Happy Trails-Hope You Enjoy Canyon Viewing

Happy Trails-Hope You Enjoy Canyon Viewing Grand Canyon Introduction ~ I conducted Grand Canyon trips personalized for the main interests of each o...
Author: Alicia Brown
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Happy Trails-Hope You Enjoy Canyon Viewing

Grand Canyon Introduction ~ I conducted Grand Canyon trips personalized for the main interests of each of dozens of groups for about ten years. I enjoyed five ‘grand’ hikes: two to Indian Garden which is half way down to the River and then on to Plateau Point; one on Grandview Trail to Horseshoe Mesa; one in west Canyon area to the Havasupai Reservation and easily my favorite is on Bright Angel Trail to Phantom Ranch. These all combined to provide phenomenal experiences to make my life more meaningful and better understood. I continue with some first Canyon facts. This is followed by my personal photos along with four contributing Internet downloads. I finish with more scientific points for any viewer who is interested to go to the end to read them. I recommend a trip to those who have yet gone and, for Rim viewers only, a return to get into the inner Canyon beauty and magic. This may result in learning more about Grand Canyon, our 7th Natural Wonder of the World.

General Grand Canyon Information ~ Two helpful ways to get good information are by asking Xanterra staff when call for reservations or various websites: • 303 - 297 - 2757 (Xanterra Company) - 2 more contacts: • 928 - 638 - 7875 (Canyon Backcountry Reservations) • 928 - 638 - 3283 (Bright Angel Cabin Information Desk) • www.grandcanyonlodges.com (Xanterra Site) • www.nps.gov (National Park Service) • www.amfac.com (Company that did previous reservations) • www.3pppco.com (my 3P Company Site and contact info) ~ Key reservations facts are it is about a year’s wait for dorms or cabins at Phantom Ranch, four months for the backcountry permits and within a day to week for any other South Rim’s six lodges and Trailer Village. Additional to the next two pages I have placed more detailed facts of the Canyon, chronological material and Native Americans after my last sequential photo.

Continuing Grand Canyon Information ~ Six grand ways to enjoy the Canyon are: Rim views - 95 plus percent of visitors see the Canyon on their visit by easily viewing it from multiple Rim stops Aerial observations - navigation in the air in either plane or helicopter is a fun way to see the most in least time Mule ride - key pleasure this way is the huge advantage to look solely at many grandiose views without a need to watch each footstep to prevent many sliding missteps Rafting - interested people can enjoy spectacular times for a lifelong pleasure Hiking - short walks are great for the average visitor; think of a challenge to go to River for this really complete adventure Camping - smart way for novices is to go with experienced outdoorsmen; great time anywhere for the well seasoned

Continuing Grand Canyon Information ~ Sand, mud, ash and silt deposited about two billion years ago became compressed, grafted and pressured into its bottom metamorphic rock. These are oldest rocks there in the Canyon. Vishnu, Rama and Brahma parts of Basement Rock are called Vishnu Schists. On top of this layer is the 1¼ billion years old granite that has about 17 layers above it. They are simply described next in sandstone up to shale then to two different types of limestone on to three other generally described formations called the Supai Group to another sandstone layer and additionally with shale which proceeds to limestone that continues to one more formation rock and finally there is Kaibab Limestone on top. Four to five or six steps down from this ground cap literally goes through the few thousand years of man’s time in our biblical history to then millions of years to early prehistoric events. There was a key uplift of the Colorado Plateau that occurred with formation of Rocky Mountains east for about two miles. Also, crustal stretching west proceeded with some drainage systems that flowed through present Grand Canyon.

Aerial View

Mule Selection Shady Top of Bright Angel Trail

Host to Cousin for Our Hike to Plateau Point

She’s Short Way Down Bright Angel Trail Hike

Mule Riding Optimum Trip-Look at View Only

My Hiking Adventure to Plateau Point

Most Hikers (Some Below) Go Only a Short Way

Enjoyed Enthusiasm on Trail with my Cousin

Different Hike to Plateau Point

Snow on Winter Hike-Trail Over Logs

Transition on This Hike Out of Snow

Favorite Plateau Point Image-6 Miles from Rim

Plateau Point Trail (1½ Miles)-Indian Garden to End

End of Plateau Point Trail-circa 500 Feet to River

View of Plateau Point from North Rim

She’s as Happy as I to Get to End of Trail

She Enjoyed Ravens-We Needed to Get Back

Phantom Ranch View on Hike to Plateau Point

West Foot Bridge-People Only Across It

Summary Information about Phantom Ranch ~ This welcome basement luxury was built in 1922 as a very comfortable oasis (compared to any camping or hiking). This description is very true at Grand Canyon’s desert bottom. It is a wonder in this unique wilderness setting that is usually thirty degrees more hot than the temperatures on South Rim. Best times to make plans here are the spring and fall. Summer is best avoided because the Ranch area is very hot and can occasionally get into the 120s. Canteen at left is open daily for beverages, except for times of meals, and has a good variety of most general supplies. Postcards bought here may still say: “Mailed by Mule from the bottom of the Canyon.”

1st Dorm Night of Phantom Ranch Hike: 12-31-02

Much Better Sleep in Cabin on 2nd Night: 01-01-03

Peaceful Night Here without Dormitory Noises

Mule Riders to South Rim More Comfortable Way

Rim

Cool Colorado River View Near Foot Bridge

Look from River at Beginning Sunset

Exquisite Beauty at River Even in Darkness

East (Kaibab) Bridge-People, Mules to Rim

Interior Canyon View on South Rim Hike

Broadcaster (Left Person)-His 2002 Camping Trip ~ Wayne Norman’s ‘03 quotes for end of ‘02 hike with four well experienced traveling friends: “A year ago I was one ‘hurtin’ puppy!” ~ “My first time backpacking the Grand Canyon was one of the most incredible weeks of my life.” ~ “I had the sensation that I’m the only one in this Canyon.” (Wayne’s above thought is by Himself while four friends were on separate side trails hikes of Grandview Trail.) _____________________________________________

Horseshoe Mesa End of Grandview Trail Hike

More of Wayne’s Quotes ~ At end of hike He had “the feeling

of exhilaration, accomplishment”. ~ “I was proud of what I had done and very grateful for my well experienced partners who helped a ‘newby’ through all of it. I can’t remember a moment in my life that compared with that instant. Elation. Jubilation. Satisfaction. Pride.” ~ NOTE: link to Wayne’s great story: http://www.wili-am.com/gc.htm ____________________________________________

South Rim View of South Kaibab Trail ~ Bright Angel Trail from South Rim (an average 7,000 feet) to the Colorado River is 8 miles and a short walk across the west Foot Bridge to Phantom Ranch. East of the Ranch grounds it is also the same vertical mile but a shorter, steeper hike on the South Kaibab Trail that is 6 ½ miles to the South Rim. Whether enjoying beer or any other beverages a stop at El Tovar Hotel is welcome relaxation after a hike’s last steps! ________________________________________

South Kaibab Trail on O’Neil Butte to South Rim

South Kaibab Trail Past O’Neil Butte to Rim

Great Stop after Any Canyon Hike ~ ‘Grand’ El Tovar Hotel was opened in 1905 as a chain of hotels and restaurants owned by the Fred Harvey Company. It is twenty feet from the Rim. This Hotel retains the excellent luxury it was initially designed to be - the destination Resort that provides a high level of comfort and style. _____________________________________

Canyon Rafting a Very Unique Adventure

Rafters’ Staging Area on a Phantom Ranch Stay

Scientific Average Number of Unconformities is 17 ~ Lipan Point is my favorite overlook stop because one of two primary kinds is at the left and another follows. This type of unconformity developed by the ‘erosion’ of one complete sediment layer and replaced by newer ( ) one. So, a novice viewer might first think the cliff is chronologically layered! ____________________________________

Second Primary Kind of Unconformity

~ This was formed by complete upheaval of an older layer to end up on top of the younger rock. This unconformity is the tan colored horizontal line section _______________________________________

W. Canyon, S. Rim Havasu Falls-on Reservation

East Canyon, South Rim Desert View Watchtower

Area Behind Watchtower-The Painted Desert ~ This was formed primarily from layers of shale that were silt and mud deposits in layers after layers of different kinds of organic type material that resulted in its various colors. ____________________________________

~ East of this area is unique Petrified Forest - formed from volcanic silica seepage into fallen trees that floated into flood plains.

~ General Time Leaving the Canyon is Sunset ~ You may enjoy view like below and also have luck for a rainbow. (NOTE: If you have more interest in any of these topics, click on further to see if you want to read more about detailed points!)

Canyon’s Geological Facts ~ Grand Canyon is one of few locations on Earth visually displaying five of the six geologic layers of grand geology and exclusive point where the sixth is eighty miles south. The great variety of these rocks has excellent clarity during different times of day that they are seen. These sequences of rock were mostly deposited in warm shallow seas and sea shores of west North America that have marine and land sediments including sand dune fossils from extinct deserts. Calculation of man’s average step to the Canyon’s depth has each human one into it measure approximately 1,000 years. Grand Canyon is two billion years old at the inner granite gorge. It is one mile from the South Rim to the River (another 1,000 feet from there to the North Rim). My beginning information continues with some more geologic history and follows with additional factual descriptions.

More Geological Facts ~ The River is 277 miles long through the Canyon that is ten to eighteen miles wide and has five of the six Life Zones that are: • Lower Sonoran - hot desert of Creosote Bushes, Joshua and Palo Verde Trees and Saguaro Cactus (in many Westerns) • Upper Sonoran - desert steppe with grasslands, Sagebrush, Scrub Oak, Colorado Pinion, Utah Juniper, Mesquite Trees • Transition Zone - open woodlands of primarily dominant Ponderosa Pine (northern Arizona is the longest stretch of these trees in the World), Cypress and more Oak Trees • Canadian - fir forests predominantly Douglas Fir and Aspen • Hudsonian - next altitude is Spruce and Bristlecone Pine • Arctic/Alpine - alpine meadows or tundra with basically grass and Lichen; it is the last Life Zone that is 80 miles south of Grand Canyon at the top of San Francisco Peaks

San Francisco Peaks ~ In Flagstaff, Arizona is the tallest State Mountain which at its peak is the 6th Life Zone. This is an alpine meadows or tundra with, as just said, grass and Lichen. It is 12,670 feet to facilitate in winter one of the most southern skiing areas in U.S.! Furthest southern is Mount Lemmon in the Catalina Mountains which are just north of Tucson. Rocky Mountain Mule Deer are a large number of all animals in the northern Arizona uplands. Other animals are Raven, Bald Eagles, Peregrine Falcon, Coyote, Mountain Lions and Bobcats. These were hunting grounds for prehistoric people about 1,000 years before the arrival of Europeans and Asians. Sunset Crater, NE of Flagstaff, erupted in ways where lava, rock and sinders were the ultimate erosion factor to change nearby lands into fertile farmlands for prehistoric and present Native American cultures.

San Francisco Peaks-80 Miles South of Canyon

Beautiful Aspen Trees South of the Peaks

Geologic History of Universe and World ~ Scientific estimates and Canyon’s sequences: • 14 billion years - ‘Big Bang’ theory began the Universe • 4½ billion years - gaseous Earth created • 2 billion years - bottom Grand Canyon layer formed • 650 to 250 million years - rising and falling of the ocean created continual erosion of the Canyon with sequential formations of approximately one and one-half dozen layers (hundreds of millions of sequenced years of developments or non-placements created unconformities) • 225 million years - Petrified Forest formed silica seepage along with many layers of deposits in Painted Desert area (colors are created by silica minerals content: Iron caused yellow, orange, rust and red; Manganese & Carbon created blue, black and purple; Quartz formed white, tan and grey)

Continuing Geological Events on Earth • 100 million years - evolution of flowers started • 60 to 70 million years - Colorado Plateau, Rocky Mountains uplifted dramatically from about 3,000 feet below sea level to 5,000 feet above; a likely scientists’ agreement is that this period was the greatest influence on Canyon’s changes • 30 million years - a giant volcanic explosion created the approximate hundreds miles range in SE Arizona; this is Chiricahua Mountains (a force about one thousand times that which blew up Mount Helens) • 15 million years - forces reversed in southern Arizona where land crust pulled apart forming Basins and Ranges • 6 million years - starting and total process periods of the massive Colorado River’s having very, very gradually eroded rock formations to slowly create Grand Canyon; much enhanced by ice age 2 million years ago with its continually deposited layers of volcanic activity from two to a half million years time period

Concluding Prehistoric Man Information ~ This bridges from prehistoric to recent times: • 2 million years - about this stage of evolution in Africa is the consensus anthropological opinion that prehistoric man began as Homo Erectus; a Peking Man skull found in 1929 China is believed to have lived one million years before in a life of fire discovery and use of it as important to its survival in cold • 200,000 to 100,000 years - superior Homo Sapiens had likely improved thinking that influenced having defeated Erectus Man and directed their move from Africa to Asia • 12,000 years - first Americans called Paleo Americans strongly believed to have crossed Alaskan Bering Straits • 6,000 years - continuing group of first Americans are the Athabascan speaking People that came from north plains

Continuing Chronological History Information ~ The below sequence is more easily understandable: • 4,000 years - third main group are Eskimos and the Aleutians that immigrated into the northwest; time of Cochise man’s arrival (name because sighting of this culture in Cochise County, Arizona); believed to have existed to approximately 500 A.D. • 300 B.C. to 1400 A.D. - the approximate period of more prehistoric cultures such as Sinagua in San Francisco Peaks area and the Hohokam in Phoenix/Casa Grande locations of central Arizona • 1064 A.D. - Sunset Crater erupted; continued every ten to twenty years until about 1250 • Late 1200s A.D. - significant Arizona drought believed to have been major cause for disappearance of prehistoric cultures later in the 1400s

Continuing Chronological History Information • 1300 - Casa Grande prehistoric buildings were built • 1540 - Don Lopez de Cardenas Garcia as Spanish Captain of the Coronado Expedition searched for the Seven Cities of Cibola (gold); was first non-Native American to explore the Canyon; found it only an intrusion on his goal of looking for gold in the Southwest • 1542 - Coronado claims the Southwest for Spain; Spanish continually occupied Arizona, New Mexico, California and Mexico into the 1800s • 1736 - a great silver discovery happened 25 miles SW of Nogales, Arizona; the Tohono O’odham Native People started State’s name as “Ali-Shonak” (a place of springs) that transitioned to “Arisonac” and ultimately to Arizona • 1752 - Tubac Presidio established as first white community

Continuing Chronological History Information • • • • • • •

• •

1810 to 1821 - Spanish revolted 1822 - Mexico gained Independence 1820 to 1830s - Mountain men entered Az. through Texas 1846 to 1848 - Mexican War fought 1848 - Guadalupe/Hidalgo Treaty made Mexico free; gold discovered in California to influence massive ‘49ers effort 1850 - Compromise of ‘50 established the New Mexico Territory which included Arizona 1853 - Gadsen Purchase increased Arizona Land south of Gila River to present boundary mid 1800s - cattle business began; Army’s Lt. Ives sent to map Colorado River; his first view noted ‘was valueless’ 1858 - Butterfield Overland stage line started as 26 days journey from Tipton, Missouri to San Francisco

Continuing Chronological History Information • 1859 - weekly Arizonan paper founded as first in State • 1861 - Bascom Affair biggest problem between Apaches and soldiers; Civil War started; army posts abandoned • 1862 - only Arizona Civil War battle was at Picacho Peak; largest Apache War with Army was at Apache Pass • 1863 - middle of Civil War time here in West when Arizona became a Territory; the Walker Party discovered gold in Bradshaw Mountains near Phoenix; Wickenburg also found lots of gold in the Vulture Mine north of Phoenix • 1869 - Powell directed to Grand Canyon for any American’s first specialized investigation trip • Early 1870s - General Crook fought worst Apache battles and non war soldiers started building initial State roads • Early 1870 to beginning 1880s - were big silver discoveries, particularly Tombstone in 1877; also copper in Bisbee; open range cattle began and prospered

Continuing Chronological History Information • 1881 - Santa Fe Railroad (first was Atlantic and Pacific) finished across south Arizona; Westerns’ legend Wyatt Earp and Brothers with Doc Holiday had their infamous October fight, not at, but behind O.K. Corral • 1883 - back to Grand Canyon where another Arizona legend was created as the first memorable character, John Hance, who began living in the Canyon; he first tried asbetos mining below Grandview area to soon realize tourist services made him some money; he was the Canyon storyteller of all times - i.e., old story is his having said “Once so cold that fog froze so strongly that could walk from one rim side to the other”; thus he is the first tour guide and “recreational liar” • 1888 - copper became most primary mining that then and now well dominates gold and silver

Continuing Chronological History Information • 1889 - Territorial Capitol previously back and forth from Prescott to Tucson now permanently moved to Phoenix • 1895 - Phoenix finally linked between north and south railroads to further tourists’ advantages going to Canyon • 1901 - first, only Canyon train came from Williams, Arizona • 1908 - Canyon became a National Monument • 1909 - Canyon Railroad station finished (near El Tovar) • 1911 - the ‘grand’ El Tovar Hotel is completed • 1912 - Arizona admitted to the Union • 1919 - Canyon finally became a National Park • 1922 - comfortable Phantom Ranch built • 1931 to 36 - Hoover Dam constructed during the Great Depression; result of massive efforts involved thousands of workers that cost over one hundred of their lives

Continuing Chronological History Information • 1945 - post WWII activities brought significant economic success to Arizona; these were importantly described as the five Cs that continued its progress: copper, cotton, cattle, citrus and climate; great weather and the Grand Canyon’s other good benefits are reasons for about five million visitors a year - nicely expands the State’s revenues • 1956 to 66 - beginning and completed construction of Glen Canyon Dam; built in NE Arizona to provide hydroelectricity and Colorado River flow regulation from its upper Basin to lower region; by suppressing floods and other factors that once influenced the River this Dam has now led to major physical and ecological changes in the lower River areas; these points result in the Dam presently being the major influence on the River to Canyon imbalance of its patterns in sediment transport and deposition

Last Canyon General Information • Miners very early were first and most persistent continuing business pursuits in Grand Canyon • Some people wanted to erect entertainment activities such as cable rides; were almost as badly invasive as miners • Business people that might have been most negative to Grand Canyon’s marvels were ones who once wanted to construct a railroad from Colorado to California along the River - this badly conceived idea was thankfully defeated • Nature still prevails in the Canyon’s total area having about 75 species of mammals, 250 to 300 of birds, 5 amphibians, 25 to 50 of reptiles and about 25 of fish that are really the most affected by Dam caused River to Canyon imbalances ~ None of my photos nor those of the very best can capture a richness and intimacy that your personal experiences in the Canyon will provide you! End next writing about Native people.

Native Americans • Prehistoric cultures’ remains of split-twig figurines found in many Canyon’s caves date back approximately 4,000 years • Anasazi were one of the cultures; believed to be Ancestors of Hopi; primary habitats in only part of US where four states have common borders: Arizona, New Mexico, California and Utah; migrated from area sites circa 1300 A.D.; those in the Canyon lived there from about 200 B.C. to 1300 A.D. • Hopi reside on four mesas near Flagstaff; believe that they have spiritual origins that emerged from the Canyon as do Zuni People who live in New Mexico • Havasupai inhabit the inner west Canyon reasonably close to the Central Village part of Grand Canyon; descendants of Native People who have lived in this area for hundreds of years; were called Supai; my twin falls photo is one of the pretty ones on this Reservation

Final Page • Navaho People are one of biggest American tribes and live on largest Reservation in the U.S.; it is in NE Arizona; descendants of the Athabascus prehistoric people who immigrated into the SW from NW in 15th century; many of the old Westerns were filmed here in Monument Valley • Hualapai are on the Reservation that borders SW Canyon further west than Havasupai; were descendants of Cerbat prehistoric culture; have been in this location since 1300 • Southern Paiute occupy land north of the Canyon in NW section of the State in an area called the Arizona Strip; they also used Grand Canyon for hundreds of years It is my pleasure to present this geological, chronological and cultural information!

Happy Trails