Good Morning! Christopher Kaufman, Ph.D. (207) web: kaufmanpsychological.org

Good Morning! Christopher Kaufman, Ph.D. (207) 878-1777 e-mail: [email protected] web: kaufmanpsychological.org 1   Moving the Frontal...
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Good Morning!

Christopher Kaufman, Ph.D. (207) 878-1777 e-mail: [email protected] web: kaufmanpsychological.org

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Moving the Frontal Lobe to the Front of the Class:

Execu&ve  Func&on     and  Reading    

y   l b a rk   a m d Christopher  Kaufman,   Re Ph.D.   e g d i Abr on!   Licensed  Psychologist   i Vers  

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Execu)ve     Func)on    

The  ability  to  direct  and  regulate   one’s  cogniCon,  academic   funcConing,  and  social/emoConal   funcConing.    

 

The Two Strands of Executive Function The Executive Skills

The Metacognitive Strand •  Goal-Setting •  Planning/Strategizing •  Sequencing •  Organization of Materials •  Time Management •  Task Initiation •  Executive/Goal-Directed Attention •  Task Persistence •  Working Memory •  Set Shifting

The Social/Emotional Regulation Strand •  Response Inhibition (AKA: Impulse Control) •  Emotional Control •  Adaptability

Input  vs.  Output  Regions  of  the  Cortex  

Output & Self-Direction

Input & Sensory Processing & Storage

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Frontal  Lobe  Specifics     (Adapted  from  Hale  &  Fiorello,  2004)   Dorsolateral Pre-frontal Cortex

Motor Cortex

Planning Strategizing Sustained Attention Flexibility Self-Monitoring ------------------------------Orbital/Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Impulse Control (behavioral inhibition) Emotional Modulation 6  

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Frontal-­‐re)cular-­‐posterior  cor)cal  aPen)on  loop   (Goldberg,  2001,  p.  172)  

CogniCve   areas   illuminated  by   flashlight  

The  hand  

direcCng  the   flashlight  

Prefrontal  Cortex  

The   aKenCon   ‘flashlight’  

Posterior  (‘AssociaCon’)   Cortex  

ReCcular  AcCvaCng     System  

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The  Five  Primary  Impacts  of  APen)on  Deficits   and  Execu)ve  Dysfunc)on     on  the  Acquisi)on  of  Reading  Skill   1.  On  word-­‐level  reading  (aPen)on,  working   memory,  and  self-­‐regula)on  deficits  impac)ng   decoding/word  aPack  accuracy)     2.  On  fluent  reading  (impac)ng  passage  level   reading  speed  and  accuracy)   3.  On  mo)va)on  (impac)ng  the  quality  and   quan)ty  of  reading  prac)ce)   4.  On  comprehension  (par)cularly  implicit/ inferen)al  comprehension)   5.  On  wri)ng  (its  execu)ve  aspects)  

Four  Types  of  Developmental   Reading  Disorders  (Feifer,  2011)   1.  DysphoneCc  Dyslexia  (difficul)es  processing  the  component   sounds  of  speech  and  with  linking  lePers  to  sounds  –  inhibits   the  ‘sounding  out’  of  words)  

2.  Orthographic  Dyslexia  (difficul)es  recalling/recognizing  the   visual  features  of  words;  this  is  a  par)cular  problem  with   irregular  words  like  ‘enough’  and  ‘yacht’  and  ‘the’)  

3.  Mixed  Dyslexia  (Impaired  phonological  and  orthographic   processing)  

4.  Comprehension  Deficits  (no  obvious  word  level/mechanical    

reading  deficits,  but  comprehension  is  impaired)  

Cracking  the  Code:     The  Role  of  EF   Decoding  requires:    

•  •  •  •  •  •  •  •   

Phonological  awareness   Phonemic  awareness   Morphological  awareness   Orthographic  knowledge   Sound/symbol  mastery   Sound  blending  skill   Vocabulary  skill   Syntax  skill  

Decoding  also  requires:     •   Goal-­‐directed  aPen)on   •   Working  memory   •   Sequencing  skill   •   Frustra)on  tolerance   •   Task  persistence    

The  Developmental  Phases  of  Word   Reading  

Word   Reading   2  

1.  PrealphabeCc  (AKA:  ‘Logographic’  reading)   2.  ParCal  AlphabeCc  (ini)al  phonics  skill;  e.g.,  guessing  at  words   based  on  their  ini)al  sounds)   3.  Full  AlphabeCc  (more  skilled/ac)ve  use  of  phonics  to  decode   words)   4.  Consolidated  AlphabeCc  (More  fluent  phonics  skill,  and  the  ability   to  recognize  words  based  on  features  analogous  to  words  already   known)   5.  AutomaCc  (Recognizing  most  words  quickly  and  easily  by  sight;  that   is,  as  mastered  whole  word  forms  linked  to  a  growing  vocabulary)   Ehri  &  McCormick,  1998  

Research  has  linked  aPen)on  deficits   and  developmental  dyslexia     Comorbidity  of  a?en&on  deficit  hyperac&vity   disorder  (ADHD)  and  reading  disorder  (RD)  is   frequent  (with  co-­‐occurrence  rates  ranging   from  12  –  25%;  Shaywitz,  2003,  Germano  et   al.,  2010).     •  Visual  aPen)on  deficits  (Thomson  et  al.,  2005)   •  Spa)al  aPen)on  deficits  (Facoeh  et  al.,  2010)    

AKenCon   Deficits  

Global   Processing   Speed   Deficits  

Rapid   AutomaCc   (‘Speeded’)   Naming   Deficits   Reading   Skill   Deficits  

Prefrontal  Cor)cal  Impact  on   Reading  Fluency   Fluency  requires:  sustained  aKenCon  and  mental  effort   (variable  aPen)on  leads  to  missed  or  misread   phonemes,  morphemes,  and  whole  words;  variable   energy  leads  to  insufficient  effort  to  scan  memory  for   phoneme/grapheme  linkages  and  sight  words).    

Fluency  requires:  consistent  self-­‐monitoring  and   impulse  control  (prevents  impulsive  guessing  at  words)    

Fluency  requires:  s)cking  to  it,  even  if  it’s  hard  or   ‘boring’   15  

Fluency . . .

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The  ‘MaPhew  Effect’  

Literacy   Scores  

A  lack  of  fluency  leads  to  this  .  .  

The  years  going  by  .  .  

Working  Memory  (short-­‐term  memory   put  to  work)   facts   ideas  

direcCons  

WM     Stewpot  

The  brain’s  RAM     (Random  Access  Memory)     Info  from  short-­‐  and  long-­‐term   memory  are  temporarily  held   ‘on  line’  in  working  memory     Auditory  learners:  Rely  on  the   phonological  rehearsal  loop     Visual  learners:  Rely  on  the     ‘visual-­‐spa)al  sketchpad’   18  

How  Large  is  the  Child’s  Working   Memory  Bucket?   Case  1:  Rachel  Recallsitall   Case  2:  Nicky  Normal   ideas  

facts  

direcCons   ideas  

Case  3:  Frankie     ForgetabouCt  

facts  

ideas  

facts  

direcCons  

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What  do  good  readers  do  .  .   •  Before  they  read?   •  While  they  read?   •  Aner  they  read?  

The  Literacy  ‘Mix’  in     Working  Memory  

Background Knowledge

New Information

Working Memory (Cognitive ‘Desktop’)

Concepts & Inferences

The process of reading is not a half sleep, but, in highest sense, an exercise, a gymnast’s struggle; that the reader is to do something for himself, must be on alert, must himself or herself construct indeed the poem, argument, history, metaphysical essay – the text furnishing the hints, the clue, the start or frame-work. -- Walt Whitman   22

Info from text

Prior knowledge Crummy   Blissful  UCnderstanding!   omprehension  

It’s the self-directed mixing together in working memory of information/ content extracted from text with prior knowledge (facts, schemas, paradigms, etc.) that yields meaning and understanding.

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Levels of Text Processing

Surface /Orthographic Level: ABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABC

Factual/Explicit Comprehension: Who, What, Where, When (“Gimme the facts – just the facts”)

Conceptual/Implicit Comprehension: Why, Original Thoughts, Inferences, Predictions 24  

BoPom  line:  Kids  with  EF  weakness  tend  to   be  .  .  .  

Passive  readers  who   process  text     in  a  fairly   superficial,  shallow   manner!!  

The  Five  ‘Big  Ideas’  WriPen  in  Instruc)onal   Terms  for  Kids  with  Execu)ve  Struggles   1.  Teach  phonemic  awareness  explicitly.   2.  Provide  systema)cally  sequenced  phonics   instruc)on.   3.  Teach  synthe)c  phonics  where  lePers  are  converted   into  phonemes  and  then  blended  to  form  whole   words   4.  Use  guided  oral  reading  with  appropriate  error   correc)on  techniques  and  feedback  strategies  to   facilitate  reading  fluency.   5.  Develop  vocabulary  and  use  systema)c  instruc)on  to   teach  strategic  reading  comprehension.  

Systema)c  phonics  instruc)on     is  essen)al   “Phonics  instruc)on  in  general  educa)on   may  present  problems  for  students  who   are  at  risk.  For  example,  it  may  not  be   explicit  enough,  encourage  students  to   guess  at  words,  provide  liPle  systema)c   presenta)on  of  sound-­‐symbol   rela)onships,  and/or  may  not  include   decodable  reading  materials  that  allow   students  to  apply  the  sound-­‐symbol   rela)onships  prac)ced  during  phonics   lessons”  (Moats,  2007,  as  cited  by  Bursunk   &  Blank,  2010,  p.  423).  

Elkonin  Boxes  

Most  important  fluency-­‐related  strategy   for  kids  with  EF  issues   PRACTICE!!!    

Specifically,  daily  guided   oral  reading  prac&ce  

Problem  is,  many  kids  with   EF  weakness  find  reading   boring/tedious  and   therefore  avoid  prac)ce.   29  

What  Builds  Fluency?   •  Frequent  oral  reading  prac)ce   (with  immediate  feedback)   •  Solid  word  reading  skill   (phonemic  decoding  fluency   and  sight  word  retrieval   fluency)   •  Vocabulary  and  relevant  prior   knowledge   •  Exposure  to  fluent  reading   modeled  by  adults  and  peers.  

Improving  the  Power  of  Repeated   Reading  with  Kids  with  EF  Weakness   •  Cue  kids,  before  they  read,  to   ‘read  what’s  on  the  page’  and  to   ‘read  the  whole  word’  

I  will  read  every   word  on  the   page!!  

•  Remind  kids,  before  they  read,  of   the  types  of  fluency  errors  they   tend  to  make  (“Remember  to  not   skip  small  words”)   •  Have  kids  guide  their  reading   using  a  finger  or  note  card/paper   •  Model  distrac)bility   management!   31  

Essen)al  Comprehension  Strategies   (and  the  evidence  suppor)ng  their  use)  

Shanahan  et  al.,  2010  

Shanahan  et  al.,  2010  

Overarching   Comprehension   Strategy   RecommendaCon:  

Teach  Literal  and   Inferen)al  Reading   Comprehension   Strategies  .  .  .  

Explicitly!  

Stages  of  Reading   3 After Reading

2 During Reading

1 Before Reading

‘Gather Thoughts’ Activate Background Knowledge and Schemas Develop Questions Plan for Comprehension

Elaboration in Working Memory Visualize/Personalize Talk to self about text! Summarize on the fly Hypothesize Monitor Comprehension

Consolidation/Organization In Long-Term Memory Summarize Recall/Retell Discuss Apply Change Schemas!

(Portions adapted from Daniels & Zemelman, 2004)

The  ‘POSSE’     Reading   Comprehension   Strategy   Predic)ng  ideas  from  prior  knowledge   Organizing  predic)ons  based  on  forthcoming  text  structure   Searching  for  the  main  ideas   Summarizing  the  main  ideas   Evaluate  comprehension   (Mastropieri  and  Scruggs,  1997):  

Reciprocal  Teaching  

Palincsar  &  Brown  

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Q  &  A  .  .    

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