HISTORIC PRESERVATION AND LEAD'S COMMUNITY PLAN Introduction Historic preservation is an important part of Lead's past, present and future. In order to be successful, preservation efforts must be coordinated with both the City's daily business and future plans. This section includes a definition of historic preservation and its benefits and brief summaries of historic preservation goals; the City's preservation responsibilities; Lead's history and historic places; past and current preservation efforts; the legal basis for preservation; the relationship between preservation, zoning and building/health codes; preservation incentives and an agenda for future action. WHAT IS HISTORIC PRESERVATION AND WHAT ARE ITS BENEFITS FOR LEAD? Definition Historic preservation is saving Lead's buildings, structures, sites and objects that are important to us. These places and things are important for educational, cultural, civic, aesthetic and economic reasons. Identity and Education Historic sites contain valuable information about Lead's past. If these sites are destroyed, Lead will rapidly lose its sense of identity. Fewer and fewer physical reminders of our heritage remain to help educate both children and adults. Without accurate knowledge of the past, our citizens lack insight into the present and future. Civic Pride and Lead's Quality of Life Historic buildings serve as Lead community landmarks and sources of pride. New construction and modern facilities lack the variety of materials and level of detail found in historic buildings. These features make individual buildings and our city unique and contribute to the quality of life. Many historic buildings in Lead have been successfully rehabilitated for new uses. People enjoy shopping, working and living in these historic buildings. If you ask people what the nicest buildings in the community are, a substantial percentage would name an historic building. Aesthetics and Economic Development through Tax Base Growth Restoration projects often proceed in a snowball fashion in Lead's National Register Historic District. One property owner fixes up a building and sparks similar work from neighbors who notice the improved appearance. Pleasant surroundings increase business for commercial building owners and make homes more attractive to buyers. Historic preservation serves as a tax base building activity that increases building value and benefits the entire community. Tourism as an Economic Development Tool Attractively rehabilitated historic sites continue to be favorite tourist destinations. The longer tourists stay in our community, the more money they spend. Tourists are more likely to stop and stay in Lead because it has preserved enough historic places to give it a distinct and authentic historic character. Attractive Communities and Industrial Recruitment Attractively maintained historic buildings and neighborhoods signal an economically healthy
community with pride in its past, present and future. This quality gives our community a distinct advantage in recruiting and sustaining new business and industry. Recycling to Avoid Waste People want to avoid waste and recycle what they can. Historic preservation is recycling older places. It took energy to construct a building. Tearing it down wastes the energy and raw materials used in its construction and creates the need for a place to dispose of the material. Rehabilitating and restoring historic buildings is labor-intensive rather than material-intensive. This means less material is needed to make an existing building useful than to build a new structure. LEAD'S PRESERVATION GOALS By promoting historic preservation, the City of Lead intends to: •
Preserve and maintain sites and structures that serve as significant visible reminders of the City's social and architectural history
Contribute to the economic development and vitality of the City
Preserve the character and livability of Lead's neighborhoods and strengthen civic pride
Heighten public awareness and support of historic preservation in the community and improve preservation education efforts for various audiences
Integrate historic preservation more fully into Lead's city planning system and daily business CITY OF LEAD'S PRESERVATION RESPONSIBILITIES
The City of Lead owns important historic buildings and is responsible for infrastructure improvements such as road repair, sewer upgrading and sidewalk improvements which can affect historic buildings in the Lead Historic District. The Lead Historic Preservation Commission can help city officials identify historic sites and minimize project impact to these historic sites. LEAD'S HISTORY The following information is from the book The Flavor of Lead-An Ethnic History and the brochure The City of Lead and the Homestake Mining Company, both by the Lead Historic Preservation Commission. "Lead is undoubtedly the most cosmopolitan city of its size in the west or any other part of America. Nearly every nationality on the globe is represented here.” Evening Call Newspaper March 17, 1896. The history of the City of Lead dates from the discovery of placer gold in Gold Run Gulch by Thomas E. Carey in February of 1876. As news of gold discoveries spread, prospectors from the surrounding mining camps rushed to the gulch, their numbers growing daily. The town was laid out on July 10, 1876, on a site located between the north and south forks of Gold Run Creek. A name for the new town was needed and after a short discussion, the founders decided upon "Lead City" because of the large number of "leads," or outcroppings of ore, in the area. The leader in Lead's mining industry, the Homestake Mining Company, was incorporated in 1877 and began full-scale gold production with completion of an 80 stamp mill in 1878.
Lead grew rapidly, and by 1880 it had reached a population of 1,440. The city had also spread well beyond its original borders, taking in the nearby town sites of Washington and Golden as well as the present day South Lead and Denver additions. In August of 1890, the citizens voted 471 to 9 in favor of incorporation, and it was at that time that the word "City" was dropped from the name. Cyrus H. Enos, a local merchant, was elected as the first mayor. Although the majority of the residents of the young mining camp were of American birth, numerous foreign immigrants had also made their way into the area in search of employment. Most notable among these early "foreigners" were the English and Irish. By the 1890s, however, a second wave of immigrants began to arrive in the city-particularly large numbers of Italians, Slavs and Finns-each of whom would be established in particular sections of the city. Today, brown and white markers placed above street signs denote the locations of several of these early ethnic neighborhoods. LEAD’S HISTORIC PLACES Ethnic Neighborhoods•
South Lead--English, Irish, Canadian and Scottish immigrants
South of Main Street on Gwinn Avenue (Slovenian Alley), Columbus, Wall, Siever, Stone, Spark and Addie Streets--Slovenians
Sunny Hill section of Lead and Miners and Railroad Avenues--Italians
Hiawatha Park Area (below Homestake's Ellison Hoisting Works) on Park Avenue and Parkdale Avenue--Finns
Washingto n Ar ea- - F in ns, S wedes and Norwegians
North Bleeker and Pine Streets-- sizable group of Finns
Individual Sites-Historic sites listed in the brochure The City of Lead and the Homestake Mining Company include: • Homestake's Surface Tours/Open Cut and related mining structures, • Finnish Lutheran Church/Sweatman Art Memorial, • First National (Norwest) Bank, 211 Main Street, • Homestake General Office/Old City Hall, • Halloran Block, • Homestake Opera House and Recreation Building, • Hearst Free Library, • Black Hills Mining Museum, • U.S. Post Office, • First Baptist Church, • Highland Hotel,
• Christian Science Church, • Revell Residence, • Collins (Lundin) House, • Christ Episcopal Church and Rectory, • Lead City Hall, Masonic Temple, • Cain Residence, • Glover House, • Black Hills and Ft. Pierre Roundhouse • Homestake General Manager's Residence LOCAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION EFFORTS The original Lead Historic District was first listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. Subsequently, a second listing was developed and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998. The Lead Historic Preservation Commission, formed in 1987, leads the city's preservation efforts. The Commission is one of 17 Certified Local Governments (CLG) in South Dakota. As a CLG, the Lead Historic Preservation Commission meets federal and state preservation requirements and is eligible to apply for a preservation grant every year from the SD State Historical Preservation Center. The publications Ethnic Heritage-Lead, SD (3 volumes), The Flavor of Lead-An Ethnic History and The City of Lead and the Homestake Mining Company are all past grant projects. The non-profit Black Hills Mining Museum, started as a community project in 1986, offers visitors a unique look at Black Hills mining history. The guided tour of the museum's simulated underground mine level traces developments in underground mining over the past century. A hands-on gold panning exhibit, video theater and a wide variety of mining and local history exhibits provide an educational and entertaining experience for everyone. The Museum also has produced several historic publications including The Gold Belt Cities series that contains many historic photographs of Lead, Deadwood, Homestake and the surrounding communities. The Homestake Visitors Center, operated by the Lead Chamber of Commerce, conducts city bus tours that provide an excellent look at the community of Lead and some of the past workings of the Homestake Mining Company. The Homestake Mining Company has contributed and shared a large number of historic photographs, records and resources with the Lead Historic Preservation Commission and the Black Hills Mining Museum. The Historic Homestake Opera House Committee is a local volunteer organization dedicated to preserving the Opera House that was damaged in 1984 by a fire. The Committee obtained a National Trust for Historic Preservation grant in 1994 for a professional architectural and engineering study of the existing building and its future use. This committee has restored a significant portion of the Opera House and now the facility can be used for performances and gatherings.
THE LEGAL BASIS FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION The constitutionality and legality of historic preservation ordinances has been well tested and well established. Most protection for historic properties occurs at the local level, but there are also state and federal laws protecting historic places. Local Ordinance-Lead has a local preservation ordinance. It acknowledges that historic preservation activities serve a valid public purpose and authorizes the City to establish a Historic Preservation Commission. The ordinance also discusses Preservation Commission powers and outlines a procedure for local recognit ion and protection of historic properties. Local preservation ordinances have stood up in court as legitimate uses of a local government's power to promote the general welfare. State Legislation-Chapter 1-19A of South Dakota Codified Laws, "Preservation of Historic Sites," declares the preservation of cultural resources to be "in the best interest of the state and its citizens." Section 11.1 of Chapter 1-19A protects historic properties listed on the State Register of Historic Places. Chapter 1-19B of South Dakota Codified Laws, "County and Municipal Historic Preservation Activities," authorizes local governments to establish historic preservation commissions. Federal Legislation-The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 states historic preservation serves a valid public purpose and sets up a number of programs, such as the National Register of Historic Places, that promote preservation. Section 106 of the Act protects historic properties listed on or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. HISTORIC PRESERVATION INCENTIVES Several financial incentives are available to historic property owners in Lead who are interested in fixing up their properties. Please contact the Lead Historic Preservation Commission for more information. Federal Income Tax Credit: Any property listed on the National Register of Historic Places may benefit from the 20% federal income tax credit. Owners must spend a minimum amount of money rehabilitating their property and they must follow preservation guidelines called the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation. State Tax Moratorium: Any property listed on the State Register of Historic Places is eligible for the South Dakota eight year tax moratorium. Owners who fix up their properties and follow the preservation guidelines called the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation may apply for an eight year moratorium on property tax assessment increases for the improvements made to the building. Historic South Dakota Foundation Revolving Loan Program: National Register listed property owners who undertake rehabilitation work that meets the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation may apply for this loan. The maximum loan amount is $15,000, payable over 7 years. Interest rates vary, but are competitive.