Gynecologic Cancer Treatment. Ovarian Cancer. The Latest and Greatest. Ovarian Cancer clinical presentation. Ovarian cancer

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment UCSF Cancer Center Gynecologic Cancer Treatment – Gynecologic Cancer Treatment UCSF Cancer Center Ovarian Cancer Th...
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Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment –

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Ovarian Cancer

The Latest and Greatest John K. Chan, M.D. Division of Gynecologic Oncology UCSF University School of Medicine

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Overview

• Ovarian cancer – – – – –

Ovarian Cancer – clinical presentation

Awareness – symptoms? Risk factors – genetics vs. environment? Screening – blood test or ultrasound? Treatment / prevention – surgery and chemotherapy Personalized novel therapy – are we there yet?

• Endometrial cancer – Robotic surgery – man vs. machine? – Advanced surgery – cost analysis – Lymph node dissection controversy

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Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

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Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma

Ovarian - benign

cystadenoma teratoma fibroma

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

Ovarian carcinoma

UCSF Cancer Center

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Symptoms of “silent killer”

72% of women had recurring symptoms median of 2: • Back pain (45%) • Fatigue (34%) • Bloating (27%) • Constipation (24%) • Urinary symptoms (16%)

Goff et al, JAMA 2004

Early stage (high risk) patients Over 70% had one or more symptoms present 1-3 months before diagnosis: • Abdomino-pelvic pain (38%) • Fullness / girth (27%) • Abnormal bleeding (16%) Chan et al, SGO 2009

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Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Screening on ovarian cancer mortality: Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Trial

Total 388 cancers 78,216 postmenop ausal women aged 55 to 74 years (1993-2001)

R A N D O M I S E

212 screened (5.7 / 10,000 person years) 176 unscreened (4.7 / 10,000 person years)

Annual screening CA-125 - 6 years TV ultrasound - 4 years (n=39,105)

No reduction in ovarian cancer mortality. False-positive screening test result associated with complications

Usual care (n=39,111)

202,638 postmenop ausal women aged 50 to 74 years

Multimodality screening (CA125 then TVUS)

R A N D O M I S E

Mortality data will be collected through 2014

No screening

Menon U et al Lancet oncol 2009

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Marker for evaluating ovarian mass - OVA1

• high probability of malignancy is defined as: – ≥5.0 in premenopausal women – ≥4.4 in postmenopausal women

• Of 516 with adnexal mass, 151 cancers, – sensitivity 92.5%, specificity 42.8%, – positive predictive value 42.3% negative predictive value 92.7% Ueland et al Gynecol Oncol 2010;116:S23)

UCSF Cancer Center

Marker for evaluating ovarian mass - OVA1

• An immunoassay 5 biomarkers – – (CA 125, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1, ß2microglobulin, & transferrin) – Commercial distribution by the FDA Sept 2009

MMS group - 42 ovarian & tubal cancers 8 borderline & 34 invasive (47% stage I or II)

annual TVUS

Buys JAMA 2011

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

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Screening trial multimodality UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS)

Sensitivity

NPV

Gyn

72.2% to 91.7%

93.2%

Gyn onc

77.5% to 98.9%

97.6%

• OVA1 improved the clinician's pre-surgical assessment • Help decide on referral to a gynecologic oncologist

• Limitations - assay interference with rheumatoid factor of at least 250 IU/mL or high triglyceride • OVA1 test not to replace clinical decision making • Not reassurance as a negative test and negate referral • Not approved for cancer screening in general patients Ueland et al Gynecol Oncol 2010;116:S23).2

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Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Marker for evaluating ovarian mass - HE 4 • Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4)

UCSF Cancer Center

Ovarian cancer

– protein expressed in ovarian cancer tissue – HE4 testing increases the sensitivity for detection of malignant pelvic masses – HE4 is not elevated in women with endometriosis in contrast with CA 125 – FDA approval in 2008 for monitoring ovarian cancer for disease progression or recurrence – use for differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses is still investigational

• • • • •

1 out of 70 U.S. women 25,000 cases annually 14,000 deaths annually 4th in cancer related deaths among women Mean age at diagnosis 59 years

Moore et al Gynecol Oncol 2009 Nolen Gyn onc 2010 Anastasi et al Tumour biol 2010 Huhtinen br j ca 2009

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Female Reproductive Tract

UCSF Cancer Center

Risk factors New Cases

Breast Colorectal Lung/Bronchus Endometrium Ovary Cervix Vulva

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

Deaths

192,200 68,100 78,800 38,300 23,400 13,900 3,600

40,200 29,000 67,300 6,600 13,900 4,400 800

• Family history: - One 1°relative - 3.6 times risk, or 5% lifetime risk. - 5- 10% of all ovarian cancers associated with known gene mutations. - Three familial ovarian cancer syndromes: - site-specific ovarian cancer, - breast/ovarian cancer syndrome - Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome.

American Cancer Society

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Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Reproductive factors

BRCA1/2

• Associated with site specific and breast/ovarian cancer syndromes. • BRCA1: 25-40% lifetime risk of ov ca, 80% lifetime risk of Breast Ca • BRCA2 : 10% lifetime risk of ov ca

• Increased risk • Nulliparity • Infertility

• Decreases risk • Oral contraceptives protective - 50% decrease with 5 or more years of use. • Multiparity • Lactation

• Early age-onset, 10yrs younger than relative, mean age 40’s

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Primary Therapy – ovarian cancer

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

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Surgery with maximum cytoreduction effort

• Goals of Surgery – Diagnosis – Staging (early stage disease) – Cytoreduction (advanced disease)

• Adjuvant Chemotherapy – Except stage IA or IB and grade I or II or clear cell histology

Platinum + Taxane Chemotherapy (Carboplatin + Paclitaxel)

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• Significant survival advantage for women optimally cytoreduced • Procedures may include:

– En bloc resection of uterus, ovaries and pelvic tumor – Omentectomy – Selective lymphadenectomy – Bowel resection – Removal of diaphragmatic and peritoneal implants – Splenectomy, appendectomy

Median Survival (Months)

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Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20

RANDOMISED TRIAL COMPARING PRIMARY DEBULKING SURGERY (PDS) WITH NEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY (NACT) FOLLOWED BY INTERVAL DEBULKING (IDS) IN STAGE IIIC-IV OVARIAN,FALLOPIAN TUBE AND PERITONEAL CANCER. 0

10 20

30 40

50 60

70 80

90 100

% Cytoreduction

Bristow, J., Clin. Oncol. 20: 1248, 2002

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

IGCS Meeting October 25th Bangkok

Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

UCSF Cancer Center

Randomized EORTC-GCG/NCIC-CTG Trial on NACT + IDS Versus PDS Ovarian, tubal or peritonal cancer FIGO stage IIIc-IV (n = 718)

Randomization

Overall survival 100 90

3 x Platinum based CT

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy 3 x Platinum based CT

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NACT + IDS versus PDS: ITT

Median survial

HR for IDS:0.98 (0.85, 1.14)

80

Primary Debulking Surgery

UCSF Cancer Center

70

PDS: 29 months

60

IDS: 30 months

50 40 30

Interval debulking (not obligatory)

Interval debulking if no PD

20 10

> 3 x Platinum based CT

> 3 x Platinum based CT

0

(years) 0

O N 259 361 251 357

2

4

Number of patients at risk : 183 68 191 56

6

8

16 11

2 1

10 Treatment Upfront debulking surgery Neoadjuvant chemotherapy

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Gynecologic Cancer Treatment

Neoadjuvant Chemothearpy vs. initial surgical debulking – EORTC study Results – Primary Debulking then R A N •Stage IIIC - IV D •TFI