GLOSSARY. 522 Glossary

GLOSSARY | ГЛОССАРИЙ GLOSSARY A Airport strip* A linear development along Shosse Kosmonavtov which forms the main access street to the city from Per...
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GLOSSARY | ГЛОССАРИЙ

GLOSSARY A Airport strip* A linear development along Shosse Kosmonavtov which forms the main access street to the city from Perm Airport. This site has been identified as a Special Project (Priority Strategy, Chapter 3.3). Asylum Site* A Mega Block, located in the City Centre which has been identified as a Special Project (Priority Strategy, Chapter 3.3). It is defined by the following streets: Komsomolskiy Prospekt, Revolutsii, Kuybysheva and Gleba Uspenskogo. Average Dwelling Area per Person The net area of the housing stock divided by the total population in any given area. This index is commonly used to compare housing quality and welfare.

B Barracks* A type of low-rise housing of the 1930s-1950s, generally for workers. Quite often this typology of housing lacks basic amenities. Many have also been built using poor construction materials. Some of these buildings have already been condemned. Basic Block* The smallest block of the categories identified in Perm. The scale has been derived from the urban fabric developed in the eighteenth century and is of a good size to provide a high level of connectivity. The Basic Block forms the basis of the Block Strategy and is the size of block that the Masterplan seeks to establish throughout Perm, through the transformation of existing Mega and Super Blocks. Block Rules* Block Rules set out parameters for the massing of new developments. A worked out set of Block Rules has been developed for the Western Inner City and such rules will need to be adjusted and developed for the various areas of Perm. The four sets of rules developed for the Western Inner City are: Block Transformation Rules, Cluster Development Rules, Building Development Rules, Small Scale Public Space Rules. Block Transformation Rules* The first set of rules which have been formulated as part of Block Rules for the Western Inner City. They focus on guiding the transformation of the existing block structure into the desired size of Basic Blocks or clusters. Brownfield Former or under utilised industrial and commercial sites which are available for re-use. Building Development Rules* The third set of rules, which have been formulated as part of Block Rules for Western Inner City. They provide detailed instructions on the building level for all new developments and their relation to public space and existing buildings, as well as offering possible parking solutions.

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C Character area* Areas supplementary to the Key Heritage Ensembles: they show groups of buildings or structures judged to be important to the architectural and urban character of Perm. City Balcony* The City Balcony is a promenade situated on the elevated boundary between the City Centre and Embankment City Park. It not only defines the Park edge but creates a meandering scenic walk with entrances to the park below. City Scale Public Spaces* The main, most prominent public spaces of the city. They constitute an integral part of the overall public space network and are (to be) located along a Long Line or a Radial. Cluster* A group of buildings defining an area of approximately Basic Block size or less. Together they should form a clearly defined perimeter and establish private space within the cluster and public space outside. Cluster Development Rules* The second set of rules, which have been formulated as part of Block Rules for Western Inner City. They aim towards a consolidated structure of well defined blocks, steering away from the common condition of loosely positioned buildings. Collector Streets* Part of the street network hierarchy, this is the third ranking group of streets. The Collector Streets provide mobility for short to medium length trips and act as a bridge between arterial and local roads. Consolidation To become, or cause something to become, stronger and more solid. In terms of the Masteplan, this will involve filling gaps in the built fabric to create blocks with a well defined perimeter. An increase in density will be a natural result of this consolidation process. Compact City A city of relatively high density and mixed use, which is based on an efficient public transport network and supports walking and cycling within its framework. Conservation Areas* Defined zones where buildings of historic value are concentrated and, taken as a collection of buildings, have group character. Development in Conservation Areas is subject to stricter control. The Key Heritage Ensembles are a condensed form of the existing Conservation Areas. Chkalova Park* A newly proposed City Scale Public Space along Ulitsa Chaklova. It is to become the linking element between Danilikha and Yegoshikha Valleys, thus completing the Green Loop to the south of the City Centre.

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Dacha An allotment garden or country cottage; the land is usually leased from the government and used for private leisure purposes or as a vacation retreat.

GenPlan (General Plan) A Russian administrative document whcih provides a comprehensive plan for an area or a city. It carries juridical status.

Densification The act or process of making or becoming dense. In the process of transformation envisaged in the Masterplan an increase in density will mainly result from the consolidation process. The creation of centres of concentrations of activiy may also require densification in some areas.

Green Belt* A protected green area surrounding a town or city where development is strictly controlled. It is commonly implemented as an urban planning policy to control sprawl. In Perm, it is intended that the Green Belt will become an important landscape element of the Public Space Network. \ Green Loop* A continuous loop of public space that runs around the City Centre, creating a large green recreational area in the heart of the city. It builds on existing green elements, the Danilikha and Yegoshika Valleys and the Kama waterfront area, which are then linked together by two new parks: Embankment City Park in the north and Chkalova Park in the south.

Design areas* Areas of either large size of unusual character, such as industrial sites, which therefore cannot be resolved based purely on the Block Rules, instead requiring an overall design proposal. Development (tactical) masterplan Local Masterplans for group of blocks, neighbourhoods or city districts. The Masterplans which hold a juridical status are called “project planirovki”.

E Embankment* The part of Perm waterfront between Danilikha Valley and Yegoshika Valley. Embankment City Park* A new City Scale Public Space on the waterfront between the Danilikha and Yegoshika Valleys. It completes the Green Loop, forming the northern boundary of the City Centre.

Green Zones* Green Zones are areas of landscape and public space where construction is not permitted. They are defined in opposition to Red Zones. Greenfield development A term used to describe a piece of previously undeveloped land. It can refer to sites in both urban and rural settings. Gross floor area The floor area contained within the building measured to the external face of the external walls. GSI (Ground Space Index) Ground Space Index = Built Footprint/Plot Area An expression of the compactness of a development NB. parking decks within the blocks are excluded.

F FAR (Floor Area Ratio) Floor Area Ratio = Gross Floor Area / Plot Area An index which provides a measure of the built intensity of anarea

* terms introduced by Perm Strategic Masterplan, or terms which within the context of this document are understood to have a more specific definition than the one commonly used. Transforming the City | March 2010 KCAP - HOSPER - SYSTEMATICA - POYRY - TAVERNOR - FAKTON

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H Housing stock This covers all dwellings which can be permanently inhabited. In 2007 the net housing stock in Perm was approximately 20,328 million sqm. Housing filtration or up-trading Process of “flow” (housing filtration), in other words moving into more expensive and comfortable dwellings thereby freeing up cheaper apartments for lower income groups. Housing occupancy succession The phenomenon of moving between (bought or rented) houses related to an increase (or decrease) in an occupants prosperity. The combinatory effect of this movement (with bought homes) and the market forces of supply and demand (generally) results in house prices rising above inflation. Housing construction ratio The ratio between the amount (area) of new housing constructed in any given year and the population in the respective area. Heritage Consultation Areas* These are related to the setting of the Key Heritage Ensembles. The design of new developments within Heritage Consultation Areas will require special scrutiny by the heritage authority to ensure that they do not harm the setting of the Key Heritage Ensembles.

I Infill development Development taking place on a vacant or underused site in otherwise established areas of a city.

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K Key Projects* Urban studies for specific sites in the city. There are two types of Key Project. Case studies show the possible transformation resulting from applying the principles and concepts of the Strategies. Case specific examples deal with sites which are spatially complex and which as a result required more detailed development principles to be formulated. Key Heritage Ensembles* These are protected zones where buildings of historic value are concentrated and have group character. They are based on existing conservation areas already defined by Perm Krai, but which have been refined in conjunction with the Masterplan. Key Public Spaces* These are city scale Public Spaces which are part of Heritage area. Perm has several highly memorable parks and squares that characterise specific parts of the city and contribute to its unique urban identity. They are often linked to listed buildings and key streets. Key Views* These are important strategic views which should be protected. And have been selected based on the following criteria: • to ensure the continuing legibility of landmarks from places easily accessed and frequented by the public; • to mark a key entry point into the city and have historic significance in relation to the evolution of the unique identity of the city; and • to provide valued views of important local historic buildings or spaces. Khrushchev Housing Mass housing from the immediate post-war period. It is typically of approximately five storeys and constructed in either brick or pre-fabricated panels. This was the first mass housing typology in Russia, of which two series were developed in Perm: 1-447 (brick) and 1-464 (panel).

L Long Lines* One of the two sets of main streets in Perm. Together with the Radials, they are a spatial concept and framework for city transformation. They form an important part of the Public Space Network and are of a very high spatial quality. The Long Lines are oriented roughly east-west. Local Streets* Part of the street network hierarchy, this is the fourth and lowest ranking group of streets. They are intended to serve short trips and the final part of longer journeys. Listed Buildings Buildings of exceptional interest, either architectural or historic, or fine little-altered examples of a particular period, style or building type, which are listed as Heritage. Landmarks Landmarks are prominent listed buildings which characterise and articulate the city skyline and provide it with a visual structure by identifying the positions of Key Heritage Ensembles and Public Spaces.

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M Mega Block* Extremely large urban blocks which form barriers in the urban network due to their size. Specific principles for their transformation are required which respond to their unique conditions. Modal split The varying proportions of different transport modes which may be used at any given time. Mandate office* A publicly accessible organisation, set up for a limited duration of time and entrusted with a special mandate, which will promote, lead and co-ordinate the implementation of the Masterplan, and in particular the Priority Projects. Major Arterials* Part of the street network hierarchy, this is the first and highest ranking group of streets. The Major Arterials system should carry most of the traffic entering and leaving the urban area and serve the through movements by-passing the City Centre. Minor Arterials* Part of the street network hierarchy, this is the second ranking group of streets. The Minor Arterials system will connect the Major Arterials with the urban districts and provide service for trips that are shorter on average than those served by Major Arterials. Museum Square* Proposed public square surrounding the Perm Museum of Contemporary Art, Perm, and adjacent to Perm I railway station, on Ulitsa Ordzhonikidze.

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O OSR (Open Space ratio) Open Space Ratio = (Plot Area - Building Footprint) / Gross Floor Area An expression of the openness of an area and the pressure on non-built space.

P Periphery* This refers to all settlements outside the Green Belt and includes Peripheral Towns, Small Peripheral Towns and Peripheral Villages. Perm Strategic Masterplan* A strategic framework for Perm’s spatial development over the coming fifty years. It is described as a set of Strategies and principles. In this document it is referred to simply as the Masterplan. Perm City Centre* This refers both to the core of the city and to the smallest of the three scales at which the Masterplan is applied. It is defined by the Yegoshikha Valley to the east, Danilikha Valley to the west and Ulitsa Chkalova to the south. See also Perm Metropolitan Area and Perm Agglomeration. Perm City Neighbourhoods* The city districts situated directly around the City Centre. Perm City Outer Neighbourhoods* The areas east and west of the Perm City Neighbourhoods. Perm Metropolitan Area* The area within the Green Belt and one of the three scales at which the Masterplan is applied. See also Perm City Centre and Perm Agglomeration. Perm Agglomeration* The area within the official administrative boundary of the city and which therefore includes majority of peripheral areas. It is the largest of the three scales at which the Masterplan is applied. Pocket Parks and Squares* Small Scale Public Spaces placed at the edge of, in front of or at the side of a block, between two building volumes or at a left-over corner defined by the irregularities of the grid. Pocket Parks and Squares can be either soft green spaces (parks) or hard surfaces (squares). Priority Projects* Specific interventions in the City Centre prioritised for immediate implementation. The realisation of these projects is necessary to reassure and inspire stakeholders, create the momentum for additional projects and to demonstrate the level of ambition and the quality envisaged by the Masterplan.

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* terms introduced by Perm Strategic Masterplan, or terms which within the context of this document are understood to have a more specific definition than the one commonly used. Transforming the City | March 2010 KCAP - HOSPER - SYSTEMATICA - POYRY - TAVERNOR - FAKTON

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R Radials* One of the two sets of main streets in Perm. Together with the Long Lines, they are a spatial concept and framework for city transformation. They form an important part of the Public Space Network and are of a very high spatial quality. The Radials are oriented roughly north-south. Red Zones* The Red Zones are the already urbanised areas and potentially those adjacent, where construction is permitted and can be developed further. They are defined in opposition to Green Zones. Reserved Land* Currently undeveloped areas of low landscape quality situated in the vicinity of existing built up areas which are under development pressure. These areas should not be developed so long as it is possible to consolidate and densify the areas within the Red Zones.

S Sanitary Buffer Zone Designated land area with restricted use around an object or a site which can potentially become a source of a negative environmental impact, and can be detrimental to human health. Small Scale Public Spaces* Local public spaces which can take several forms: Pocket Parks, Pocket Squares, Playgrounds and Schoolyards. Super Block* Very large urban blocks which form barriers in the urban network due to their size. They should be transformed into groups of buildings of Basic Block size or smaller, with well defined public routes and/or public spaces, to create a finer urban grain and higher level of connectivity. System of differentiated centralities* The approach to the peripheral settlements whereby they come to form an interdependent network, each with its own identity and role in relation to the others.

Tall buildings* Buildings taller than 50m.

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V Valleys* The valleys which carry the tributaries to the Kama River. They include the Danilikha and Yegoshika which run either side of the City Centre and form part of the Green Loop. Valley Edge* A topographical line also used by Masterplan as the boundary between Red and Green Zones. Valley Edge Street* The streets which run along the Valley Edges. View Management Framework* This is used to protect the skyline silhouette that defines Perm’s unique visual character in key views. The chosen viewpoints will be surveyed and photographed according to internationally agreed standards. The photographs will provide factual descriptions of the existing views from the agreed viewing positions and the baseline by which proposed changes to the skyline will be assessed.

W Western Inner City* The Western part of Perm City Centre, between Komsomolskiy Prospekt, the Kama waterfront, Danilikha Valley and Ulitsa Revolutsii.

Setting* The setting of a listed building is the physical and spatial context in which it is seen.

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Stalin housing A specific urban and housing typology developed between 1930s and 50s. It is classical in style. Today the dwellings still tend to be relatively expensive and highly desirable. Many buildings have become cultural and historical monuments.

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Special Projects* A category of Priority Project in the City Centre. These are detailed design proposals for specific areas and are intended to demonstrate the full potential effect of the application of the Masterplan.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Adriaens, Femke, Martin Dubbeling, Fred Feddes, Antony Marcelis, & Corné van Overveld, Hein Struben, Dirk van der Veen, Jeroen de Vries, Maarten Witberg, Eric Zinger. 2010. Duurzame Stedenbouw / Sustainable Urban Design - The Next Step. The Netherlands: Uitgeverij Blauwdruk.Werkgroep Duurzame Stedelijke Ontwikkeling. Baird Sampson Neuert Architects. 2007. Downtown and Harbour Area Architectural Guidelines-Study for the City of Kingston. Kingston: http://www. cityofkingston.ca/pdf/planning/ architecturalArchitecturalGuidelinesStudy.pdf. Ecological urbanism. 2009. Baden: Lars Müller. Gehl, Jan. 2008. Life Between Buildings Using Public Space. Danish Architectural Pr. Gehl, Jan, and Lars Gemzøe. 2009. New City Spaces, Strategies and Projects. Danish Architectural Pr. Gehl, Jan, and Rogers, Lord Richard. 2009. Cities for People. Island Pr. Great Britain. 2000. By Design Urban: Design in the Planning System, Towards Better Practice. London: CABE. http:// www.cabe.org.uk/AssetLibrary/2024.pdf. Great Britain, and English Heritage. 2001. Building in Context: New Development in Historic Areas. London: CABE. http://www.cabe.org.uk/AssetLibrary/1799.pdf.

Kostof, Spiro. (1991). The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History. Boston, Little, Brown. London (England), and Greater London Authority. 2008. The London Plan: Spatial Development Strategy for Greater London, Consolidated with Alterations since 2004. London: Greater London Authority. http://www.london.gov.uk/thelondonplan/docs/ londonplan08.pdf Meyer, Han, John Westrik, Maarten Jan Hoekstra, and Meta Berghauser Pont. 2008. Stedebouwkundige Regels voor het Bouwen. Amsterdam: SUN. Mozas, Javier, and Aurora Fernández Per. 2006. Densidad: Nueva Vivienda Colectiva = Density : New Collective Housing. Vitoria-Gasteiz: a+t Ediciones. Project Russia 25: Microrayon. 2002. [S.l.]: Project Russia. Project Russia 38: Settlements. 2005. [S.l.]: Project Russia. Project Russia 48: Ex Nihilio (New Towns). 2008. [S.l.]: Project Russia. Project Russia 52: Blocks. 2009. [S.l.]: Project Russia. Schaap, Ton. 2008. Amsterdam. Rotterdam: Uitgeverij 010 Publishers

Great Britain. 2007. Guidance on Tall Buildings. London: CABE. http://www.cabe.org.uk/files/guidance-on-tall-buildings. pdf

Shannon, Kelly, and Marcel Smets. 2010. The Landscape of Contemporary Infrastructure. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers.

Hauptmann, Deborah, and Henco Bekkering. 2001. Cities in transition. Stylos series. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.

Sheehan, Molly O’Meara, and Jane A. Peterson. 2001. City Limits: Putting the Brakes on Sprawl. World watch paper, 156. [Washington, D.C.]: Worldwatch Institute.

Hölzer, Christoph, and Annette Wiethüchter. 2008. Riverscapes: designing urban embankments. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Schmitt, Maarten. 2009. The Hague. Rotterdam: Uitgeverij 010.

Internationale Bauausstellung Berlin 1987: Projektübersicht. 1987. Berlin: Internationale Bauausstellung.

Streets of Perm. List of Streets (detailed information). Heritage of Perm. 2009. Perm: Ladon.

Jacobs. Allan B, 1995. Great Streets. Boston: The MIT Press

Topos 1992. The International Review of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design. München, Callwey.

Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. [New York]: Random House.

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Jones, Phil, and James Evans. 2008. Urban Regeneration in the UK. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Bibliography

Urhahn, Gert, and Miloš Bobić. 1994. A Pattern Image: A Typological Tool for Quality in Urban Planning. Bussum: Thoth Publishers.

Russian City Planning Norms The City Planning Code (29 december 2004. N 190FЗ). Ratified by the Duma (Federal Government) on 22 December 2004.. Sanitary Rules and Norms SANPIN 2.2.1/2.1.1.1076-01 “Solar Exposure and Protection Requirements for the residential and public buildings and territories” ratified by the Surgeon General of the Russian Federation on 19th October 2001. SNiP 2.07.01-89* City planning, building design and development in towns and villages (not ratified)

SNiP 21.02-99 Parking norms. Ratified by the decision of the Gosstroy (Government Construction Authority) of 19 November 1999. With N 64 corrections, on 30 Apri 2003.) Sanitary Rules and Norms SNiP 21.01.97 Fire Safety Of Buildings and Works. Ratified on 13 February 1997 Sanitary Rules and Norms SNiP 2.4.1. 1249-03 Kindergartens and Preschool. Ratified on 25.03.2003 Sanitary Rules and Norms SNiP 2.4.1. 1178-02 Sanitary hygiene requirements for schools. Ratified on 25 November 2002.

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CREDITS

For and on behalf of: City Projects Bureau In collaboration with: Perm City Administration With support from: Perm Krai Administration

Produced by the Masterplan Team KCAP Architects&Planners Piekstraat 27 NL - 3071 EL Rotterdam HOSPER Postbus 5231 NL - 2000 CE Haarlem Systematica Milano/Cagliari/Venezia via Marengo 34 IT - 09123 - Cagliari Poyry Infra Oy Jaakonkatu 3 FI - 01620 Vantaa Professor Robert Tavernor Consultancy 51 Hugh Street Pimlico UK - London SW1V 4HP Fakton Beurs-WTC 21st P.O.Box 30188 3001 DD Rotterdam

Editing: KCAP Architects&Planners Project management: KCAP Architects&Planners Graphic concept: KCAP Architects&Planners

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Credits

KCAP Architects&Planners Kees Christiaanse Markus Appenzeller Olaf Gerson Michael Trinkner Janna Bystrykh Masha Pidodnia Kristina Knauf Magali Boudey Oscar Buson Diana Cruz Jarmilla Domazlicka Kai Dietrich Rosa Fayos Fons Mar Garido Oliver Francesco Garofalo Vincent Hector Pascal Hendrickx Hugo Henriques Karin Hildinsson Xun Huang Kristin Jensen Gabriël Kiderlen Alison Killing Trine Kobbelvedt Sarah Köhler Gideon Maasland Tanya von Meding Guillaume de Morsier Jakob Nielsen Nadya Nilina Edda Ostertag Martin Probst Franziska Sack Fabrizio Stenti Rob Verheijden Magnus Weightman KK Wong Petar Zaklanovic HOSPER Remco Rolvink Ellemijk Marks Raquel van Donselaar Jonas Strous Ronald Bron In collaboration with Buro Harro Harro de Jong

Systematica Fabio Casiroli Francesco Sechi Luca Guala Thomas Rivolta Enrico Scano Riccardo Serra Paolo Dejana Antonello Murgia Alessandro Coda Pöyry Infra Oy Thomas Gut Rainer Hesse Juha Hyvärinen Michael Keller Markus Knoblich Heli Konttinen Peter Lubrich Marko Nyby Arkan Ok Uwe Pehlmann Gennadiy Naumov Murat Alehodzhin Jani Ollinmaa Vesa-Pekka Vainikka Kari Bovellan Pasi Vesimäki Jaakko Käär Igor Kopalin Kari Johansson Anna-Liisa Koskinen Esa Ekholm Eeva-Maria Viljakainen Heikki Hirvonen In collaboration with PSU Mikhail Yakimov Yuriy Popov Professor Robert Tavernor Consultancy Robert Tavernor Karin Hildingsson Lois Wheller Denise Tavernor

Fakton Martijn Boerkool Erwin Daalhuizen Peter Paul van Loon Lars Rompelberg Bastiaan Roon Wim Rust

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