Global biodiversity patterns in a changing world

Global biodiversity patterns in a changing world Wilhelm Barthlott International BION-Conference: Biodiversity Today for Tomorrow Wednesday, Septembe...
Author: Peter Holzmann
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Global biodiversity patterns in a changing world

Wilhelm Barthlott International BION-Conference: Biodiversity Today for Tomorrow Wednesday, September 17th 2014

The uneven distribution of biodiversity

Siberia: Taiga 1 tree species per hectare

Ecuador: Lowland rainforest >450 tree species per hectare

Germany has only 40 native tree species!

Mapping global Biodiversity  Raw data: c. 4,000 plant inventories (floras, checklists, meta-data etc. from c. 2,500 geographical units  Standardisation of the data, implementing in GIS, generation of the world maps of biodiversity USA: Indiana, 93.720 km²

Italien: Sardinien, 24.090 km²

Russland: Lena-Delta

2020 Arten

2100 Arten

28.500 km², 523 Arten

Ecuador: Yasuni NP & Waorani Reserve

Australien: Zentralaustral. Bergland

15.920 km², 4000 Arten

168.000 km², 1300 Arten

CaucasianSW-Asian Himalaya

Mediterranean

ChinaIndochina

Carribean Mesoamerica Costa RicaChocó ŶĚĞƐͲ ŵĂnjŽŶŝĂ

W-Ghats Guayana CameroonGuinea E-Africa

Indomalayan

Madagascar

E-Brazil

Capensis

MaputoPondoland

SW-Australia

Papua

NEAustralia

sƵůĐĂŶŽ^ĂŶŐĂLJ͕ĐƵĂĚŽƌ

ŚƚƚƉŝƐ͘ŐĚE>ƵϭŶ

Ecodiversity

Geodiversity abiotic factors:

Climate, Water, Geology, Soils, Geomorphology, Orography

Biodiversity biotic factors: Producers Consumers Decomposers

Biodiversity and Geodiversity: The Role of Mountain Regions

Biodiversity and Geodiversity: The Role of Mountain Regions

Biodiversity and Geodiversity: The Role of Mountain Regions

© rafiqpoor 2007

© rafiqpoor 2006

ĞŶƚƌĞƐ ŽĨůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ

Barthlott, Meiling, Rafiqpoor 2014, in prep.

ĞŶƚƌĞƐŽĨůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƐ

Which role play islands and endemism?

Global pattern of endemism richness of plants

n – 90 biogeographic regions 5

>10

>20

>50

>100

>200

Range equivalents per 10,000 km² KREFT et al. 2008, Ecology Letters; KIER et al. 2009, PNAS

Islands as model systems 85,122 oceanic islands are considered SMALL

Islands cover c. 7.84x106 km² = c. 5,3% of the land surface (WEIGELT et al. 2013)

IMPORTANT

Islands harbour more than 25% of all known 400,000 (PIMM et al. 2014) plant species (KREFT et al. 2009)

ENDANGERED

Islands are especially susceptible to invasive species, habitat destruction and climate change (sea level rise) (KREFT et al. 2009)

EXTINCTION

39% of all species facing extinction are island species (WEIGELT et al. 2013)

- KIER, G.; KREFT, H.; LEE, T.M.; JETZ, W.; IBISCH, P.L.; NOWICKI, C., MUTKE, J. & BARTHLOTT, W. (2009): A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland ecoregions. PNAS - WEIGELT, P.; JETZ, W. & KREFT, H. (2013): Bioclimatic and physical characterization of the world’s islands. PNAS

Quality of biodiversity: top 10 regions EĞǁĂůĞĚŽŶŝĂ ^ŽƵƚŚĨƌŝĐĂŶĂƉĞͲƌĞŐŝŽŶ WŽůLJŶĞƐŝĂͲDŝĐƌŽŶĞƐŝĂ͕ĂƐƚWĂĐŝĨŝĐ ƚůĂŶƚŝĐ/ƐůĂŶĚƐ dƌŽƉŝĐĂůƌĂŝŶĨŽƌĞƐƚYƵĞĞŶƐůĂŶĚ ĂƌŝďďĞĂŶ/ƐůĂŶĚƐ ĂƐƚͲDĞůĂŶĞƐŝĂŶ/ƐůĂŶĚƐ dĂŝǁĂŶ EŽƌƚŚŶĚĞƐŝŶĐů͘ŶŽƌƚŚ͘WĄƌĂŵŽ

/ƐůĂŶĚƐ DĂŝŶůĂŶĚƐ

&ŽƌĞƐƚƐ^ŽƵƚŚŵĞƌŝĐĂŶƚůĂŶƚŝĐĐŽĂƐƚƐ Ϭ

ϮϬϬ

ϰϬϬ

ϲϬϬ

ϴϬϬ

ϭϬϬϬ

ϭϮϬϬ

ϭϰϬϬ

ŶĚĞŵŝƐŵƌŝĐŚŶĞƐƐ;ƌĂŶŐĞĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚƐͿ

KIER, G.; KREFT, H.; LEE, T.M.; JETZ, W.; IBISCH, P.L.; NOWICKI, C., MUTKE, J. & BARTHLOTT, W. (2009): A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland ecoregions. PNAS

BMBF-BIOTA Project: Africa as Model-Continent

German-African BMBF-BIOTA-Project: Africa as Model-Continent

>ŽĐĂůŝƚŝĞƐ

KĐƚŽďĞƌ ϮϬϬϳĂƉĞdŽǁŶͬ^ŽƵƚŚĨƌŝŬĂ

 Largest existing dataset on continental plant distribution in Africa  3,144 species (c. 15% all plant species in Africa); resolution 0,5° (= c. 50 x 50 km)  Data on species distribution from more than 20 scientists and institutions

Centres of species richness and human influence

Biodiversity

Human influence (n. SANDERSON et al . 2002)

ϯϱйĂůůĨƌŝĐĂŶƉůĂŶƚƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ ƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƚĞĚƚŽŚŽƚƐƉŽƚƐ

,ŽƚƐƉŽƚƐ KÜPER et al. 2004

Global strategy to protect plants: Africa ZĞĂůƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĂƌĞĂƐ

KƉƚŝŵŝnjĞĚƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚĂƌĞĂƐ

Number of species

protected

8% of the surface 83% of all species 48% of rare species

8% of the surface 92% of all species 81% of rare species BURGESS et al. 2005

BMBF-BIOTA Project: Africa as Model-Continent Climate change – the future of biodiversity in Africa (plus 1,8°C* in 2100)

2014

2100

*IPCC B1 scenario

Species number low

high

SOMMER, KREFT, KIER, JETZ, MUTKE & BARTHLOTT, Proc. R. Soc., B, March 2010

Global warming affects biodiversity plus 1,8°C* in 2100

Species number *IPCC B1 scenario 0

lower (loser)

higher (winner)

SOMMER, KREFT, KIER, JETZ, MUTKE & BARTHLOTT, Proc. R. Soc. B, March 2010

Biodiversität: Modellbeispiel der amerikanischen Cactaceae – Diversität aller 1438 Species 

Die Kakteen sind die bedeutendste Pflanzenfamilie der Trockengebiete Nord- und Südamerikas. Durch das breite Interesse als Liebhaberpflanzen ist der Kenntnisstand (Artenzahlen, Verbreitung, Phylogenie, Ökologie, Schutzstatus, usw.) außergewöhnlich gut.



Es gibt innerhalb der Blütenpflanzen keine zweite vergleichbar große Familie, die sich auch nur annähernd gut für eine Analyse der räumlichen Verteilung der Biodiversität eignen würde.



Kartographisch erstellt wurden Arealkarten basierend auf Koordinaten der Fundorte von 1.416 von insgesamt 1.438 akzeptierten Arten der Familie der Cactaceae.



Aus Artkarten wurden die Diversitätskarten für alle höheren taxonomischen Ebenen (Gattungen, Trieben, Unterfamilien, Familie) berechnet.



Ebenso wurden Karten der Wuchsformen (z.B. Kugelkakteen, Säulenkakteen, Epiphyten), aber auch ökologische Faktoren (z.B. Blütenbiologie: Insekten-, Kolibri-, Fledermaus-Bestäubung) generiert.

BARTHLOTT et al., Schumannia 7, 2015

BARTHLOTT et al., Schumannia 7, 2015

Phylogeny of Cactaceae

BARTHLOTT et al., Schumannia 7, 2015

Opuntias: Species versus Generic Diversity

Species Opuntioideae

Genera Opuntioideae

BARTHLOTT et al., Schumannia 7, 2015

Further Information and Publications www.lotus-salvinia.de

Global Biodiversity (Plants)