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IRF Road Safety Challenge for Africa: 11-12 March 2015, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) Insert the title of your Accomplishing Targets of Road Safety in Accor...
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IRF Road Safety Challenge for Africa: 11-12 March 2015, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

Insert the title of your Accomplishing Targets of Road Safety in Accordance with The presentation here Decade of Action Presented by Name Here Job Title - Date

SESSION II – Safer Roads and Mobility

Insert the title of your New infrastructure that meets mobility and presentation here access needs of all road users

Presented by Name Here John Barrell Job Title- Principal - Date Road Safety Consultant

Global Road Safety Context • 1.24 million deaths/year • Leading cause of death for 15 – 29 year olds • 88 countries achieved reductions in road fatalities • 87 countries saw increases in road fatalities • Highest fatality rates in the African Region

• Over 75% of road deaths are males

• Over 33% of fatalities in LMIC are pedestrians and cyclists Source: WHO (2013). The Global Status Report on Road Safety, 2013. World Health Organisation, Geneva.


New Road Building - PIDA

Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa

The plan is to expand the existing, 10,000 kilometre-long network of major roads to between 60,000 and 100,000 km – either by upgrading existing poor roads or building new ones. The result would be nine arteries, some hugging Africa's entire coastline, while others strategically criss-cross the continent. Some 250,000 km of smaller roads will be built or upgraded to connect smaller cities to the main arteries, plus another 70,000 km to plug in rural areas.

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Decade of Action for Road Safety

UN General Assembly resolution 64/2551 of March 2010 proclaimed 2011–2020 the Decade of Action for Road Safety

UN (2011). Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety. United Nations, New York.


Safer Roads and Mobility


Road Safety Engineering Management

In order to be effective, road safety activities need to be grounded in two fundamental philosophies: • Evidence-led working; • Safe System working; Applied through a framework of Road Safety Engineering Management


Evidence-Led Working • Record and make use of crash data where they are available, and improve the quality and availability of crash data where they are not

• Measure and monitor other road safety indicators such as vehicle speeds, seatbelt compliance, and mobile phone use

• Evaluate road safety activities, measure and monitor the impact of different



1: Collect detailed data on crashes occurring across the road network

5: Monitor and evaluate strategies and programmes

4: Use data to develop policy and programmes that are targeted at the real problem

2: Systematically collect complementary data

3: Analyse data to understand the nature and causes of the road safety problem

Importance of Data • Assessing and communicating the scale of the road crash problem, and making the case for increased investment in road safety • Identifying the most important road safety issues that need to be tackled as a priority • Making a business case for road safety engineering treatments at a location, route or area • Targeting treatments at the ‘real’ issues • Monitoring road safety performance • Evaluating the impact of individual measures, whole schemes and strategies • Determining what works, and what does not work


Common Issues • Under reporting

• Incomplete or inaccurate records

• Inconsistency in Severities

• Crash locations

• Accessibility


Sources and Types of Data: Crash Data • Collected by police (note toll road operators/concessionaires may also be required to collect)

• Data are collected primarily for legal purposes (allocation of blame) and insurance claims NOT for road safety

• Minimum requirement • Severity • Users involved • Paper forms

• Crash report pro-forma: • Ideally as short as possible • Tick box not free text 12

Sources and Types of Data: Other Data Health data: • Health data from hospitals (in police data severity of injuries can be cross checked and updated from this) • Data on fatalities from vital register • Ambulance service data (may contain locations) • Rarely any details of the crash helpful to engineers, however allow accurate severities to be recorded AND checks for under reporting

Other useful data for engineers: • Flow and related data (vehicles per day, traffic mix, pedestrian crossing/road use)

• Road condition information (features as per RSI, friction, rutting, texture, condition) • Speed data


Crash Databases and Analysis Software • Microsoft Excel and Access can be used but limited analysis functionality for road safety • Dedicated software for crash data storage and analysis should contain: o Data entry module o Functionality for checking validity and completeness o Analysis capabilities o GIS or other modules that allow plotting on maps and spatial analyses o Reporting o Audit trail


Crash Databases and Analysis Software – Stick Diagrams and Cross Tabulations


Safe System • Understanding human tolerance of crash forces


• Understanding humans will make error • Engineering the road to ensure crashes that do happen are not fatal or serious




Road Safety Engineering Management

Proactive approaches

New Roads

Existing Roads

Road Safety Impact Assessment

Road Safety Inspection

Land Use Planning


Design Standards Road Safety Audit

Pedestrian/Cyclist/Bus Environment Review System (PERS, CERS and BERS)

Star Rating

Speed Limit Review

Reactive approaches

Blackspot Analysis and Treatment Route/Corridor Analysis and Treatment N/A

Area Analysis and Treatment Road Safety Assessment In-Depth Crash Investigation Near-Miss/Conflict Studies


What is Road Safety Audit? A formal process for checking the safety of new schemes on roads: - carried out systematically - based upon sound safety principles - from the road users’ point of view - To ensure highway schemes operate as safely as practicable - To minimize accident numbers and severity - To consider the safety of all road users - To improve the awareness of safety design practices by design, construction and maintenance staff

RSA Stages

Source: AfDB (2104) Road Safety Manuals for Africa New Roads and Schemes Road Safety Audit 19

RSA Stages • More detailed information is available at later audit stages

• … But, there is less scope for making significant changes at later stages

• … However, if earlier stages have been undertaken well, there should be no need for significant late changes

• At earlier stages major issues such as community severance can be identified and designs can be modified accordingly

• Later stages will typically be concerned with aspects such as signing, road markings, barriers, sightlines, speed limit, VRU facilities, etc.


Team and Personnel Requirements

The RSA Team MUST: • Always comprise at least two people

• Be impartial and independent of the rest of the design process

• Be competent (i.e. suitably qualified and experienced)


Team and Personnel Development Competence in RSA comes through hands-on experience

Training is helpful at the start but is only a base upon which experience needs to be built

RSAs are best undertaken by road safety or traffic specialists who have had considerable experience of undertaking crash investigation

Experience has shown that highway engineers with no safety experience generally do not make good Road Safety Auditors as they tend to view RSA as a check of compliance against design standards and do not have an appreciation of road safety issues


AfDB – Road Safety Manuals for Africa

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The provision of safe new infrastructure that meets mobility and access needs of all road users requires: An evidence led safe-system approach; Improvement to crash and casualty data to identify the problems effectively; Application of Road Safety Engineering Management consistently across all sectors; Robust application of Roads Safety Audit and Assessment of new and existing roads; Development of engineering and road user solutions that are appropriate to the issues across the continent.

We have the tools – now apply them!