Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention-Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Definition of ADHD Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder describes children who display persiste...
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Attention-Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Definition of ADHD Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder describes children who display persistent age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are sufficient to cause impairment in major life activities.

(American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000)

DSM-IV Criteria for Diagnosis • Menunjukkan 6 atau lebih simptom inattention atau hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms • Symptoms must be inconsistent with the child’s current developmental level • Must persist to a degree that is considered maladaptive for at least six months

Additional DSM Criteria • Sebelum usia 7 • Muncul minimal dalam dua setting yang berbeda • Clinically significant impairment in school, social or occupational functioning • Symptoms do not occur solely during a pervasive developmental disorder or psychotic disorder • Symptoms are not accounted for better by another mental disorder

Inattention 1.

Often does not give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities.


Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or play activities.


Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.


Often does not follow instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace


Often has trouble organizing activities.


Often avoids, dislikes, or doesn't want to do things that take a lot of mental effort for a long period of time


Often loses things needed for tasks and activities


Is often easily distracted.


Is often forgetful in daily activities.

Hyperactivity 1.

Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat.


Often gets up from seat when remaining in seat is expected.


Often runs about or climbs when and where it is not appropriate


Often has trouble playing or enjoying leisure activities quietly.


Is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor".


Often talks excessively.

Impulsivity 1.

Often blurts out answers before questions have been finished.


Often has trouble waiting one's turn.


Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games).



Predominantly Inattentive Type • children who only meet the criteria for inattention

Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type • children who only meet the criteria for hyperactivity-impulsivity

Combined Type • children who meet the criteria for both inattention and hyperactivityimpulsivity

Causes of ADHD • ADHD is a medical disorder despite many myths • early theories thought minor head injuries or brain damage were the cause

• the exact cause is currently unknown, but it is now thought to be caused by biological factors that influence neurological activity • genetic influence • toxins in the environment

• the use of drugs/alcohol during pregnancy • environmental/family influence


Treatment •A complete medical evaluation should be conducted •The condition can be diagnosed when appropriate guidelines are used. •The treatment of ADHD must involve a multimodal approach.


•Stimulant (most commonly used) •Non-stimulant

•Antidepressants •Antihypertensives •Mood Stabilizers

•Neuroleptic drugs

Behavior Therapies •Parent Management Training (PMT) •Parents are taught about ADHD

•Given guidelines for raising a child with ADHD •For disruptive behavior parents are taught to use penalties

•Studies support PMT

Educational Interventions •Focus on managing inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behaviors •Techniques are similar to those recommended to parents

•Reward system -Considerable support for school based interventions

Additional Interventions •Family Counseling and Support Groups

•Helps everyone develop new skills, and attitudes, and teaches them how to relate more effectively •Local and National support groups •On-line bulletin boards •Individual Counseling

•Teach children with ADHD how to feel better about one’s self •Build strengths, cope with daily problems, and control attention and aggression

Prevalence Rates

Prevalence: range from 1-10% of children under the age of 18 • North American prevalence rate range from 3-5%

• Worldwide prevalence study: 5.29% • Higher rates in North America • Culture does have an impact on the prevalence of ADHD • Higher prevalence rates when using teacher reports, lower prevalence rates when using parent reports

Facts • In every classroom of 30 students, up to 3 children may have ADHD

• ADHD children tend to show emotional development that is 30% slower than children without the disorder • Up to 65% of children with ADHD show problems with defiance, noncompliance, problems with authority figures, show verbal hostility, and have temper tantrums • 40% of children with ADHD have at least one parent with the disorder

Facts • 50% of children with ADHD display sleeping problems as well • Parents of ADHD children are 3 times more likely to divorce than parents of non-ADHD children

• Teenagers with ADHD on average have 4 times as many traffic tickets as non-ADHD teenagers • 75% of boys display the hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD, while only 60% of girls are hyperactive

Positive Effects of ADHD

Often positive qualities are overlooked • A high level of energy • Oriented towards an active lifestyle

• Outgoing and personable • Creative thinkers, tend to ‘think outside the box’

Many of these qualities prepare ADHD students for successful professional lives

Developing Positive Attitudes in Students with ADHD

• Don’t Let Your Students Get Burnt Out! • Students with ADHD will often face self-esteem issues as they cannot control their behaviour and have trouble completing tasks. So it is important to help these children gain confidence in themselves by providing ways to show their accomplishments and abilities • Sport Teams/Activity Groups

• Reading Buddies • Volunteering in the school/community • Display completed work and artwork

Common Problems Associated with ADHD Students with ADHD will typically have underdeveloped selfmanagement skills which would usually hinder the following skills;

• Time management • Finding materials • Beginning independent work

• Maintaining on-task behaviour long enough to finish work • Remembering the requirements and time frame for handing in assignments

• Attending school regularly

Faraone, V. S., Sergeant, J., Gillberg, C., & Bierderman, J. (2003). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: is it an American condition? Retrieved October 20, 2008, from World Psychiatry Website: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1525089 Mash, E., & Wolfe, D. (2005) Abnormal child psychology. Belmont: Thomson Learning Inc. Mitchell, B. (2006). ADHD self test. Retrieved October 22, 2008, from Curiosity Media Inc. Web site: http://www.trustyguides.com/adhd6.html Rief, S. (1998). The add/adhd checklist: an easy reference for parents & teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Schoenstadt, A. (2008). ADHD Treatment. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from (N.A.) Web site: http://adhd.emedtv.com/adhd/adhd-treatment.html Silver, L. B. (2004). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a clinical guide to diagnosis and treatment for health and mental health professionals. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. Stein, D. (1999). Ritalin is not the answer: A drug-free, practical program for children diagnosed with ADD or ADHD. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Swierzewski, S. (2008) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Retrieved October 15, 2008, from ( N.A. Web site: http://www.neurologychannel.com/adhd/medication.shtml#non The Health Center. (2006). Child ADD/ADHD self test. Retrieved October 22, 2008, from The National Center for Health and Wellness Web site: http://www.thehealthcenter.info/selftest.php?id=16 Wender, P. H. (2001). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults. New York: Oxford University Press. West, K. (2000). The Positive Side of ADD. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from Lesson Tutor Website: http://www.lessontutor.com/kw4.html Wodrich, D. (2000). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: What every parent wants to know. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co.

Learning Disabilities

What is a learning disability? Having trouble: Processing information Organizing information Applying information

Types of Learning Disabilities  Dyslexia A language and reading disability  Dyscalculia Problems with arithmetic and math concepts  Dysgraphia A writing disorder resulting in illegibility  Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder) Problems with motor coordination

 Central Auditory Processing Disorder Difficulty processing and remembering language-related tasks  Non-Verbal Learning Disorders Trouble with nonverbal cues, e.g., body language; poor coordination, clumsy  Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit Reverses letters; cannot copy accurately;  Language Disorders (Aphasia/Dysphasia) Trouble understanding spoken language; poor reading comprehension

Characteristics of Learning Disabilities     

How will I know if my student has a LD? Most students exhibit uneven areas of ability Student is physically “normal” Average or above average intelligence Commonly found in gen ed classes: dyslexia and ADD/ADHD Many LDs need to be medically diagnosed

INTERESTING TIDBITS EMOTIONAL ISSUES  Students with learning disabilities may suffer from emotional problems/depression, and/or low self-esteem. This may cause students to withdraw from social interaction.  These same students may turn to drugs or alcohol for relief from feelings of low self-worth.  As many as 35% of students with learning disorders, drop out of High School (Girod, 2001, p. 31).  “Teenagers with dyslexia …[are] more likely to…think about and to attempt suicide than other young people their age” (Landau, 2004, pp. 48-9).

Causes or Presumed causes of Learning Disabilities NO real causes Might be caused by: Hereditary Teratogenic Medical Environmental

DYSLEXIA • Disleksia adalah gangguan belajar yang memanifestasikan dirinya sebagai kesulitan dengan membaca, ejaan dan dalam beberapa kasus matematika. Hal ini terpisah dan berbeda dari kesulitan membaca hasil dari penyebab lain, seperti kekurangan nonneurologis dengan penglihatan atau pendengaran, atau dari membaca instruksi yang buruk atau tidak memadai.

Approaches used to diagnose dyslexia Today, only after a student has reading difficulties can dyslexia be diagnosed Dyslexia may have “biological roots” Psychological testing can determine if a child has dyslexia

INTERESTING TIDBITS POTPOURRI  Because many people with dyslexia are right-brained thinkers, they may be more artistic and creative, becoming poets, actors, inventors, and artists.  Children with dyslexia use “almost five times as much brain area as other children while doing a simple language task” (Silverstein et al., 2001, p. 22).  “In the past, doctors…tried to prevent [children with disabilities] from being born; they…also…tried to stop some [people with disabilities] from having children of their own” (Flynn, 1998, p. 11).

Does my student have dyslexia? Reading characteristics Writing characteristics Numbers/Sequencing


DYSCALCULIA ‘Dyscalculia’ adalah ketidakmampuan seorang anak dalam menyerap konsep aritmatika.


DYSGRAPHIA • Dysgraphia (atau agraphia) adalah sebuah kekurangan dalam kemampuan untuk menulis, terlepas dari kemampuan untuk membaca, bukan karena kerusakan intelektual.


DYSPRAXIA • Dyspraxia adalah kesulitan yang dialami seorang anak dalam melaksanakan proses “pembentukan ide” untuk membuat sebuah gerakan terencana, proses dalam “perencanaan gerak” untuk mencapai idenya, dan proses “pelaksanaan gerakan “ atau action tersebut.

3 macam dyspraxia 1. Dyspraxia oral, yaitu ketidakmampuan menghasilkan gerakan mulut, misalnya sulit mengunyah, menyebutkan huruf. 2. Dyspraxia verbal, yaitu ketidakmampuan menghasilkan bunyi, membentuk kata, misalnya anak-anak yang mengalami speech delay. Normalnya : - Babbling 2 bulan, Lalling 6 bulan, Echolalia / meniru 10 bulan True speech 18 bulan 3. Dyspraxia motor, yaitu ketidakmampuan bergerak atau mengatur gerakan-gerakan yang perlu sesuai rencana. Kemampuan motor terbagi atas : - Fine motor, seperti menulis, pegang sendok, memakai baju, mengikat tali sepatu. - Gross motor, seperti melempar dan menangkap bola, melompat, berlari.