Infinitives and Infinitive phrases: An infinitive is to + a verb that can function as a noun (subject, direct object, etc.) adjective, or adverb

AP Lang—Infinitives and Prepositions Infinitives and Infinitive phrases: An infinitive is to + a verb that can function as a noun (subject, direct ob...
3 downloads 1 Views 206KB Size
AP Lang—Infinitives and Prepositions

Infinitives and Infinitive phrases: An infinitive is to + a verb that can function as a noun (subject, direct object, etc.) adjective, or adverb. Example: To err is human. (subject of the sentence) My uncle taught me to think. (direct object of the sentence) Infinitive functioning as an adjective (modifying a noun) Martin Luther King, Jr. gave a speech to remember. (modifying speech) Infinitive functioning as an adverb (modifying a verb) It was impossible to forget. (modifying the verb phrase was impossible) He paused to think about his options. (modifying the verb paused) Infinitive functioning as a noun My sister taught me to swim. (direct object of the sentence) To swim is my passion. (subject of the sentence) Infinitive modifying an adjective He is eager to play football. (modifying the adjective eager). It is hard to believe you said that. (modifying the adjective hard). Infinitives as Nouns: To find them was the faun’s most ardent desire. (subject of the sentence) I want to be free! (direct object – answers the question what? Following an action verb). Sylvia wants nothing except to spit on the obnoxious children. ( object of the preposition –except) The children’s favorite activity is to play outside when it is raining. (predicate noun – following the linking verb is) Infinitives as Adjectives: These are the realities to lament. (modifies realities) Those were the blessings to count. (modifies blessings) Infinitives as Adverbs: Osbert was difficult to lose. (modifies the adjective – difficult) We opened the door to eject him. (modifies the verb – opened) He returned to plague us. (modifies the verb – returned)

Underline the infinitive phrase in each sentence. Draw an arrow to the word that the phrase is describing/modifying. Identify how the infinitive phrase is functioning in the sentence (noun, adjective, adverb). 1. All she wanted was the right to watch the pageant.

2. He was bursting to talk to someone about the lucky turn of events.

3. He began pacing up and down as he waited for her to return.

4. Paula dashed out to the front of the house to seat the early comers.

5. Their constant complaining began to spoil his vacation.

6. Reading the want ads convinced him that now was the time to apply.

7. You did the right thing by asking them to apologize.

8. She wants to leave early to avoid the rush hour traffic.

9. Events seemed to happen quickly after that first day.

10. His father permitted him to use the car on Saturday nights.

Underline the infinitive in the following sentences. Then identify how the infinitive is functioning in the sentence (as a noun, adjective, or adverb). If it is functioning as a noun, identify how ( as a subject, direct object, predicate noun, or object of a preposition). If it is functioning as an adjective or adverb, draw an arrow to the word it is modifying. 1. These are the pearls to string.

2. Her heart is easy to break.

3. Josie loves to sing in the shower.

4. With neither friends nor foes to hamper him, he stole the candy.

5. To keep a straight face in the midst of such chaos is more than I can countenance. 6. The young girl’s spirit was difficult to break. 7. The students’ favorite activity is to skip class on test days.

8. We opened the gate to admit the patrons.

9. I want nothing except to sleep in on Wednesday.

10. The ubiquitous baguette was nowhere to be seen!

Combining Sentences with Infinitive Phrases Directions: Combine the following sentences using Infinitive Phrases. 1. We can aid famine victims. One way is by publicizing their plight internationally. 2. After much thought she set a goal. She would become a biomedical engineer. 3. You can make a difference. You can register, vote, and volunteer for a politician near you. 4. The class agreed with the decision. The class decided it would raise money for the flood victims. 5. An overpowering urge gripped Alex. He wanted to sing loudly.

Directions: Write an original sentence that includes an infinitive phrase or phrases as well as your own vocabulary word. This should show up in Language Activity #4. Hint: Use one of the models above to help you!

Over the river and through the woods to grammar excellence we go! The following are commonly used prepositions: Point out relationships in time or space -about -behind -from -above -below -in -across -beneath -inside -after -beside -into -against -between -like -along -beyond -near -among -by -of -around -despite -off -as -during -on -at -except -outside before -for -over

-since -through -to -toward -under -until -up -upon -with -within -without

Combinations used as prepositions -aside from -instead of -as to -in view of -because of -on behalf of -out of -in spite of

-as well as -on account of -due to -regardless of

Remember that prepositional phrases may modify different parts of a sentence. (1) Prepositions may modify a noun in a sentence (function as an adjective) Examples: She visited the town above the river. (the prepositional phrase-above the river—is describing town; which is a noun) I received a letter from my mother. (the prepositional phrase – from my mother—is describing letter; which is a noun) (2) Prepositions may modify a verb in a sentence (function as an adverb) Examples: Natasha ran across the street. (the prepositional phrase – across the street—is describing where Natasha ran; which is the verb in the sentence) The cat burglar squeezed through the window. (the prepositional phrase- through the window—is describing where the burglar squeezed; which is the verb in the sentence) (3) Preposition may modify an adjective in a sentence (function as an adverb) Examples: She was angry at me. (the prepositional phrase-at me—is describing who she is angry with in the sentence. Angry is the adjective in the sentence.) The customer was satisfied with the service. (the prepositional phrase – with the service—is describing what the customer was satisfied with in the sentence. Satisfied is the adjective in the sentence.)

Remember that adjectives answer “What kind?” “Which one?” “How many?” and “How much?” Adverbs answer “where?” “When?” “How?” “How often?” and “To what extent?”

Directions: In the sentences below, underline each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow to the word each phrase is modifying. Then, identify what each phrase is functioning as: an adjective (modifying an noun) or an adverb (modifying an adjective or verb). Example: The eagles of Norway live along the coast.

1. Laws in that country do not protect the birds against hunters. 2. Dozens of birds are shot during the year. 3. Because of those bounced checks, Christmas was ruined. 4. The birds disappeared from England after 1908. 5. He slapped her on the scapula 6. Lisa shakily stood her ground with the opposition of her puny will. 7. We are all poised on the brink of a new world disorder. 8. He reached across her to grab the lamb chop asleep in the center of the table. 9. They waddled down the trail to the ruins. 10. Meet me under the magnolia at twilight without your wig. 11. It used to live near a waterfall under a canopy bed. 12. She toyed with the idea of moving to Bangladesh.

Suggest Documents