Figure 2-3shows progress using the underweight indicator from WHO by region. This indicator is expressed in terms of the percentage of infants that are underweight. It indicates that developing countries are projected to have 20% of infants underweight by 2015, when the target is approximately 15%. This figure shows that there is a huge projected gap in Sub-Saharan Africa where undernourishment is increasing, a slight negative gap in Asia where undernourishment is decreasing and where the largest numbers are, and an optimistic outlook for Latin America and the Caribbean. Overall the MDG on hunger will not be met in developing countries. The continental level ignores significant national and subnational differences, Figure 2-2: Faltering Progress Towards the MDG on Hunger: Undernourishment Data (FAO, 2003)

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Figure 2-3: Trends of underweight with 95% confidence interval (CI) in children