Indian Minerals Yearbook 2013 (Part- II : Metals & Alloys)

PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM Indian Minerals Yearbook 2013 (Part- II : Metals & Alloys) nd 52 Edition PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM (FINAL RELEASE) GOVERNMENT ...
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PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM

Indian Minerals Yearbook 2013 (Part- II : Metals & Alloys) nd

52 Edition

PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM (FINAL RELEASE)

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF MINES INDIAN BUREAU OF MINES Indira Bhavan, Civil Lines, NAGPUR – 440 001 PHONE/FAX NO. (0712) 2565471 PBX : (0712) 2562649, 2560544, 2560648

E-MAIL : [email protected]ov.in Website: www.ibm.gov.in

May, 2015

13-1

PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM

13 Platinum and Palladium

P

latinum and palladium belong to platinum group of metals (PGM). The six platinum group of elements or PGEs (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) are a family of six greyish to silver-white metals, except for osmium which has a slight bluish tinge with close chemical and physical affinities. These six elements are classified into two groups with reference to the specific gravity of gold (19.2). The elements, Ru, Rh, Pd (sp. gr. 12-12.4) are lighter, while the other three elements, Os, Ir and Pt are heavier than gold with sp. gr. in the range of 21.0-21.5. Major applications of platinum and palladium are in automotive sector for emission control and in chemical and petroleum refining.

Karnataka. Three zones having 10 to 830 ppb of platinum and 50 to 1500 ppb of palladium were established.

RESOURCES

GSI carried out exploration in various areas in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Odisha and Tamil Nadu. The details are given in Table-2.

In India, appreciable values of platinum group of elements (PGEs) were traced in the Precambrian mafic/ ultramafic complexes in Sukinda and Nuasahi sectors of Odisha and Sittampundi in Tamil Nadu. Sampling of chromite ore bodies and their associated rocks revealed occurrence of PGE in these areas. Preliminary assessment of PGMs in Sukinda ultramafic field indicated isolated anomalous values in chromite. Platinum values of 2 to 400 ppb and palladium values of 1 to 500 ppb were established on analysis. The limonite cappings over ultramafic rocks showed combined platinum and palladium values between 40 and 290 ppb. In Boula-Nuasahi ultramafic complex, the easternmost chromite band known as Shankar-Ganga load, investigations revealed potential PGM mineralisation. In Sittampundi Complex, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, analysis of chromite bands showed 0.03 to 0.75 ppm Pt and 0.1 to 1.0 ppm Pd, whereas amphibolite samples showed 0.03 to 0.05 ppm Pt and 0.03 to 0.5 ppm Pd. A platinum-rich chromite-ferro-chromite breccia zone stretching to about hundred metres in gabbroic matrix was identified in the southern extension of the already known Boula-Nuasahi area in Kendujhar district, Odisha. In Usgaon area, Southern Goa, PGM samples analysed up to 0.03 ppm Pt and 0.03 to 0.15 ppm Pd. In recent past, occurrences of PGE mineralisation were reported in mafic-ultramafic complex of Shimoga schist belt in Davangere district of

The major part of 15.7 tonnes UNFC resources of PGMs estimated so far, i.e. 14.2 tonnes are located in Nilgiri, Boula-Nuasahi and Sukinda areas in Odisha and remaining 1.5 tonnes in Hanumalpura area in Shimoga schist belt of Karnataka. About 49% resources are in pre-feasibility category and the remaining in inferred and reconnaissance category. The resources of PGM as on 1.4.2010 as per UNFC system are given inTable-1.

EXPLORATION

USES Platinum and palladium are primarily used as catalyst in controlling the toxicity of emissions from automobile, chemical and petroleum refining plants. Nearly half of the total platinum used worldwide is as catalysts in catalytic converters in automobiles. Catalysts for automobile sector use platinum and palladium. Automobiles that run on diesel predominantly use platinum for catalytic conversion. The chemical inertness and refractory properties of these metals are conducive for their applications in electrical, electronics, dental, medical fields and glass industry. These metals are also used as catalyst in various chemical processes, viz, in organic synthesis in hydrogenation,de-hydrogenation and isomerisation, production of nitric acid as also in the manufacture of fertilizers, explosives & polymers and fabrication of laboratory equipment. Platinum, palladium and a variety of complex gold-silver-copper alloys are used as dental restorative materials. The unique properties of platinum find varied applications in the medical field. Platinum's excellent compatibility with living tissue, as it does not get affected by the oxidising reaction of blood, enables its utility in pacemakers.

13-2

PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM

Table – 1: Reserves/Resources of PGM as on 1.4.2010 (In tonnes of metal content) Remaining resources State

India

Reserves Total (A) -

Karnataka Odisha

-

Pre-feasibility STD 222

Inferred STD 333

Reconnaissance STD 334

7.7

6.5

1.5

15.7

15.7

-

-

1.5

1.5

1.5

7.7

6.5

14.2

14.2

-

The primary usage of PGM is in chemotherapy for treatment of cancer. It has the ability to prevent division of certain living cells, a remarkable characteristic which finds profound application in treatment of cancer. Besides, platinum-iridium alloys are extensively used in prosthetics and biomedical devices. Platinum's excellent conductivity lends itself for use in the electrodes of phosphoric acid fuel c e l l s f o r g e n e r a t i n g e l e c t r i c i t y. A n o t h e r significant use of platinum and its alloys, in cast or wrought form is in jewellery. Platinum-iridium alloys find major application in making crucibles for growing crystals. Glass made with platinum and rhodium is used in housing construction, flat screen televisions, computer monitors, display panels, automobile displays, factory monitoring equipment, etc. Recently, a new metallic glass featuring micro-alloys of palladium with silicon, germanium, silver, etc. was reportedly developed at University of California. The glass is characterised by strength and toughness. Platinum is used to enhance storage capacity of devices, such as computer hard discs, cell phones, digital cameras and personal music players. Recently, palladium-silver resistors have been used in secondary lightning surge protection devices. In electronic industry, palladium's use is for multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC). The effect of miniaturisation of MLCC has not reduced the quantum of palladium used as more number of MLCC are required for the same electronic device. Rhodium usage is also on the rise in the automotive industry apart from fibre glass.

Total (B)

Total resources (A+B)

Platinum is the catalyst used by fuel cells to convert hydrogen and oxygen to electricity. Palladium is also likely to play a role in fuel cells.

SUBSTITUTES It is usually easier to substitute metals of the platinum group for one another, especially in alloys, than to use alternative materials, which is evident from the total dominance of rutheniumbased resistors over the palladium-silver resistors for high-powered applications. Substitutes in electrical use include tungsten, nickel, silver, gold and silicon carbide. Alternative catalysts include nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, chromium, cobalt, vanadium, silver and rare earths. Rhenium, however, has been used most satisfactorily as substitute for platinum as a catalyst in petroleum refining. Stainless steel and ceramics can be substituted where resistance to corrosion is the primary concern. Some motor vehicle manufacturers have substituted platinum by palladium in catalytic converters, especially for petrol engines. Particulate matter and residual sulphur contaminate palladium and hence, it was excluded from catalysts used in diesel vehicles. A new technology now allows up to 25% substitution of platinum in diesel catalytic converters with palladium. Similarly, manufacturers of electronic parts are also reducing the average palladium content of the conductive pastes used to form the electrodes of multi-layer ceramic capacitors, substituting base metals or silver-palladium pastes which contain significantly less palladium.

13-3

PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM

Table – 2 : Details of Exploration Activities for PGM, 2012-13 Mapping Agency/ State/ District GSI Andhra Pradesh Prakasam

Location/ Area/ Block

Chimakurthi igneous complex

Arunachal Pradesh Anjaw, Lohit, and Lower Dibang valley

Chhattisgarh Jashpur

MayurnachaKanpara Jhamjhor and Madhuban areas (RaigarhBilaspurSurguja belt)

Scale

Drilling

Remarks

No. of boreholes

Meterage

100

-

-

269

Reconnaissance stage investigation (G-4) was carried out for reapprisal of PGE. The preliminary whole rock analysis of 10 petro-chemical samples have been received out, of which two pyroxenite samples yielded MgO value 18.52% and 22.45% respectively, and one luco gabbro sample yielded MgO value 33.97%. Among 58 BRs samples of pyroxenite, 13 samples have yielded anomalous value of Cr ranging from 2026 ppm - 3186.5 ppm and 26 samples yielded value of Nickel from 1006.3 -2055.0 ppm. The preliminary analysis results have pointed out the pyroxenite and luco-gabbro/norite unit are favourable locales for PGE mineralisation. The work has been completed.

1:12,500 4 1 1:2,000 2.5

-

-

-

Reconnaissance stage investigation was taken up to search for PGE and gold mineralisation. The analytical result of some of bed-rock samples shows anomalous value of Cr i.e 2291 ppm, 3102 ppm and 7658 ppm and Ni 2179 ppm, 2221 ppm, 2314 ppm, 2383 ppm and 2529 ppm. Work will be continued.

-

-

-

270

Reconnaissance stage investigation (G-4) was taken up. The area exposes precambrian rocks which are intruded by basic and ultrabasic rocks. The available PCs data indicates that the MgO content in the ultramafic rocks vary between 18.5%-37.26%. In AFM diagram, the granites depict calc-alkaline trend whereas the mafic and ultramafic shows tholeiite trend. The sample indicates Au content 50 ppb100 ppb, Ni : 4 ppm - 0.22%, Co : 90 km. Minor pyrite and chalcopyrite are present in some of the dykes in Deccan trap terrain. SEM-EDX and EPNA study of selected dyke rock sample revealed occur rence of PGE minerals (Sudburyte hosted in Niccolite) in Vadbare block and gold specks in dyke of Shanimandal block. Work is continued.

Ophiolite Belt

-

150

-

-

-

Reconnaissance stage (G-4) investigation was taken up to search PGE mineralisation i n volving mapping and sampling. An area of 150 sq. km was covered by reconnoitary geological traverses. Sulphide mineralisation in the form of Pyrite and chalcopyrite was recorded in areas to SE of T h e w a t i , Luthur and Zongar road sections. Deep blue stains possibly of azurite were observed in Phokpur and Moya areas. Analytical results of sample shows values of pt : 2.5 ppb-10 ppb, Pd : 7 ppb-35 ppb, Iridium: 1.5 ppb-4 ppb, Ru :1.5 ppb - 6 ppb, Rh : O ppb - 1.5 ppb, nickel: 1258 ppm-2508 ppm and Cr: 598 ppm - 3939 ppm. Work will be continued.

KamakshyanagarChandar Sector

1:12,500 150

-

-

100

Reconnaissance stage (G-4) investigation was carried out in marginal zone between Eastern Ghat Mobile belt and Singhbhum craton to search for potential of PGE mineralisation. Activity has been completed.

09

869.80

Nagaland

Odisha Dhenkanal

Tamil Nadu Namakkal

T1 and T 2 sectors of Tasampalaiyam Block in Sittampundi Complex.

-

226

Prospecting stage (G-3) investigation was taken up to prove the depth persistence of PGE mineralisation and to evaluate resource potential. Trench sample from the chromite and chrome ferrrous metapyroxenite zone analysed Pt & Pd values ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 ppm (with occasional high value of 21 ppm). The investigation will be continued.

(Contd.) 13-6

PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM Table-2 (Concld.) Mapping Agency/ State/ District

Erode

Location/ Area/ Block

Scale

Area (sq km)

Drilling No. of boreholes

Sampling (No.)

Meterage

Remarks Reserves/resources estimated

Solavanur block in (Mettuppalaiyam mafic-ultramafic complex)

-

-

15

-

-

Prospecting stage (G-3) investigation was taken up to prove the persistence of the PGE mineralised zone. As a follow-up programme, systematic drilling was carried out to test the depth-wise persistence of mineralisation at two levels; 1st level (10 boreholes/30 m depth) and 2nd level (5 bore holes/ 60m depth) at 100 m and 200 m spacing, respectively. The work will be continued.

Solavanur Extension Block (Mettuppalaiyam mafic-ultramafic complex)

-

0.5

-

-

180

Reconnaissance stage (G-4) investigation was taken up to trace and prove the persistence of PGE mineralised meta pyroxenite bands. A total of 270 cu m of trenching has been completed and 180 P&T samples collected and sent for PGE analysis. Work will be continued.

100

-

-

-

Reconnaissance stage (G-4) investigation was taken up to map all ultramafic bodies within Mettuppalaiyam ultramafic belts and to assess the PGE potential. A total of seven mafic, ultramafic bodies are demarcated with strike length ranging from 150 m to 1000 m and thickness varying from 10 m to 100 m. A 500 cu.m. pitting/trenching was carried out. The work will be continued.

75

-

-

120

Reconnaissance stage (G-4) investigation was taken up to delineate the potential zone of PGE mineralisation. A total no. of 13 trenches with cumulative volume of 230 cu.m. were opened and yielded rich peridotite bodies.

-do-

-do-

Karattadipalaiyam Gopichettpalaiyam Dasampalaiyam Sector

Tirupur

Tirumankaradu

1:12,500

-

The work has been completed.

13-7

PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM

TECHNICAL POSSIBILITIES The spent converters contain platinum and palladium in 3:1 ratio, but heavy shift towards use of palladium to meet stringent emission controls will change this proportion of recovery. The emergence of polymer electrolytic membrane (PEM) fuel cells developed for passenger cars and trucks will boost prospects of platinum in near future by replacing the high energy battery-operated options for emission controls. The costs of higher range of driving and quick refuelling of fuel cells are, however, 10 times more than the cost of petrol engine. The development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) in Japan will eliminate the use of platinum converter as it is compact and gives consistent performance as conversion of conventional fuels into hydrogen is avoided.

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT The mineral processing department of the Institute of Minerals & Material Technology (IMMT), Bhubaneswar (CSIR) was envisaging research focused on recovery of PGE values from the low tenor hosts like Boula-Nuasahi igneous complex by adopting suitable beneficiation tests and development of process flow sheet for recovery of PGE from Indian ores. The methods adopted elsewhere in the world perhaps may not suit in India because the PGE occurs in oxide of chromium and sulphide facies in very fine inclusions & exsolution form.

WORLD REVIEW The largest reserves of PGMs are located in Bushveld Complex in South Africa. The world reserves of PGMs are estimated at 66,000 tonnes concentrated mostly in South Africa (95%), followed by Russia (2%) and the USA (1%) (Table-3). The world mine production of PGMs decreased marginally to 431 tonnes of contained

metals in 2012 from 492 tonnes in 2011. South Africa continued to be the leading producing country of PGM, contributing about 59% of world production, followed by Russia (27%), Canada (5%), Zimbabwe and the USA (4% each) (Table-4). Recycling of PGMs was from three main sources, i.e., autocatalysts, electronics and jewellery. Globally, the share of platinum recovery from autocatalysts increased by 9% in 2012 as compared to 2011. Similarly, an increase of 10% in recovery from jewellery was recorded over 2011, whereas recovery from electronic sector remained static. In case of palladium, recovery from autocatalysts slightly decreased as compared to 2011. The recovery from electronics decreased by 10% and that from jewellery decreased by 9% over 2011. Global platinum consumption in jewellery increased by 12% as compared to 2011. Palladium consumption in jewellery decreased by 12% in 2012, whereas 7% increase was observed in autocatalysts industry. About 70% of world consumption of platinum in jewellery was contributed by China. The consumption of platinum in glass industry decreased by 65% to 5,600 kg in 2012.

Canada SMC continued to make progress on its Marathon PGM-Copper project in Ontario and submitted an environmental impact statement. The mine was designed to produce 6220 kg per year production based on 91.4 million tonnes of ore grading 0.83 gm/t Pd, 0.23 gm/t Pt. North American Palladium Ltd, (Toronto), reported higher production of Pd & Pt from its Lac des Isles Mine in Ontario. A new mine shaft was expected to be commissioned. Vale Inco Ltd recovered 7,810 kg Pd and 4,170 kg Pt as by-product from its nickel operations in Sudbury. In addition to this, Vale, Xstrata Plc produced PGMs as byproduct from nickel mining operation at Sudbury.

13-8

PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM

Table – 3 : World Reserves of PGMs (By Principal Countries)

South Africa Though South Africa continued to be the largest producer of PGM in the world, its production decreased as compared to 2011 due to losses in production reported by major mines, viz., Mogalkwena open pit mines, Khuseleka, Siphumelele, Marikana, Modikwa, Bafokeng-Rasimone and Marula Mines. Incomplete infrastructure developments, workers' strikes and violent unrest were main reasons for the production losses. Platinum Australia continued with a feasibility of Kalahari Platinum Project and planned to extract a bulk sample for pilot plant treatment.

Zimbabwe Amplats Unki Mines reached full production capacity and produced 2,000 kg of platinum. The Mimosa Mine of Aquarius and Impala and Impala's Zimplats mines slightly increased their production in 2012. The Phase -II expansion of Ngezi Mine , including a third underground mine and a second concentrator continued and was expected to be completed in 2015.

(In tonnes) Country

Reserves

World: Total (r ounded)

66000

Canada

310

Russia

1100

South Africa

63000

USA

900

Other countries

800

Source: Mineral Commodity Summaries, 2014. Note: Figures for Colombia, Zimbabwe included with other countries.

Table – 4 : World Mine Production of PGMs (By Principal Countries) (In tonnes of metal content) Country

2010

2011

2012

481.00

492.00

431.00

Platinum

0.49

0.37

0.43

Palladium

2.83

2.11

2.61

World: Total Botswana

FOREIGN TRADE Exports Exports of platinum alloys and related metals significantly increased to 1,780 kg valued at L 21 crore in 2012-13 from 382 kg valued at L 21 crore in the previous year. Exports in 2012-13 comprised platinum unwrought, platinum (powder) and platinum others at 108 kg, 2 kg & 1645 kg, respectively. Export of other metals of platinum group was only 25 kg, mainly to Singapore. In 2012-13, 397 kg of platinum-clad base/ precious metals was exported to Malaysia (96%) & Singapore (3%) (Tables - 5 to 10).

Canada (e) Platinum

3.60

8.00

7.00

Palladium 6.20 Other platinum metals 0.40

14.00 0.90

12.00 0.80

Russia Platinum

26.50

26.50

24.90

Palladium

115.70

107.50

89.90

2.20

2.10

2.80

Other platinum metals South Africa Platinum

147.79

148.00

128.59

Imports

Palladium

82.22

82.73

74.73

Imports of platinum alloys and related metals slightly increased in 2012-13 to 6,188 kg valued at L 1,203 crore as against 6,129 kg valued at L 1,173 crore in the previous year. Imports in 2012-13 comprised platinum (powder, unwrought & others) 3,242 kg, platinum (others) 453 kg and other metals of platinum group 2,493 kg. Imports were mainly from the UK (48%), Germany and South Africa (12% each) and the USA (8% ) Besides, there were imports of platinum-clad base/precious metals to the tune of 4 kg in 2012-13. Germany was the main supplier (Tables - 11 to 17).

Other platinum metals

57.29

58.11

51.01

USA Platinum

3.45

3.70

3.70

Palladium

11.60

12.40

12.20

Platinum

8.64

10.83

7.66

Palladium

6.92

8.42

5.90

Other platinum metals 1.53

2.16

2.09

4.17

4.68

Zimbabwe

Other countries

3.64

Source: World Mineral Production, 2008-2012.

13-9

PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM

Table – 7 : Exports of Platinum (Others) (By Countries)

Table – 5 : Exports of Platinum Alloys & Related Metals : Total (By Countries)

2011-12 2011-12 Country Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000) All Countries

All Countries UK

382

213172

1780

209126

36

25829

1071

42110

UK Belgium Afghanistan

Belgium

184

7093

368

11769

Afghanistan

-

-

203

1362

Switzerland

-

-

28

69673

Hong Kong USA Singapore

2012-13

Country

2012-13

2

144

24

1791

85

136615

23

18067

-

-

23

15615

Germany

35

36267

6

45429

Israel

33

843

4

968

Indonesia

-

-

1

728

Other countries

7

6381

29

1614

USA

Qty

Value

Qty

Value

(kg)

(L'000)

(kg)

(L'000)

222

29279

1645

42282

7

20778

1066

27351

184

7093

343

11652

-

-

197

132

30

1371

19

1441

Sweden

-

-

13

598

Italy

-

-

4

2

Indonesia

-

-

1

728

Japan

-

-

1

344

Ireland

-

-

1

34

Other countries

1

37

-

-

Table – 8 : Exports of Platinum (Powder) (By Countries) 2011-12

Table – 6 : Exports of Platinum (Unwrought) (By Countries) 2011-12 Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

110

115346

108

134662

Switzerland

-

-

28

69673

Belgium

-

-

25

117

Hong Kong

1

108

24

1791

Germany

5

11995

6

45429

Afghanistan

-

-

6

1230

Israel

33

843

4

968

UK

28

4871

4

14077

USA France

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

20

44274

2

16453

USA

18

44093

1

15770

UK

1

179

1

683

Other countries

1

2

-

-

All Countries

2012-13

Country

All Countries

2012-13

Country

37

91150

3

855

-

-

3

113

Saudi Arabia

1

256

1

315

Other countries

5

6123

4

94

Table – 9 : Exports of Other Metals of Platinum Group (By Country) 2011-12

2012-13

Country

All Countries

13-10

Singapore

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

30

24271

25

15729

-

-

22

15601

Bulgaria

-

-

1

76

Australia

-

-

1

47

France

-

-

1

5

30

24271

-

-

Other countries

PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM

Table – 12 : Imports of Platinum (Powder, Unwrought & Others) (By Countries)

Table – 10 : Exports of Platinum-Clad Base/ Precious Metal (By Countries) 2011-12

2011-12

2012-13

All Countries

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

1

362

Qty (kg) 397

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000) All Countries

556

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

3219

8406188

3242

8859935

911

2383989

1546

4197732

Germany

514

1339024

390

1084775

South Africa

259

669135

389

1116995

USA

270

721674

256

658502

Italy

167

438655

200

533935

Japan

350

908509

127

354922

China

66

177545

121

337052

6

16660

68

191510

47

122913

32

89386

87

220978

24

70880

542

1407106

89

224246

-

-

380

53

Singapore

-

-

10

7

Canada

-

-

1

334

UK

-

-

1

66

Australia

-

-

1

44

Mauritius

-

-

1

31

South Africa

-

-

1

16

Panama Republic

-

-

1

3

Norway

Bangladesh

-

-

1

2

Switzerland

Other countries

1

362

-

-

Other countries

Hong Kong

Table – 13: Imports of Other Metals of Platinum Group (By Countries)

Table – 11 : Imports of Platinum Alloys and Related Metals (By Countries) 2011-12

Value (L'000)

UK

Malaysia

2012-13

2011-12

2012-13

Country

Country Qty (kg) All Countries

2012-13

Country

Country

Value (L'000)

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000) All Countries

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

2078

2657404

2493

2977720

6129 11732833

6188 12030962

1845

3454610

2282

5033328

Japan

431

621932

1141

1353961

Japan

790

1539641

1283

1723065

UK

715

839725

691

796388

USA

472

881357

622

904633

Germany

60

101006

201

297062

Germany

650

1478009

611

1389979

USA

95

107542

195

195751

South Africa

418

867873

500

1246684

Russia

172

184806

120

134747

Italy

331

525020

334

579309

South Africa

154

194430

94

122523

China

291

493715

131

351395

Norway

-

-

25

28739

Russia

190

231619

121

135176

Singapore

7

16828

13

25961

8

25042

70

193014

China

171

269700

6

12347

Norway

202

297811

57

118125

Bangladesh

-

-

4

9556

Other countries

932

1938136

177

356254

Other countries

273

321435

3

685

UK

Hong Kong

13-11

PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM

Table – 14: Imports of Platinum (Others) (By Countries) 2011-12

Table – 17 : Imports of Platinum -Powder (By Countries)

2012-13

2011-12

Country

All Countries USA Italy UK Korea, Rep. of Japan Germany South Africa China Hong Kong Belgium Other countries

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

832 107 164 219 6 9 76 5 54 2 12 178

669241 52141 86365 230895 3569 9201 37979 4309 46469 8381 2700 187232

453 171 132 45 33 15 20 17 4 2 1 13

193307 50380 44710 39208 23045 14183 8142 7167 1996 1504 870 2102

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

1652

4270482

2070

5671294

312

797516

972

2624636

48

126891

338

957158

Germany

229

581873

339

934654

USA

196

511598

208

567864

China

47

126094

120

334590

Norway

47

122913

27

75865

136

346774

21

54525

-

-

16

42585

Denmark

30

70957

15

42430

Netherlands

12

32561

14

36987

595

1553305

-

-

All Countries UK South Africa

Italy Canada

Other coutnries

Table – 15 : Imports of Platinum-Clad Base/Precious Metal (By Countries) 2011-12

FUTURE OUTLOOK

2012-13

Country Qty (kg) All Countries Germany USA Thailand Other countries

7 1 6

Value (L'000)

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

1435 533 902

4 2 1 1 ++

1416 1139 172 104 1

Table – 16 : Imports of Platinum -Unwrought (By Countries) 2011-12

2012-13

Country

All Countries UK Italy Japan Hong Kong South Africa Germany USA Switzerland Egypt Bangladesh Other countries

2012-13

Country

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

Qty (kg)

Value (L'000)

1567 599 31 140 6 211 285 74 87 134

4135706 1586473 91881 368058 16660 542244 757151 210076 220978 342185

1172 574 179 127 68 51 51 48 24 15 11 24

3188641 1573096 479410 354922 191510 159837 150121 90638 70880 32198 28651 57378

India is not a platinum group of elements (PGEs) producing country and is meeting its demand entirely by imports. The demand for PGEs is expected to touch 80 tonnes by 2017 and may touch 120 tonnes by 2025, as per the Report of the Sub Group for 12 th Plan period. Assuming the success of sustained efforts directed towards mining of the known resources at BNUC (Odisha) and development of a beneficiation flow sheet during the 12 th Plan, a plant of 2 tonnes per annum capacity can be envisaged by the middle of the 13 th Plan. The Sub Group recommends that the preparation of beneficiation feasibility report in this regard may be assigned to any National Laboratory on priority basis. It expects that an additional 10-20 tonnes per annum should be recovered from recycling by 2017. There has been an increase in demand for these metals because of increased demand from the automobile industry and that from the emerging Asian markets, particularly in China and India. However, platinum is losing market share to palladium in petrol-driven engines and palladium has replaced some platinum in diesel catalytic converters. The automobile sector plays

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PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM

a crucial role in the demand for platinum. The Kyoto Protocol on exhaust emissions and the

These metals are poised to play a vital role in fuel

commercial success of the fuel cell technology development, on which sustained efforts are being

cell is established for which sustained efforts are

made world over are the key drivers for the future demand of platinum, palladium and rhodium.

PGEs together is less than 600 tonnes with about

About 40% of the world supply of platinum is consumed by the jewellery sector. Palladium, rhodium, iridium and ruthenium are used in electronic

cell technology once the economic viability of fuel being made around the world. As the supply of all 500 tonnes coming from mine production, the boom in the demand for platinum jewellery and also as an investment can be expected. South African local issues, compounded by falling grades, deep mining,

and electro-chemical industries, while osmium finds applications in the medical field, such as in

etc. are likely to determine whether sufficient

chemotherapy and pace-makers (alloy of Pt and Os).

in turn will dictate future prices.

platinum and rhodium supply can be foreseen, which

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