IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER FOR ALL VERBS NO MATTER WHAT TENSE:

SPANISH 2 FINAL EXAM REVIEW A. REGULAR VERBS - IMPERFECT The imperfect is one of the 2 types of past tense we learned. For REGULAR verbs the verb end...
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SPANISH 2 FINAL EXAM REVIEW

A. REGULAR VERBS - IMPERFECT The imperfect is one of the 2 types of past tense we learned. For REGULAR verbs the verb endings are: -ar verbs yo

-aba



-abas

él ella Ud. -aba 1 person 1 thing

nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

-ábamos

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

-aban

nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

-íamos

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

-ían

-er / -ir verbs yo

-ía



-ías

él ella Ud. -ía 1 person 1 thing

IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER FOR ALL VERBS NO MATTER WHAT TENSE: REFLEXIVE VERBS: If a verb ends in the last 2 letters -se

it is a reflexive verb.

Use reflexive pronouns when conjugating a reflexive verb in ANY tense. The reflexive pronoun must MATCH the subject and the verb will be conjugated to match the subject as well. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

me

nos

te se

se

B. IRREGULAR VERBS - IMPERFECT There are only 3 irregular verbs in the imperfect: ser, ir and ver: ser yo

era



eras

él ella Ud. era 1 person 1 thing

nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

éramos

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

eran

nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

íbamos

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

iban

nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

veíamos

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

veían

ir yo

iba



ibas

él ella Ud. iba 1 person 1 thing

ver yo

veía



veías

él ella Ud. veía 1 person 1 thing

C. IRREGULAR VERBS – PRETERITE The preterite has a LOT of irregular verbs. These were divided into several categories in the chapters that we covered. TYPE 1: take the “stem” for the verb and add the correct ending from the chart below Verb decir estar poder poner tener traer venir hacer

(to say/tell) (to be) (to be able to) (to put/set) (to have) (to bring) (to come) (to do/make)

Stem for preterite dijestuvpudpustuvtrajvinhic- (except hizo)

The endings for TYPE 1 VERBS ONLY are: yo

-e



-iste

él ella Ud. -o 1 person 1 thing

nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

-imos

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

-ieron / -eron* *trajeron, dijeron

TYPE 2: on the bottom row of conjugation the “i” changes to a “y” oír yo





oíste

él ella Ud. 1 person 1 thing

oyó

nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

oímos

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

oyeron

(continued on next page)

IRREGULAR PRETERITE VERBS (continued) leer nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

leímos

leyó

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

leyeron

yo

destruí

nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

destruimos



destruiste

destruyó

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

destruyeron

yo

creí

nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

creímos



creíste ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

creyeron

yo

leí



leíste

él ella Ud. 1 person 1 thing

destruir

él ella Ud. 1 person 1 thing

creer

él ella Ud. 1 person 1 thing

creyó

IRREGULAR PRETERITE VERBS (continued) TYPE 3 – on the bottom row, the “e” changes to “i” or the “o” changes to “u” examples: e  i preferir yo

preferí



preferiste

él ella Ud. 1 person 1 thing

prefirió

nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

preferimos

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

prefirieron

other verbs that follow this same pattern are: pedir repetir mentir seguir competir servir divertirse yo

me divertí



te divertiste

él ella Ud. 1 person 1 thing

se divirtió

nosotros nosotras nos divertimos ____ y yo

ellos ellas Uds. se 2+ people 2+ things

divirtieron

other verbs that follow this same pattern are:

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

me

nos

te se

se

sentirse despedirse vestirse

IRREGULAR PRETERITE VERBS (continued)

examples: o  u dormir yo

dormí



dormiste

él ella Ud. 1 person 1 thing

durmió

nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

dormimos

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

durmieron

other verbs that follow this same pattern are:

examples: reírse and sonreir reírse yo

me reí sonreí



nosotros nosotras ____ y yo

nos reímos sonreímos

te reíste sonreíste

él ella Ud. 1 person 1 thing

se rió sonrió

ellos ellas Uds. 2+ people 2+ things

se rieron sonrieron

morir

C. The IMPERFECT PROGRESSIVE is used to talk about something that was going on in the past for a period of time (sometimes interrupted by another action). PART 1: conjugated form of ESTAR in the imperfect

+

PART 2: PRESENT PARTICIPLE form of verb *remember to watch out for irregular present participles

estaba

estábamos

–ar verbs: drop the –ar and add –ando –er / –ir verbs: drop the –er or –ir and add –iendo

estabas estaba

estaban

Irregular present participles: decir = diciendo dormir = durmiendo venir = viniendo morir = muriendo seguir = siguiendo leer = leyendo pedir = pidiendo traer = trayendo servir = sirviendo creer = creyendo repetir = repitiendo vestir = vistiendo

D. The choice between using the preterite and imperfect is based on context and the meaning of the sentence. List 4 reasons or situations where each is used in sentences: PRETERITE is used when... 1. ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________ IMPERFECT is used when... 1. ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________

había (imperfect) = there was or there were - used when describing a scene in the past hubo (preterite) = there was or there were - used to talk about an even that happened

E. In Spanish, INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS are used to tell to whom or for whom an action is done. (hint: won’t match the subject of sentence) *Look to see if the sentence has an “a __________” phrase to clarify to/for whom the action is/was done.

a mí

=

me

a ti

=

te

a él a ella = a Ud. a 1 person

a nosotros a nosotras = a ____ y a mí

a ellos a ellas a Uds. a 2+ people

le

nos

=

les

F. RECIPROCAL ACTIONS express the idea of “each other.” PART 1: REFLEXIVE PRONOUN

Examples:

+

casarse (to get married) saludarse (to greet) despedirse de (to say goodbye to) abrazarse (to hug)

PART 2: CONJUGATION OF VERB

darse la mano (to shake hands) pelearse (to fight) besarse (to kiss)

PART 1: REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS USED WITH RECIPROCAL VERBS nos Use “nos” in front of the verb for 2 or more people including yo

se

Use “se” in front of the verb for 2 or more people (NOT including yo)

PART 2: PRESENT TENSE VERB ENDINGS USED WITH RECIPROCAL VERBS nosotras -amos -------> For verbs ending in –ar, use –amos. nosotros = -emos -------> For verbs ending in –er, use –emos. ___ y yo -imos -------> For verbs ending in –ir, use –imos.

ellos -an -------> For verbs ending in –ar, use –an. ellas = -en -------> For verbs ending in –er or –ir, use –en. 2+ people

G. Verbs that use INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS: These verbs are conjugated NOT for the person in the sentence but for the “thing” or “things” being talked about. An example in English is “My grades are important to me.” In Spanish, you would conjugate the verb “importar” for the word “grades” (present tense would be “importan”) and NOT for the person which is “me.” PART 1: INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUN

Examples:

+

PART 2: CONJUGATION OF VERB

aburrir = to bore gustar = to like encantar = to love fascinar = to fascinate molestar = to bother

importar = to matter / be important quedar = to fit parecer = to seem doler = to ache/hurt (oue) interesar = to interest

PART 1: INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUN *Look to see if the sentence has an “a __________” phrase to clarify to/for whom. a mí

=

me

a ti

=

te

a él a ella = a Ud. a 1 person

le

a nosotros a nosotras = a ____ y a mí

a ellos a ellas a Uds. a 2+ people

nos

=

les

PART 2: PRESENT TENSE VERB ENDINGS USED WITH THIS TYPE OF VERB

-a -e

-an -en

G. The PRESENT PERFECT is a 2-part verb that is used to express that someone has done something: PART 1: conjugated form of HABER in the present

+

PART 2: PAST PARTICIPLE form of verb * watch out for irregular past participles

he

hemos

–er / –ir verbs: drop the –er or –ir and add –ido

has ha

–ar verbs: drop the –ar and add –ado

han

EXCEPT FOR IRREGULAR PARTICIPLES

*IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES: decir (to say) = dicho (said) hacer (to do/make) = hecho (done/made) escribir (to write) = escrito (written) volver (to return) = vuelto (returned) devolver (to give back) = devuelto (gave back/returned) caer (to fall) = caído (fallen) creer (to believe) = creído (believed)

traer (to bring) = traído (brought) leer (to read) = leído (read) oir (to hear) = oído (heard) morir (to die) = muerto (dead) poner (to put/set) = puesto (put) ver (to see) = visto (seen) romper (to break) = roto (broken)

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS: Use reflexive pronouns when conjugating a reflexive verb in ANY tense. The reflexive pronoun must MATCH the subject and the verb will be conjugated to match the subject as well.

me

nos

te se

se

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