Holidays, travel and adventure

Holidays, travel and adventure… 1 Picture 1 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 10 - ten a yacht, a sailing ship: un voilier a crossing: une traversée a harbour: un port ab...
Author: Miranda Ball
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Holidays, travel and adventure…

1

Picture 1 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

10 - ten

a yacht, a sailing ship: un voilier a crossing: une traversée a harbour: un port aboard: à bord a stopover: une escale

Picture 2 ■ change: de la monnaie ■ a currency: une devise ■ a foreigner: un étranger ■ abroad: à l’étranger ■ a border: une frontière ■ passport, visa: • /pɑspɔt/ • /vizə/ •

Picture 3 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

go on a trip, a journey: partir en voyage luggage: des bagages check in: enregistrer fly, flew, flown: voyager en avion a flight: un vol take off (took off, taken off ): décoller (≠ land) a delay: un retard 

UNIT 1

1



UNIT

2

Parler du présent et du passé Faire des bilans au présent de ce que l’on a fait From Empire… to Commonwealth

3

1 2 3 4 5



UNIT 1

Use the words to talk about the pictures. WB, p. 6. Which are nouns? Which are verbs? Which can be both? WB, p. 6. Read these words aloud. • /ɒt/ • /fɒrənə/ • /kɾənsi/ • /hɑbə/ • /əbrɔd/ Dictation WB, p. 7. Sailing or flying? Which do you prefer?

eleven - 11

Lesson 1

1

UNIT

T• T E IT SENÉTÉR É PR PR

Present day adventurers ■

90°

150° 12 0°

90°

60°

30°



30°

60°

90°

120°

80° 90° 150° 1

60°

Frequency: every four years Start: New York/15 September Finishing line: 6 months later, Newport, Rhode Island Stopovers: 5 Crew: single-handed

60°

Liverpool 40°

40°

New York

Tropic of Cancer

NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN Guadeloupe

20°

20°

PACIFIC OCEAN

Equator



0

PACIFIC OCEAN 20°

Around Alone



INDIAN OCEAN 20°

Tropic of Capricorn

SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN

40°

CORAL SEA

Cape of Good Hope

40°

Cape Horn 60°

Clipper

Frequency: ...... Start: ...... Finishing line: ..... Stopovers: ..... Crew: .....

60°

4000 kilometers 2500 miles

90°

0° 150° 12

90°

60°

30°



30°

60°

90°

120°

Information

150° 18 0° 90°

Brazil • /brə´zl/ ■Japan • /də´pn/ ■

Two races: the “Around Alone” and the “Clipper”

Words Talking

■ ■

How often? How long? How many?

■ ■

Get information about two great races around the world. Classwork 1 Look at



the map: what countries or places do the green squares correspond to? WB, p. 8.

2

Describe the route of the Around Alone race using: ■

start from



run from…to…



sail across



finish at…

3

Read the information about the Around Alone race and find the questions corresponding to the words in blue.

4

Answer the questions using the information. It takes place every four years.

Teamwork 5

12 - twelve



Team A. Ask questions about the Clipper race. WB, p. 8. Then draw the route on your map, and fill in the missing information. Team B. Answer team A's questions using information from the map and the frame.  Go to p. 186.

in use

a race: une course call at: faire escale à a crew: un équipage challenge: disputer la première place win ≠ lose: gagner ≠ perdre the cup holder: le détenteur du titre

Complete the definitions.

1. The … is the person who challenges the … 2. The opposite of winner is… 3. A stopover is a place where…

Grammar point • Présent et prétérit

In what countries do the Inuit live? In what country did Livingstone die?  Précis, p. 162.  Exercices, p. 20.



UNIT 1

Explorers of the past

“Dr Livingstone, I presume?” H. Stanley on the left, Dr Livingstone on the right

Talking



Dr David Livingstone

Surname: Livingstone First name: ..... Date of birth: 19 March 1813 Place of birth: Scotland Family background: ..... Calling (vocation): wanted to be a missionary.

Who was Livingstone? 1

First journey to Africa: 1841-18… Discovery of Victoria Falls: 18… Last journey: 1869-18…wanted to locate the source of the Nile. • /nal/ Difficulties encountered: … Henry Stanley: American journalist, left for Africa, 1871. Died in: 18… Famous for: …

Say all you can about Livingstone, using the information above.

Listening The story of Livingstone’s life 2

Before listening: work with a friend. Ask the necessary questions to get the missing information, then check if your questions are correct with him/her. Use: who what where when how long what …for why how old WB, p. 9. ■





3











Listen and complete the missing information about Livingstone. WB, p. 9.

Writing Mini-biography 4

Write a short biography of Livingstone. Write five or six short paragraphs or sentences using: ■



Notepad « Pendant »

for thirty years pendant trente ans

during the journey pendant le (au cours du) voyage

for répond à la question How long? during répond à la question When? Livingstone lived for thirty years in Africa. He discovered Victoria Falls during the Trans-Africa expedition.  Précis, p. 162.  Exercice, p. 20.

when he was a child… later on… for… during…

UNIT 1







thirteen - 13

Lesson 2

1

UNIT

• ET NT RIT ÉSE TÉ P R P RÉ

• … SO R… E ITH E N

Do British boys need to learn French?

In the h ear of the D t ordogne

Traditio n 4 bdrm nal stone farm s house well-eq u beautifu ipped kitchen l views

Words ■





Starting out So did I, neither did I… 1

Choose three activities that you did during your holidays like Tim, then three activities that you didn’t do.

What Tim did during his holidays get up late visit his grandparents go abroad play football hang around with friends ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

14 - fourteen

I enjoyed myself = I had a great time! Stop moaning! /məun/ = Stop complaining without any reason. It isn’t the end of the world = It isn’t really the worst that could happen.

Translate into English. a. Vous vous êtes bien amusés pendant les vacances ? b. Oui, Monsieur, c’était super ! c. Alors, vous êtes contents ; donc, arrêtez de râler pour rien, Jason. d. Mais, Monsieur, neuf mois à bosser… e. Et alors, il y a pire !!!

■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Check you understand how this expression works. Tim got up late during his holidays, and so did I. He didn’t stay at a hotel. Neither did I. WB, p. 10. 3 Listen and react as in the example above. 2

EXAMPLE

What Tim didn't do stay at hotels go hitch-hiking go to summer camps go to restaurants sleep outside

in use

Grammar point • So… neither…

Tim speaks Spanish: so do I. Tim doesn’t speak German: neither do I.  Précis, p. 162.  Exercices, p. 20. 

UNIT 1

Surf A Sounds

Listening Did Tim improve his French? 1

2

3

on sounds

Before listening. Read the title, look at the documents, then guess what the dialogue is probably about. Listen and find out who did what. • nothing • went to France spoke French • • spoke English Tim Barbara Jason Marion ■







Who said what and why? WB, p. 10.

Stop moaning! What a coincidence!

You can speak good French.

Give your conclusions about Tim's holidays and complete the three sentences. a. Tim didn't speak French because… b. Tim didn't speak French, so… c. Tim didn't speak French although… 4

firm // • form /ɔ/ • farm /ɑ/ 1. Listen and spot the difference, then repeat. WB, p. 11. B Stress and rhythm

• across • alone • around • away 2. Listen and put the stress on the words. What do you notice about the stress? Find out the reason. WB, p. 11. Couldn’t or could? Negative or affirmative form? 3. Listen and spot the difference, then repeat. WB, p. 11. C Stress and meaning

Tim spoke English during his holidays in France. À l’écrit, cette phrase n’a qu’un sens. Tim a parlé anglais pendant ses vacances en France. À l’oral, on a la possibilité d’accentuer particulièrement un mot pour le mettre en valeur. On nuance ainsi le sens de l’énoncé. Écoute et compare. a.Tim spoke English during his holidays in France. ■



(C’est Tim qui a parlé anglais ; ce n’est pas Barbara).

b.Tim spoke English during his holidays. (Tim a parlé anglais, pas français).

Fun corner Help!

© from the How To Be British Postcards, LGP, Brighton, UK. 

UNIT 1

fifteen - 15

Time to talk

1

UNIT

T• T E IT SENÉTÉR É PR PR

• • … DI F SO R… ON E R É H G IT LE NE

From reading… Voluntary work

n May this year I went on my first National Trust Holiday. There were seven of us in the group including our group leader. Although the group was of mixed ages, everyone soon got to know each other and we got on well. The best part of the holiday was the people, the nights at the camp and pub, playing cards or chatting. I will definitely go on more holidays. They are cheap, give opportunities to meet new people, see new places and try new things. Half of our group were new to National Trust Holidays and they all enjoyed themselves. Our activities included beach clearing, path maintenance1 and replacing stiles2. It was hard work but fun. If you think lying on a beach is boring, or you just fancy something different, I would recommend a working holiday.

I 5

10

15

Surf

the web

The National Trust

The National Trust is a charity Mini-Encyclopaedia, p. 179. 1. What keywords will you enter to find out: a. the official website address of this charity; b. their email address on their website; c. who founded The National Trust and when? 2. Continue the webquest. WB, p. 12.

Alison, Norwich

Words

1. path maintenance: entretien des sentiers 2. stile: échalier (sorte d’échelle pour franchir des haies ou des murets)



fancy: avoir envie de, aimer enjoy (oneself ): s’amuser get on well (with someone):



s’entendre bien avec get to know: apprendre à connaître



1 2 3

Find three reasons why Alison chose a working holiday. Did she enjoy her holiday? Why? Find at least three reasons. Check that everyone in the class has got correct information about Alison’s holiday. Ask questions: ■ ■

4

16 - sixteen

where how many

■ ■

when why

■ ■

how long what

Complete the summary. WB, p. 12.

in use



Complete the sentences using the appropriate verb

1. Do you… adventure? 2. Do you usually… with people? 3. Choose working holidays! You’ll … new people and… yourself! 

UNIT 1

…To talking For or Against?

Compare your ideas with Alison’s. Alison thinks lying on a beach is boring. So do I. Like Alison, I think lying on a beach is boring. I don’t! Unlike Alison, I think lying on a beach is fun.

Grammar

1

EXAMPLE

■ ■ ■

• Le gérondif

Working in a team is good fun!  Précis, p. 162.  Exercice, p. 20.

working outdoors is fun meeting people is fantastic doing voluntary work is useful working in a team is better than working alone. ■

Some young people get a summer job during their holidays to earn money. Others prefer to do voluntary work (travail bénévole). What is your point of view? 't ouldn h s e peopl money! g n u Yo for work

point

2

Earning my own money makes me feel responsible.

people f o s d a eet lo a pizzeria! m n a c You ou work in when y

You don’t le arn anythin g when you s ell pizzas!

HelpfuL

tips

Exprimer son point de vue et en débattre A Choisir son point de vue ■ ■

I don’t want to...../want to..... I’m interested in + V.-ing.

B Préparer ses raisons et des

exemples (avec un camarade qui partage ses opinions). ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

pocket money gifts for my friends and family proud independent boring helpful I can’t afford to + V: je n’ai pas ■ ■

les moyens de… ■

I don’t mind +V-ing.: Cela m’est égal de…

C Discuter : écouter et prendre en

compte le point de vue opposé avant d’apporter ses arguments. ■ ■ ■

■ ■







I agree with you… It’s important to… However, I think it’s even more important to… On the other hand… OK, I see what you mean but… You are right when you say that but… I’m sorry but I just don’t agree.

Pizza delivery man



UNIT 1

seventeen - 17

Time to read

1

UNIT

T• T E IT SENÉTÉR É PR PR

• • IT • … DI F SO R… TÉR T ON E RÉ ERFEC R P É H G IT P LE NE NT ESE PR

Ellen’s Vendée Globe logbook Michel Desjoyeaux and PRB take the lead. Kingfisher slips to sixth place. Waves Day 32

30

coming from all directions. It’s amazing, we just pick up a wave, accelerate, go faster and faster and just keep on going. Damaged, exhausted? New limits. A lost sail, a broken halyard5, four hours at the top of a mast to fix it. My forearms are shaking. Why? Why now? Why do this to me? Day 46

35

Christmas Day! More than 70 different people rang me to wish me well during a conference call. Day 47



A short nap 40

It was pretty amazing1 for me - the emotion of leaving the dock and seeing all the people wave me off down the channel. This is it - I’m doing the Vendée Globe. Day 1

5

Day 3

Third-placed Ellen sails into the immense Pacific. I’ve never seen squalls6 quite Day 50

so violent... Not the best of New Years. This morning I just cried for two hours. I’ve never done that in my life before, not like this... Day 54

Fleet approaching Spanish coast. 45

A sail destroyed. Adventurer just came over to film and told me that I was third. Yippee! Day 7/8

Day 56

What a day! Non-stop surfing averaging more than 15 knots. The paella should be rehydrated by now. Day 10

10

2

50

I crossed the equator at 01:25 GMT celebrated with a bottle of champagne. Day 16

I climbed up the mast, to check over everything up there before we plunge into the Southern Ocean. It’s not easy alone, as the boat never stays still.

15

Day 30

20

25

55

I’m approaching Cape Horn. The most incredible adventure of my life. Day 66

Day 75

Icebergs - a close call for Kingfisher.

Kingfisher moves into second place.

Ellen closing in on7 PRB.

3

Kingfisher passes the longitude of Cape of Good Hope. It’s cold, but I’ve got used to it.

Back in the Northern Hemisphere and just 26 miles behind PRB! I definitely need to get more sleep. Day 81

I awoke with a start from a short nap4. I looked out of the window in the cabin and there it was - an iceberg right by the boat. Within seconds I was on deck, and we passed within 15 to 20 metres of the berg. The radar was alarmed, but this berg was invisible to it.

60

Kingfisher ranked first! Ellen sailed to the top of the ranking during the night. I am Day 82

very, very tired after climbing the mast... The long route north. Then disaster (or something) strikes. Kingfisher is Day 84/85

Day 31

18 - eighteen

Never in my life before have I experienced such beauty and fear at the same time – 10 icebergs so far today. The first was not a surprise, the second neither really – but when they all appeared in a line with just a mile between them I was amazed at their frequency. The seventh being the most enormous of all... Day 58

Day 21

A magical time. Ten icebergs in one day.

65



UNIT 1

Understanding The sequence of events damaged when she sails into a solid object, a semi-submerged container.

PRB is now to the west of Madeira, heading towards Cape Finisterre, the final landmark before the finish at Les Sables d’Olonne. Annoying to see how far Mich has got away... Day 89

70

Day 91

Radar broken - got to try to save it.

Don’t ask me what I’m doing next after this race... Congratulations to Mich.

1

Find the name of Ellen McArthur’s yacht.

2

What is PRB? Who is Mich?

3

Say when the race started and finished stating the dates and days.

4

Draw Ellen’s route on the map. Write the day in the corresponding box on the map. WB, p. 13.

5

Note Ellen’s successive rankings on the map (when you have the information!).

Day 94

75

©Adapted from material provided by Mark Turner of Offshore Challenges

Ellen’s feelings 6

Name three pleasant events and three major difficulties.

7

Choose examples which illustrate the different feelings she experienced: ■ ■

discouragement pleasure

■ ■

physical exhaustion admiration

Writing Build sentences 8

Express Ellen's feelings, using the adjectives: ■ ■



Winning day 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

EXAMPLE

amazing!: stupéfiant ! averaging: à la moyenne de… a close call: Nous l'avons échappé de justesse. nap: sieste halyard: drisse (cordage qui permet de hisser la voile) squalls: bourrasques close in on: s’approcher de

9

• Prétérit • Present perfect

Ellen came second in the Vendée Globe race. Ellen has participated in the most prestigious races.  Précis, p. 162.  Exercices, p. 20. 

UNIT 1

■ ■

dangerous depressing



exhausting

The most amazing thing that happened to me was when I saw the icebergs. Write about three different mishaps (mésaventures) that happened during her race. ■ ■

Grammar point

amazing magical

the radar the mast…

■ ■

the sail so she nearly…

Build a narrative

Write the narrative of Ellen’s race in the third person. Choose one of the three episodes.

10

nineteen - 19

Grammar & exercises

1

UNIT

T• T E IT SENÉTÉR É PR PR

• • IT • … DIF SO R… TÉR T ON E RÉ ERFEC R P É H G IT P LE NE NT ESE PR

Présent et prétérit

For /during

Précis, p. 162. 1 Complete the dialogue.

Complete the sentences using “for” or “during”. a. The competitors must train… several months before the Vendée Globe Challenge. b. …the Vendée Globe race, the competitors can phone their friends and family at any time. c. …his first journey in Africa, Livingstone was attacked by a lion. d. Stanley travelled across Africa… four months in search of Livingstone. 4





do



does



don’t



doesn’t



Ø

a. “Alison, what … you like doing during the holidays?” b. “ Well, I … like lying on the beach, that’s why I always choose working holidays.” c. “You … get bored there, you … meet wonderful people and it … cost a lot of money.” d. “… your family approve of your choice?” 2 Complete the dialogue. ■

did



didn’t



Ø

a. “Where … you go last summer?” b. “I … go anywhere. I … stayed at home.” c. “… you really? Why?” d. “Because I … have enough money.” Focus on… La question en How + adjectif ou adverbe.

Pour interroger sur… la durée

la fréquence

long?

often?

How…

le nombre

many?

la distance

far?

la quantité, le prix

much?

So… neither…

Précis, p. 162. 5 Like Alison and Nigel, Benjamin enjoyed his holidays with the National Trust. 

■ ■ ■

so neither does did Benjamin ■ ■



is



was

Alison and Nigel don’t like lying on a beach. Neither does Benjamin a. They think it’s boring. b. They got on well with everybody. c. They did not waste their time. e. They weren’t afraid of hard work. 6 Read what Marion said about learning English. Compare yourself to her using “so” and “neither” if you are in the same situation. (If not, use “I” + auxiliary.) I’m really bad at learning foreign languages. I am not! a. I can’t pronounce one word correctly. b. I didn’t catch one word when the English assistant came in our class. c. I feel ridiculous when I speak English. d. I haven’t learnt one word in four years! EXAMPLE

Ask a question using “how...?” to get more information. The flight from London to Marseilles lasts one hour and a half. What about the flight from London to Bergerac? How long is the flight from London to Bergerac? a. Livingstone explored Africa for nearly thirty years. What about Stanley? b. Tim and his parents go to France every year. What about Barbara? c. There are three airports in London. What about Paris? d. Victoria was eighteen when she became Queen. What about Elizabeth the Second? e. La Rochelle is four hundred miles from Newport (England). What about New-York City? 3

EXAMPLE

20 - twenty

Le gérondif

Précis, p. 162. 7 Put the verbs in the correct form. 



to + V



V + ing

Dear Sir, I’d love (go) on a working holiday next summer but I haven’t decided yet where to go. I like (work) outdoors very much and I’m really keen on (build) 

UNIT 1

things or (repair) old machines. I’m good at (use) tools and I enjoy (garden). But I’d like (find) something to do on my own because I don’t want (meet) too many people. What would you recommend? Prétérit ou present perfect

Repère les fautes de français, puis explique en quoi elles sont typiques d’un anglophone. Bonjour, j’aime la France beaucoup. J’étais né à Blackpool et j’habite dans Liverpool. Pendant les vacances, je faisais du cheval pour deux semaines. Et toi ? 11

(forme have+en)?

Recap Focus on…

Pronunciation

Le prétérit

L’intention de l’énonciateur est de raconter ce qui s'est produit dans le passé, (qui peut être très proche ou très lointain).

12

I saw an iceberg three minutes ago…

Place l’accent sur les mots, puis classe-les dans Sound Park en fonction de la prononciation des lettres. ■

Il y a trois minutes, j'ai vu un iceberg.

This morning I just cried for two hours. Ce matin j'ai pleuré pendant deux heures.

Ellen rapporte ces événements seulement pour nous les raconter.

I have never done that before. Je n’ai jamais fait cela avant !

Ellen rapporte ces événements pour faire un bilan de son expérience dans le présent.

Complete the questions with “did” or “have”. a. When … you hear about the National Trust? b. When … you go on your first working holiday? c. … you ever worked for other charities? d. Why … you choose that sort of holiday? e. … you ever visited their website? 9 Classe les marqueurs temporels selon qu’ils situent l’action dans le passé. • it’s the first time • yesterday • so far • five minutes ago • in 1990 • not yet 10 Translate the sentences. a. Les concurrents ont quitté le port il y cinq minutes. b. Je n’ai pas encore regardé le bulletin météo. c. Kingfisher a pris la deuxième place hier. d. Ce n’est pas la première fois que je franchis l’équateur. 8



UNIT 1



luggage



money.

Classe les mots dans Fun Fircus en fonction de la prononciation des lettres en gras. WB, p. 133.

13



Le present perfect

L’intention de l'énonciateur n’est pas de raconter, mais avant tout de montrer qu’un événement a eu lieu (peu importe quand) et qu’il a des conséquences dans le présent.

foreign



died lion

■ ■

fly neither

■ ■

hitch-hike site

■ ■

iceberg society

Vocabulary

14

Use the following words to complete the sentences.

change money currency coin a. You need a 2 euro … to buy a packet of biscuits from the vending machine. b. If you don’t have any …, you can’t use the machine because it doesn’t take banknotes. c. You don’t need to have a lot of … to go on a working holiday. It’s cheap. d. What is the …in the UK? The euro or the pound? ■







Translation

15

Translate the sentences.

- Où étais-tu la semaine dernière ? Je t’ai appelé. - J’étais à Londres. J’y vais tous les trois mois pour voir mes grands-parents. - Quelle chance ! Je ne suis jamais allée à Londres mais j’adore voyager. - Moi aussi. J’ai rencontré une fille formidable dans l’avion. On a parlé anglais tout le chemin et tu sais quoi ? Elle m’a déjà appelé deux fois ! Writing

Ellen is interviewed by a reporter just after the Vendée Globe race. Write the interview, using the past, present perfect and exclamations. (50 words, five questions and answers). 16

twenty-one - 21

Horizons

1

UNIT UNIT

From Empire… The growth of an Empire

Q&A The answers are on the page and on the tape!

1. Why do you think the British always used red to show the Empire on a map? 2. Which British colonies were the first to gain independence? 3. Find Gibraltar on the map. Why was it considered a strategic point?

Thanks to her powerful navy, Britain dominated the seas for four centuries. In the 16th and 17th centuries, she settled 13 colonies in America. In the 18th century, she acquired Canada, India, Australia and New Zealand. In the 19th century there was a race, known as a ‘scramble’, between Britain, France and Germany to colonize Africa.

Key notions • Empire • Imperialism



■ ■

■ ■ ■

a voyage: une traversée, un voyage en mer trade: le commerce raw materials: des matières premières goods: des marchandises the navy: la flotte provide: fournir



Key words Between the 16th and 20th centuries, Britain built up a huge empire. In 1920, when the empire was at its height, it covered about one quarter of the world’s surface and included almost one quarter of the world’s population

A nation of sailors, explorers and traders 1740 1850 Industrial Revolution in GB 1763 GB acquires Canada and parts of India from France after the 7 Years’ War (Treaty of Paris). 1770 Cook discovers Australia. 1776 American Revolution 1830 France conquers Algiers and subsequently colonises Algeria. 1881 1900 The scramble for Africa 1897 Queen Victoria declared Empress of India. 



The first empire-builders were explorers and traders. In the 15th century, European sailors started to explore new lands overseas. The first explorers were Spanish and Portuguese. From the 16th century onwards, British navigators followed their example. They brought back exotic fruits and spices, sugar, tobacco and fur. 

Time line

1770: Captain Cook lands in New South Wales, Australia 22 - twenty-two



UNIT 1

The richest and most powerful country in the 19th century 1

At home The Industrial Revolution took place in Britain between 1740 and 1850. Britain’s colonies provided raw materials for factories. And the colonies bought a lot of the goods which these factories produced.

Liverpool became a prosperous port during the 19th century.



Listen to the tape and find out why.

2

How long do you think it took to sail to America in the 19th century?

Overseas Imperialism



People who thought that it was a good idea to build a huge empire were called imperialists. They were proud of Britain’s empire and her influence across the world. Gibraltar was a strategic point. Some British people thought that it could make Britain more powerful but other people strongly disapproved of imperialism.

1901: Queen Victoria at work with her Indian secretary 



UNIT 1

WB, p. 17.

twenty-three - 23

Horizons

1

UNIT

…to Commonwealth The end of the Empire

Q&A The answers are on the page and on the tape!

Today, the British Empire no longer exists. Little by little, Britain granted independence to her colonies. The Statute of Westminster (1931) recognised the autonomy of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Most of Britain’s other colonies became independent between 1945 and the 1970s. There are still close links between the countries of the former empire. Together they form an association called the Commonwealth of Nations.

1. What do the countries of the Commonwealth have in common? 2. Who was Gandhi? 3. What is a multicultural society?

Key notions • decolonisation • multicultural society

Key words ■

■ ■





troops: soldiers especially in large groups grant: accorder demand: exiger government: /´vnmənt/

Time line 1914 1918 1931 1939 1945 1947 1982

24 - twenty-four



First World War (WW1) Statute of Westminster 

Second World War (WW2) India becomes independent. War between Argentina and Britain over the Falkland Islands

During WWI, countries of the empire fought alongside Britain

Towards Independence During WWI and WWII, Empire troops, in other words, armies from countries in the Empire, fought alongside Britain and the Allies. After the Second World War, they demanded their independence. In 1945, Britain was very weak. Many British cities were destroyed during the war and the British economy was in ruins. Britain could no longer afford to maintain a huge empire. She was ready to accept decolonisation. In 1947, India became independent and was divided into two countries, India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim). 

UNIT 1

What is the Commonwealth? – Are the countries of the former empire obliged to belong to the Commonwealth? – No, it is a voluntary organisation. – What does the association do? – Its members hold regular meetings to discuss the affairs of their countries. They also organise a major sporting event every four years, called the Commonwealth Games. WB, p. 18. 

Prince Charles on a five-day tour of Canada

I was born in India . We came to England when I was 5.

Does Britain st ill have colonies? Why do you think curry is one of the most popular dishes in Britain today?

nts still live My grandpare ya. in Ken Did you know that Hong Kong used to be a British colony?

Nowadays, many people from Britain’s former colonies live in Britain. As a result, different cultures live side by side.

In the 1920s and 30s, Gandhi campaigned for India’s independence 

Anouska and her grandmother don’t always agree when they go shopping

Listen and find out why.  

UNIT 1

WB, p. 18. twenty-five - 25

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