GENE ACTION AND STABILITY OF SOME SUNFLOWER GENOTYPES AT DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

GENE ACTION AND STABILITY OF SOME SUNFLOWER GENOTYPES AT DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS M. A. Abdelsatar Oil Crops Research Department, Field Crops Research I...
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GENE ACTION AND STABILITY OF SOME SUNFLOWER GENOTYPES AT DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS M. A. Abdelsatar Oil Crops Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, 9 El-Gamaa St. Giza, Egypt

The 9th Plant Breeding international Conference September 2015

Egypt. J. Plant Breed. 19 (5):103-123. 2015 Special Issue

GENETIC CONTROL OF SUNFLOWER SEED YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS UNDER DIFFERENT EDAPHIC AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS M. A.Abd EL-Satar1, R. M. Fahmy1,2 and T. H. A. Hassan1 1-Oil Crops Res. Dep., Field Crops Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Egypt 2-Genetic Resources Res. Dep., Field Crops Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Egypt E-mail: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Five widely genetic divergent parental sunflower namely L350 (P1), L465 (P2), L885 (P3), L355 (P4) and L120 (P5)were crossed using half diallel mating design excluding reciprocals to assess heterosis and genetic information for yield and its attributing under two contrasting locations of Kafr El-Hamam and Bahteem Agricultural research stations using randomized complete block design with three replications. Highly significant genotypes and its components (parents, hybrids and parents vs. hybrids) mean squares were detected for all studied traits at both locations and their interactions with location. Highly significant mean squares were associated with general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability for all studied traits. Also, additive gene action in genetic control of most studied traits was observed, indicating its usefulness in selection in early segregating generations to improve the most traits. The parents P 2 and P3 seemed to be the best combiners for seed yield/fad and one or more of its components. The most desirable inter- and intra-allelic interactions (SCA) were detected in F1hybrids, P1 X P4 and P4 X P5which also indicate the highest heterotic effects over mid and better parents at both locations for seed yield/fad and one or more of its attributes. Significant or highly significant values and high values of the dominance component (H 1) were also observed for all studied traits at both locations indicating that the presence of over-dominance and it was confirmed by (H1/D)0.5(more than 1). High narrow sense heritability was obtained for days to physiological maturity (72 % at Kafr El-Hamam and 74% at Bahteem), number of green leaves/plant (71 % at Kafr El-Hamam and 72% at Bahteem), head diameter (69 % at Kafr El-Hamam and 80% at Bahteem) and 100- seed weight (60 % at Kafr El-Hamam and 61% at Bahteem), and moderate for days to 50% flowering (47 % at Kafr El-Hamam and 50% at Bahteem), plant height (48 % at Kafr El-Hamam and 51% at Bahteem) and seed oil content (52 % at Kafr El-Hamam and 53% at Bahteem), indicating that selection would be effective for improving these traits in early segregating generations. The parents (P3) at Kafr El-Hamam and (P2) and (P3) at Bahteem carried the most dominant genes responsible for the expression of seed yield/plant and/faddan, in contrary P4for seed yield/plant and seed yield/faddan possessed high concentration of recessive genes at both locations. Key words: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Half diallel analysis, Heterosis,Potence ratio, Combining ability, Gene action, Location

INTRODUCTION Sunflower (Helianthus annuusL.) is considered one of the most important oilseed crops in Egypt and the world, due to its high content of edible oil and more validity to human health. Currently, to fulfill the domestic requirements, attention is being paid to create high yield of sunflower genotypes with better quality and their stability. For this attempt,

genetic potentials of sunflower genotypes can be enhanced through use of crossing technique among widely genetic divergent ones, which capable of creating desirable recombinations. Diallelmating designis a useful method to obtain accurate information about nature of gene action and genetic control in inheritance of various traits, which helps the breeder in the selection of desirable parents for crossing programs and in deciding a suitable breeding procedure for genetic improvement of various quantitative traits. Besides, estimates of per se performance, heterotic effects and combining ability effects of parents which help the breeder to identify the best combinations to be crossed either to exploit heterosis or build up the favorable fixable genes. Study performance of sunflower hybrids under different environmental conditions for sunflower breeder is of prime importance for selecting the elite materials. However, location effect is one important factor which plays an important role in sunflower production. Superiority of crosses over mid and better parents for seed yield and its components was found to be associated with genetic divergence of parents used and or non-allelic interaction which can either increase or decrease the expression of heterosis.Combining ability analysis of Griffing (1956) is the most common procedure to identify the usefulness inbred lines in crosses development and showing the superior performance of those crosses under contrasting locations. Therefore, the present study was an attempt conducted to estimate heterotic effects, the magnitude of both general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining abilities effects and their interactions with location along with information on the nature of gene action responsible for controlling genetic expression of the studied traits. MATERIALS AND METHODS To create desirable recombinations in sunflower (Helianthus annuusL.), five widely genetic divergent parental sunflower namely L350 (P1), L465 (P2), L885 (P3), L355 (P4) and L120 (P5) received from Oil crops Research Department, FCRI, ARC, Egypt for crossing by hand (emasculation and pollination) using in a half diallel mating design excluding reciprocals during 2013 summer successive season to produce sufficient of seeds for 10 F1 crosses at Kafr-El-Hamam Agricultural Research Station, ARC, Zagazig, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. At second successive summer growing season of 2014, seeds of five parents and their 10 F1 crosses were evaluated at two contrasting locations in structure of soil and climate case. One of the locations at experimental farm of Kafr El-Hamam Agricultural Research Station is located at 30O 58´ N for Latitude and 31o 50´ E for Longitude and is characterized by moderately fertile clay loam soil and another location at experimental farm ofBahteem agricultural research station is located at 30O 14´ N for Latitude and 31o 27´ E for Longitude which is high fertility clay loam soil. The experimental design in each location was arranged as randomized complete block design with three replications. Each entry either parents or their 10 F1 hybrids were contiguous sown without leaving separators via three seeds per hill in two ridges with 5 m long, 0.60 cm

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broad and hill spaced 30 cm apart and later thinned to one plant per hill. All other agricultural practices for growing sunflower either soil preparation, soil fertilization or cultivation applied on recommended packages of Oil crops Research Department, FCRI, ARC, Egypt. Observations were recorded on the following traits, days to 50% flowering and days to physiological maturity wererecorded on all plants in plot basis. Five competitive plants were randomly taken from the first ridge of each plot to measure plant height (cm), number of green leaves per plant, head diameter (cm), 100-seed weight (g), seed weight/plant (g) and seed oil content. Seed yield per meter square was recorded from the plants located in the second ridge as middleone with 4 meter long being 2.4 m2 in each experimental plot, then converted to yield/faddan which was multiplied by seed oil content to obtain oil yield/faddanSeed oil content was determined, after drying at 70 ºC for 48 h (Billsborrowet al., 1993), by Soxhlet extraction technique, using diethyl ether, as reported by AOAC methods (AOAC, 1980). Statistical analysis The analysis of variance was made for every location separately, then homogeneity of variance between two locations was detected by Gomez and Gomez (1984). Therefore, the proper combined analysis of variance (across the two locations) for all studied traits was done according to Snedecor and Cochran (1989). Heterosis was determined for individual hybrids as the percentage deviation of F1 means performance from either mid parents or better parents values at both locations. To determine the nature of dominance, thepotence ratio as according to Wigan (1944) and Mather and Jinks (1971) was computed by the formulae: Potence ratio=F1MP/ HP-MP.Where F1, MP and HP are the means of the F1 generations,mid parent, and the higher parent, respectively.The analysis of general and specific combining ability was done according to method 2 model 1 of Griffing (1956). The combining ability ratio was calculated according to Baker (1978) as follow: 2MSgca/(2MSgca+ Mssca). Hayman analysis of variance (ANOVA) was computed according to Hayman (1954a) following Jones (1965) modification. Validity of assumptions in Hayman (1954 a & b) and Jinks (1954) model was tested using two scaling test i.e. uniformity of Wr-Vr (t2 test) and regression analysis of Wr/Vr. A graphical analysis (Hayman 1954 a, and Jinks 1954) was performed to determine the frequency of dominant and recessive alleles in the parental sunflower genotypes evaluated at the two locations. Genetic components along with related genetic parameters were estimated according to Hayman (1954b). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Genotypic effects: It is apparent from the ANOVA of the 5 x 5 half diallel mating in Table (1&2), genotypic effects and their components (parents and their F1 crosses) were highly significant at both contrasting locations and their combined analysis show existence of sufficient magnitude of genetic variability among genotypes, parents and crosses which allows to improve

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Table 1. Mean squares for earliness, yield and its attributes traits at two locations of Kafr El-Hamam (K) and Bahteem (B) in season 2014 Days to 50%flowering

S.O.V

K B 2.47 4.87 46.18** 40.90** 93.93** 93.83** 26.08** 20.31** 36.10** 14.40** 1.56 1.60 No. of green Head diameter leaves/plant S.O.V B DF K K B 2.82 2 Rep. 2.29 1.77 1.29 36.46** 14 Genotypes 42.93** 27.93** 19.22** 40.27** 4 Parents (p) 55.50** 22.43** 17.18** 28.60** 9 Crosses (C) 32.33** 31.08** 19.82** 92.01** 1 P V Cross 88.01** 21.61** 22.00** 2.04 28 Error 1.50 0.53 0.89 Seed yield/plant Seed yield/faddan S.O.V B DF K K B 0.113 2 Rep. 3.344 108.80 84.87 58.545** 14 Genotypes 38.628** 38923.56** 41576.22** 28.065** 4 Parents (p) 25.297** 27108.02** 31939.94** 30.197** 9 Crosses (C) 19.759** 17835.23** 26656.28** 1 P V Cross 261.769** 435.600** 275980.69** 214400.85** 1.780 28 Error 2.339 40.83 48.24 *, ** refers to significant at 5% and highly significant at 1%, respectively Rep. Genotypes Parents (p) Crosses (C) P V Cross Error

DF 2 14 4 9 1 28

Days to physiological maturity K B 2.76 0.47 137.74** 146.66** 296.17** 295.43** 68.76** 86.83** 124.84** 90.00** 1.95 1.47

Plant height K 7.76 524.05** 856.24** 414.31** 182.90** 14.63

B 18.94 587.92** 905.14** 491.16** 189.81** 15.58

100-seed weight K B 0.07 0.06 1.49** 1.57** 1.81** 2.12** 1.37** 1.34** 1.33** 1.48** 0.05 0.03 Seed oil content K B 0.37 0.07 22.12** 22.15** 21.45** 22.19** 19.25** 18.78** 50.67** 52.27** 0.51 0.49

Table (2): Mean squares for earliness, yield and its attributes traits across Kafr El-Hamam (K) and Bahteem (B) in season 2014 Days to Days to Source

d.f

physiological

50%flowering

Plant height

maturity

No. of green leaves/plant

Head diameter

100seed weight

Seed yield/plant

Seed yield/faddan

Seed oil content

Location

1

902.50**

Rep.xloca

4

3.67

1.61

13.35

2.56

1.53

0.07

1.728

96.83

0.22

Entries

14

21.23**

68.52**

275.05**

19.56**

11.22**

0.76**

20.384**

19344.69**

11.06**

Entr. xloca.

14

65.85**

215.88**

836.91**

59.82**

35.93**

2.30**

76.789**

61155.09**

33.21**

Parents

4

46.47**

147.51**

433.44**

23.55**

9.65**

0.98**

13.119**

14480.02**

10.90**

Pare x loc

4

141.30**

444.09**

1327.94**

72.21**

29.96**

2.95**

40.242**

44567.94**

32.75**

Crosses

9

11.03**

35.09**

224.87**

14.96**

11.95**

0.67**

6.812**

10088.39**

9.50**

Cro.xloc.

9

35.36**

120.49**

680.61**

45.96**

38.95**

2.03**

43.144**

34403.12**

28.53**

P vs cross

1

12.01**

53.36**

93.17*

45.00**

10.90**

0.70**

171.591**

122110.16**

25.73**

PvsF1x loc

1

38.49**

161.49**

279.54**

135.02**

32.71**

2.10**

525.778**

368271.39**

77.21**

Error

56

1.58

1.71

15.11

1.77

0.71

0.04

2.059

44.53

0.50

2506.94**

4235.36**

405.34**

*, ** refers to significant at 5% and highly significant at 1%, respectively

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175.84**

3.19**

605.855**

13952.22**

5.35**

these characters. Similar results were reported by Alza and FernandezMartinez, 1997. The mean squares parents vs. crosses or non allelic interaction were highly significant for all studied traits at both location and their combined analysis, indicating presence of sufficient amount of heterosis among hybrids. This was confirmed by the values of mean deviation of F1’s from the mid-parents (b1) (Jones, 1965) in Table (3) which were highly significant for all studied traits under both locations. The significant or highly significant of b2 values were obtained for all traits in both locations, indicating asymmetry of gene distribution for these traits under both locations. Finally, item b3 was highly significant for most studied traits indicating the existence of inconsistent allelic and non-allelic interaction or dominance effects specific to individual crosses for all traits at both locations (Kersey 1965 and Mather and Jinks 1971). It can observe from the combined analysis as presented in Table (2) that highly significant mean squares due to location and their interaction with genotypes, parents, hybrids, parents vs. hybrids were detected for all studied traits, indicating that location possessed sufficient environmental variability lead to fluctuations in all population components ranking or their interaction with locations. Combining ability It is of great interest to note that general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining abilities were highly significant for all traits under both locations as shown in Table (4). Again the (a) component as primary tests of the significance of additive and (b) component as indicator to the presence of non-additive effects (Jones 1965) in Table (2) were highly significant for all traits at both locations, revealing that both additive and non-additive gene action played a major role in the gene expression of these traits, but the preponderance was in favor of additive gene action in genetic control of all studied traitsexcept seed weight/plant(g) and seed yield/faddan (kg). The estimates of backer ratio and (a/b) ratio of Jones method, revealed the genetic gain is achievable through selection in early segregating generations for all traits except seed weight/plant (g) and seed yield/faddan (kg).This resultcorroborates with the findings ofRojas and Fernandez-Martinez (1998), Kaya and Atakisi (2004), Mijicet al. (2008), and Machikowaet al.(2011). Backer ratio and (a/b) ratio of Jones method emphasized that nonadditive gene action was the prevailed type in controlling seed weight/plant (g) and seed yield/faddan (kg), consequently hybrid breeding system would be the most efficient method for improving these traits. Meantime, the interactions of locations with both types of combining ability (Table 5) were highly significant for all tested traits, reflecting the highly significant effect of environment on both types of gene action either additive or non additive ones.

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Table (3): Jones analysis for earliness, yield and its attributes traits at two locations of Kafr El-Hamam (K) and Bahteem (B) in season 2014 Days to Days to physiological Plant height 50%flowering maturity B K K B K B 30.04** 4 27.36** 123.72** 131.25** 350.88** 412.27** A 12.03** 1 4.80** 41.61** 30.00** 60.97** 63.27** b1 15.20** 4 12.24** 10.83** 23.11** 52.65** 45.84** b2 4.50** 5 5.53** 12.59** 7.39** 154.09** 169.58** b3 9.53** 10 8.14** 14.79** 15.94** 104.20** 109.45** B 15.39** 14 13.63** 45.91** 48.89** 174.68** 195.97** Total 0.52 8 0.84 0.61 0.45 4.85 6.09 Axb 0.04 2 0.48 1.69 0.01 6.09 5.12 b1xB 0.46 8 0.13 0.67 0.50 5.16 5.85 b2xB 0.67 10 0.63 0.45 0.60 4.43 3.97 b3xB 0.52 20 0.41 0.66 0.50 4.89 4.83 bxB 0.52 28 0.53 0.65 0.49 4.88 5.19 Error No. of green Head diameter 100-seed weight leaves/plant S.O.V d.f B K K B K B 29.97** 4 22.43** 17.49** 1.10** 1.20** A 34.83** 30.67** 1 7.20** 7.33** 0.44** 0.49** b1 29.34** 3.28** 4 2.78** 2.31** 0.15** 0.14** b2 6.53** 1.30 5 4.46** 0.63 0.30** 0.30** b3 1.11 5.03** 10 4.06** 1.97** 0.25** 0.25** B 6.10** 12.15** 14 9.31** 6.41** 0.50** 0.52** Total 14.31** 0.63 8 0.11 0.28 0.01 0.00 Axb 0.71 0.49 2 0.34 0.24 0.01 0.01 b1xB 0.63 1.41 8 0.10 0.27 0.03 0.03 b2xB 0.45 0.17 10 0.26 0.34 0.01 0.01 b3xB 0.35 0.70 20 0.20 0.30 0.02 0.01 bxB 0.42 0.68 28 0.18 0.30 0.02 0.01 Error 0.50 Seed yield/plant Seed yield/faddan Seed oil content S.O.V d.f B K K B K B 12.719** 4 11.685** 13889.99** 17577.63** 13.52** 13.88** A 1 87.256** 145.200** 91993.56** 71466.95** 16.89** 17.42** b1 11.390** 4 3.074** 2831.64** 1967.78** 2.96** 2.80** b2 6.316** 5 6.794** 4552.64** 8874.76** 4.09** 3.84** b3 22.234** 10 13.352** 12608.33** 12371.19** 4.92** 4.78** B 19.515** 14 12.876** 12974.52** 13858.74** 7.37** 7.38** Total 0.441 8 0.436 6.28 11.23 0.29 0.26 Axb 0.549 2 4.750 2.92 10.30 0.17 0.18 b1xB 0.885 8 0.261 21.87 21.94 0.04 0.05 b2xB 0.490 10 0.676 15.00 16.43 0.17 0.17 b3xB 0.654 20 0.917 16.54 18.02 0.12 0.12 bxB 0.593 28 0.780 13.61 16.08 0.17 0.16 Error Where; *P

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