Future of Protective Clothing

abstracts Future of Protective Clothing Intelligent or not? 29th, 30th & 31st, May 2012 Valencia, Spain organized by: sponsored by: general infor...
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abstracts

Future of Protective Clothing Intelligent or not?

29th, 30th & 31st, May 2012 Valencia, Spain organized by:

sponsored by:

general information about AITEX AITEX is a research, Innovation and advanced technical services centre for the textile, clothing and technical textile sectors in Spain. AITEX was created to help all SMEs and professionals whose activities are directly or indirectly involved with the textile field over indirect services and research projects. AITEX is the Notified Body Nº 0161 for the appliance of the Directive 89/686/CEE of 21 December 1989 (D.O.C.E. of 12/30/1989) on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to Personal Protective Equipment. www.aitex.es

abstracts

program committee ESPC board Chair: Helena Mäkinen – Finish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland Members: Kalev Kuklane – Lund Technical University – Sweden George Havenith – Loughborough University – UK Peter Heffels – BG BAU – Germany Hilde Faerevik– Sintef – Norway René Rossi – EMPA – Switzerland Helmut Eichinger – Dupont – Switzerland Grazyna Bartkowiak – CIOP – Poland Emiel den Hartog – TNO – The Netherlands Henk Vanhoutte – ESF – Belgium Jean Leonard – CENTEXBEL – Belgium Miriam Martinez Albert – Aitex – Spain Liaison persons: R. Barker – NC State University – USA Eunae Kim – Yonsei University – SKR

Preface From May 29-31, 2012 the 5th European Conference on Protective Clothing (ECPC) is organized in Spain. The objective of the symposium is to serve as a forum for dissemination, exchange and discussion of results from research, development and implementation related to personal protective clothing, with a strong focus on protective properties and the wellbeing of the users of protective clothing. The conference is organized by AITEX with the European Society of Protective Clothing (ESPC) and the “Nordic Coordination Group on Protective Clothing as a Technical Preventive Measure”. This conference, that it is held at the Hotel Primus Valencia (Spain), is intended for researchers, designers, manufacturers, purchasers, product safety experts, human factors experts and public authorities (procurement), end-users, health and safety experts. Well-being of workers is today prominent goal at work reflecting to the health and safety, productivity as well as economy of the company. Protective clothing is the nearest ambient of the user, and is therefore very important part of this goal, but not only at work also in many leisure activities. There are a large number of developments and ongoing projects to achieve protective clothing which serves all the needed functions. The European Union has selected protective clothing as one of the six lead markets in Europe. Union has also funded development projects with special call in the area of protective clothing. Therefore, a conference on research, technology and demonstration with respect to protective clothing is a must for all involved in this intriguing and rapidly growing area.

Organization committee of the 5th ECPC Raquel Muñoz [email protected] Miriam Martínez [email protected] Neus Jordá [email protected]

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Table of contents general PPE's session 1 Innovations on methodology, thermal modelling and materials for Personal Equipment Aernout Oudenhuijzen

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From concept to product – an integrated approach Tiago Sotto Mayor , Miguel Ribeiro

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Optimal design for efficient utilization of PCM in protective clothing Arne Røyset, Maria Suong Tjønnås, Hilde Færevik

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Methodology for determining the thermoregulatory effect of PCM containing materials and garments Minna Varheenmaa, Hilde Færevik

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Sensor-based Personal Protective Equipment “HORST” for forestry work with power saws Andreas Schmidt, Jan Beringer, Martin Rupp, Angela Mahr-Erhardt

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A textile integrated system extending the awareness of an electrician for dangerously high voltages Emma Kaappa, Aki Halme, & Jukka Vanhala

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Prospie Project (Protective Responsive Outer Shell for People in Industrial Environments) Prof. dr. Hein Daanen, Henk Vanhoutte

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Development of a new functional PPE system based on protective clothing improvement – challenges and experiences from i-Protect project Piotr Pietrowski

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New materials and clothing protecting against electromagnetic field of law, middle and high frequencies A. Kurczewska

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Some experiences on integration of advanced ICT solutions into smart Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) Jesús María López de Ipiña, David Ramos, Piotr Pietrowski, Lorenzo Fiore and Javier Goitia

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general PPE's session 2 Barrier properties of composites with nanofillers designed for protective clothing and gloves Sylwia Krzemińska, Krzysztof Łężak

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Efficacy of microclimate cooling by air and cooling vest for reducing heat strain and chemical contamination while wearing PPE during fuel cell replacement Sirkka Rissanen, Juha Laitinen and Hannu Rintamäki

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Work clothing for the petroleum industry in arctic climates Tore Christian Bjorsvik Storholmen, Ole Petter Naesgaard, Trine M. Seeberg, Hege Torsvik, Hilde Faerevik

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Analysis for Thermal Performance of Immersion Suits Han Zhang, Guowen Song

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Ergonomic Pattern Construction for Well-Fitted Buoyant Vest using 3-D Technology Soyoung Kim, Kyunghi Hong, Heeran Lee, Yejin Lee

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Dexterity and comfort evaluation of needle puncture resistant gloves Chantal Gauvin, Jaime Lara

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New method for measuring cut resistance in textile fabrics Eva Carlbom, Simonetta Granello, Ebba Magnusson, Anders Bergner

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Exploration of Simultaneous Mobility Assessment for Protective Clothing Huiju Park, Donna Branson, Panagiotis Kamenidis, Aric Warren, Bert Jacobson, Semra Peksoz, Adriana Petrova

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[email protected] – developing comfortable wear resistant and stain repellent coated materials Ine De Vilder, Myriam Vanneste, Claudia Peltonen, Minna Varheenmaa

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[email protected] – Protective clothing for improved safety and performance in the fisheries Hilde Faerevik

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A research on the waterproofness of seam lines of protective clothes Sukran Kara, Sevil Yesilpinar

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Multifunctional protective clothing for rescue team workers in the Northern areas Claudia Peltonen, Minna Varheenmaa, Harriet Meinander

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A new approach to intelligent PPEs regarding electromagnetic interferences due to an electric arc Francisco Magraner, Pedro Llovera, Armando Rodrigo, Vicente Fuster, Enrique Rivas

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Enprotex, New procurement strategies for innovative protective textiles Anton Luiken, Tommy Verminck, Piet Verhage

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general PPE's session 3 Keynote. Innovative textiles. Handle with care Havenith George

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Need for standards for intelligent PPE Helena Mäkinen, Piotr Pietrowski

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Durability and performance of protective clothing after multi-stress aging Carlos Arrieta, Toan Vu-Khanh

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End of Service for Protective Workwear Garments with Functional Finishes Anugrah Shaw

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Effects of the 3D body fit on the pressure distribution and dynamics of personal body armor during movement Heeran Lee, Soyoung Kim, Kyunghi Hong, Yejin Lee

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Relating the Current UK body armour standards to real life injuries Malbon Chris, O’Rourke Sarah, K.Hewins, PhD

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Pressure distribution on the skin while wearing ballistic vests and other military equipment Patrick Wettenschwiler, Dr. Simon Annaheim, Rolf Stämpfli, Dr. René Rossi

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CBRNE session Evaluation of wear and tear of CBRN Individual Protective Equipment Saskia de Kant, Emiel den Hartog

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A proposal for improved evaluation of chemical protective clothing made of flash spun polyethylene nonwoven or some other nonwoven fabrics or combinations of nonwovens with micropourous films Valerie Pierret, AlisonSyrett, Benedicte Valance

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Development of Next Generation Manikin for Chemical and Biological Protection Research R. Bryan Ormond, Roger Barker

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Improved ensembles for fire responder protection against chemical, biological, and particulate hazards Jeffrey O. Stull, Grace G. Stull, Richard M. Duffy, Michael Schubert and Tom Stachler

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Prediction of Thermo-physiological Strain in Chemical Protective Clothing: the Impact of Barrier Permeability and Micro-climate Configuration ShuQin Wen, Guowen Song, Muntaseer Kainat, Samer Adeeb

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ProtecPo, a software for the selection of chemical protective gloves Jaime Lara, Daniel Drolet, Charles M. Hansen, François Zimmermann and Alain Chollot

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Toxicity-based end points and test procedures to support the use of cumulative permeation for the improved selection of protection clothing against hazardous chemicals Jeffrey O. Stull and Grace G. Stull

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Prediction of human strain in CBRN Individual Protective Equipment Emiel A Den Hartog

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comfort session Comfort in PPE’s Miriam Martinez Albert

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A Comparison of Three Different Calculation Methods for Clothing Evaporative Resistance Faming Wang, Chuansi Gao, Kalev Kuklane, Ingvar Holmér

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Analysis of the thermal insulation of clothing ensembles using computer generated data Jean Léonard

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Systematic analysis of heat strain when wearing protective clothing X. Xu, L. Blanchard, T. Endrusick, R. W. Hoyt

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An interlaboratory study on measurements of clothing evaporative resistance with thermal manikins Tiago Sotto Mayor, Faming Wang, Jean Léonard, Miguel Ribeiro

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Standardization of a sweating torso for the evaluation of the thermo-physiological performance of protective clothing Simon Annaheim, Martin A. Camenzind, André Capt, Helmut Eichinger, Agnes Psikuta, René M. Rossi

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Relationship between Total Heat Loss test, thermal manikin testing and thermal model predictions. Is material testing good enough to predict physiological results? Aitor Coca, Emiel denHartog, Jung-Hyun Kim

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Method for Determination of Body Conformability and Fit of Skin-Layer Protective Garments Olga Troynikov, Nazia Nawaz

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Thermal manikin tests for the intelligent cold protection of SMA embedded clothing Jiyeon Lee, Sungeun KIM, Guira PARK, Eunae KIM

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Further validation of a model-controlled thermal manikin using firefighter turnout gear Richard Burke, Keith Blood, A. Shawn Deaton, Dr. Roger Barker, Mark Hepokoski

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Thermal insulation of 3-layered clothing system in different sizes using 3D body scanner Kirsi Jussila, Marjukka Kekäläinen, Leena Simonen, Helena Mäkinen

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Prediction of body temperature in humans using non-invasive measurement methods Reto Niedermann, Agnes Psikuta, René Michel Rossi

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sport area Evaporative resistance of sleeping bags - measurements on a thermal manikin Tore Kalev Kuklane

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Heat loss and moisture retention variations of boot membranes and sock fabrics Cornelis P. Bogerd, Paul A. Brühwiler and René M. Rossi

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Determining the Performance of Cricket Helmets with the use of a Novel Headform Nikunj Velani, Ben Halkon, Andy Harland

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heat and flame protection session Designing smart garment for firefighters Müge Yılmaz, Ender Yazgan Bulgun, Yavuz Şenol, Taner Akkan

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Prediction of Skin Burn Injury Induced By Thermal Radiation based on Thermal Manikin Experiment and Numerical Computation Fu Ming, Weng wenguo, Zhang xiaole, Han Xuefeng

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Influence of exercise intensity on thermophysiological responses of firefighters wearing different firefighters protective clothing ensembles Irena Yermakova, Ksenia Dukchnovskaya, Anastasia Nikolaienko, Olga Troynikov, Nazia Nawaz

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Thermal Protective Clothing Performance: Hot Liquid Splash and Its Flow Effect on Skin Burn Farzan Gholamreza, Mark Ackerman, Guowen Song

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Improvement of thermal and sweat management in fire fighter suits Andreas Schmidt, Jan Beringer, Boris Bauer, Markus Schmid, Silke Küblbeck

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Advances in Manikin Technology and Methodology for Testing the Thermal Protective Performance of Clothing in Fire Environments Alexander Hummel, Roger Barker, A. Shawn Deaton, John Morton-Aslanis

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Modelling for predicting the performances of thermal protective clothing Sumit Mandal, Guowen Song

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Study for the heat transfer in PPE’s against a flash fire Enrique Rivasl, Miriam Martinez

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Flame engulfment test according to ISO 13506: correlations between burn predictions and total heat transferred René M. Rossi, Michel Schmid, Martin Camenzind

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Mathematical Modelling of Heat Transfer Properties of Undergarments for Firefighter’s Clothing Aysun Akşit, Bengi Kutlu, BirkanYurdakul

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The thermo-physiological performance of various fire fighter garments evaluated by means of a sweating torso test equipment Simon Annaheim, Martin A. Camenzind, André Capt, Helmut Eichinger, Agnes Psikuta, René M. Rossi

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Modeling of the parameters of the liquid cooling garment depending on the thermal stress experienced by a subject in the hot environment Grażyna Bartkowiak, Anna Dąbrowska

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Balancing Heat Stress and Thermal Protective Performance in Wildland Firefighter Protective Clothing through New Testing Technologies Roger L. Barker and Anthony S. Deaton

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Thermo-physiological Modelling of Humans Wearing Firefighter Turnout Gear Mark Hepokoski , Tony Schwenn, Allen Curran, Rick Burke, A. Shawn Deaton, Roger Barker

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poster session Evaluation of the evaporative cooling efficiency in protective fabrics Dr. Simon Annaheim, Dr. Agnes Psikuta, Dr. René Rossi

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COST Action TU1101: Towards safer bicycling through optimization of bicycle helmets and usage Bogerd CP, Halldin P, Houtenbos M, Otte D, Rossi RM, Shinar D, Walker I, Willinger R, Woolsgrove C & COST Action TU1101

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Interlayer moisture effects on heat transfer in firefighter protective clothing and gloves Jeffrey O. Stull and Grace G. Stull

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The evaluation of an agility test for discriminating the ergonomic impact of emergency responder footwear Jeffrey O. Stull, Grace G. Stull and William Candy

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A Methodology for the Design and Evaluation of PPE using a Human Thermoregulation Modelling Paradigm Mark Hepokoski, Tony Schwenn, Corey Packard, Allen Curran, Shaya Jamshidi Brosch

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Ventilated evaporative cooling as a preventive measure when confronted with a hot climate Chuansi Gao, Faming Wang, Tomonori Sakoi

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Heat and moisture transfer through fibrous insulation with thin reflective fibrous interlayers Xianfu WAN and Jintu FAN

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Development of Safety Webbing System for Well-Fitted Personal Life Jacket using Functional Lines of Non Extension Soyoung Kim, Kyunghi Hong, Jiyoung Choi, Yanjun Wu, Namyim Kim, Heeran Lee, Byungcheol Lee, Yejin Lee

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Calculation of “true” insulation of protective clothing against cold by means of a physiological model Jean Léonard

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Thermal Protective Performance of Fire fighter’s Turnout Gear Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Thermal Liner Guira Park, Youngjin Chae, Eunae Kim

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Effect of fabric weave structure on micro-climate environment under microdust protective clothing Xiao-Qun Dai and Han-Yu Wu

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Physiological strain of workers of different ages during physical load in a cold environment in the same set of clothing Anna Marszalek

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Mechanical properties of chosen basalt fabrics destined for the protective gloves I. Frydrych, E. Irzmańska, A.Stefko, R. Hrynyk, M. Bednar

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Investigation on the Durability of Thermal Insulating Performance of Aluminized Fabric Lu Jin, Pyoung-Kyu Park, Kee Jong Yoon

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Distribution of the air gap thickness and contact area in wet underwear Joanna Frackiewicz-Kaczmarek, Agnes Psikuta, Wajdi Heni, René Rossi, Marie-Ange Bueno

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The effect of air gaps in moist protective clothing on protection from heat and flame Yehu Lu, Jun Li, Xiaohui Li, Guowen Song

103

New generation barrier materials as elements of individual systems protecting against UV radiation emitted by artificial sources Jadwiga Sójka – Ledakowicz, Joanna Lewartowska, Wojciech Czajkowski, Anetta Walawska, Grażyna Bartkowiak

104

Maximal oxygen uptake while wearing firefighter personal protective equipment using different treadmill protocols Joo-Young Lee, Ilham Bakri, Jung-Hyun Kim, and Yutaka Tochihara

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Innovations on methodology, thermal modelling and materials for Personal Equipment Aernout Oudenhuijzen * TNO, Behavioural and Social sciences, department of Training Performance Innovations

Recently, TNO finalized a research program on Personal Equipment. This research program was carried out for and in close co-operation with the Dutch Ministry of Defence and had the following three objectives: 1. To develop a method to procure PE as an integral system; 2. To develop methods and related tools to obtain user operational needs and to translate these in a program with functional/technical requirements; 3. To disclose PE material innovation for PE procurement. In the four year during research program TNO focussed on four aspects in order to develop methods/tools and to disclose innovations for PE procurement. These aspects were: 1) PE material technology, 2) thermal modelling, 3) human system integration and 4) system engineering.

Material technology: PE material innovations were investigated and monitored and assembled into a material selection tool for PE. This tool allowed to select PE materials based on functional and technical requirements. It also allows for definition of newly to be developed materials of PE.

Thermal Modelling: Scope Light is a thermal model that allows simulating personal tasks (exertion), various ambient conditions (temperature, sunlight, relative humidity), clothing type and layers. Scope Light was developed and verified on its accuracy. And used in various PE cases within and outside the research program.

Human system integration and system engineering It is more than obvious that any PE should answer to the users operational needs. Strangely enough, there is more than often insufficient knowledge about the users operational needs. In order to fill this lack of methods, TNO build a webbased application, called TOF+ (Transition Operational to Functional requirements) that allows procurers to obtain the users needs methodologically and to translate the operational needs in related functional and technical requirements. Procurers often base their buy/not buy decision on a mix of quality, cost, availability, conformance with requirements. This decision is mostly done using an engineering based judgement. In order to allow procurers to make these decision more methodologically and in order to have a system approach, TNO used commercially available Quality Function Deployment (QFD) techniques as a tool in PE procurement. The combined set of resulting methods and related tools were used in various cases. Finally it was found that the system approach has many benefits above currently used methods in PE procurement.

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From concept to product – an integrated approach Tiago Sotto Mayor 1*, Miguel Ribeiro1 1

Product Characterization Laboratory, CeNTI - Centre for Nanotechnology and Smart Materials, Vila Nova de Famalicão, Portugal

* Corresponding author: [email protected]

The need to accelerate the pace of innovation, as an answer to increasing competition in a globalized market environment, asks for a reduction of the time between the identification of a market opportunity and the actual release of a new product. In line with this, the innovation process, from the initial design of a prototype, to the final performance evaluation of a new product, needs to be shortened. This asks for strategies to accelerate the identification of limiting factors of prototype performance, followed by systematic optimization of the characteristics found relevant for its overall performance. This needs to be done at the earliest stage of development possible, often long before the first prototypes are actually built. Thus, this asks for a shift from a more experimental-based development, involving building and experimental characterization of a high number of prototypes, to a more numerical-based approach, privileging preoptimization of virtual prototypes. Such shift allows reducing greatly the experimental “iterations” (i.e. the building-testing cycles of real prototypes), which usually involve considerable resources, and results in better tuned final products, as a consequence of the systematic and detailed optimizations one can conduct using numerical approaches. In order to illustrate the aforesaid, this paper presents an integrated approach followed at CeNTI, to address R&D activities in highly time-constrained projects. The benefits of an increased focus on virtual prototype optimization are discussed, together with the changes it promotes in the way R&D tasks are addressed (e.g. the shift from a sequential to a concurrent approach). Focused is put on a particular project involving the development and integration of smart functionalities, into protective clothing for extreme environments. The R&D tasks discussed here, which involve contributions from different areas (e.g. design and optimization of virtual prototypes, R&D of smart solutions, and performance characterization of the final smart product), are a good match to the tasks required to address developments for other product typologies.

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Optimal design for efficient utilization of PCM in protective clothing Arne Røyset*1,Maria Suong Tjønnås2, Hilde Færevik2 1 2

SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, NO-7465 Trondheim, Norway SINTEF Technology and Society, Dept. of Health Research, NO-7465 Trondheim, Norway

*Corresponding author: [email protected]

The application of Phase Change Materials (PCM) in protective clothing has appeared as an attractive solution to the challenge posed by a working environment with rapid changes in temperature or workload. However, commercial solutions which have demonstrated real benefit for the comfort of the user are scarce. A main reason for this is the challenging task of designing a PCM clothing system that is optimal for specific environment temperatures and provides sufficiently reduction in heat stress for a required time. We report results from our investigation on how a clothing system with PCM can be optimally designed, and present an easy to use analytical model for optimum design. The most important design parameters are: 1) What is the optimal melting/freezing temperature of the PCM? 2) How large fraction of the total insulation should be between the PCM and skin? 3) How large part of the body should be covered by PCM? 4) What is the optimal position on the body (body temperature mapping) 5) What is the required latent heat? 6) What is the ambient temperature (low/high/changing) and work intensity (heat production) of the wearer (low/high/changing)? We have constructed a simple model that aims at answering the following questions: 1) How long time does it take before all the PCM has changed phase? 2) How much does the PCM increase or decrease heat loss from the body? 3) How large fraction of the latent heat is used to cool or heat the body, and not heating or cooling the ambient? The model also reveal some important design guidelines: 1) A high utililization of the latent heat can be achieved by having less insulation between PCM and body, and most of the insulation towards the ambient. 2) The duration of the phase change is reduced by having less insulation between PCM and body. 3) The duration of phase change can be increased by having PCM concentrated on a smaller area. 4) The duration of the phase change depends on the melting melting/freezing temperature of the PCM. 5) The fraction of latent heat that is heating or cooling the body is not dependent on the PCM melting/freezing temperature. We will also use these findings to discuss the widely used claims that PCM is an intelligent material that adapts to the needs of the body. This work was supported by the Research Council of Norway and the partners of the Coldwear project 188002/I40 (http://www.sintef.no/Coldwear).

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Methodology for determining the thermoregulatory effect of PCM containing materials and garments Minna Varheenmaa1, Hilde Færevik2 1 2

Tampere University of Technology, Materials Science, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland Department of Health Research, SINTEF Technology and Society, Trondheim, Norway

* Corresponding author: [email protected]

The traditional assessment of thermal comfort properties of textile materials and garments can be performed using the standard or in-house textile test methods or using methods that are simulating the human body functions like sweating thermal cylinders and manikins in a predetermined environment or in field tests using human subjects. These traditional tests are normally performed in steady-state ambient temperature conditions. However when incorporating PCM (Phase Change Materials) materials into textile structure the assessment of thermal effects becomes more demanding and it requires new approaches to be taken into account. The special feature of PCM materials is that they require a dynamic change in the environment temperature to release their cooling or heating effect. This paper presents the methodology used for determining the PCM effect of textile materials and garments in dynamic test conditions when using the sweating thermal cylinder and thermal manikin in EU-funded NoTeReFiGa project. Test results and application possibilities for protective clothing are discussed. The aim of the NoTeReFiGa project (Call ID FP7-NMP- 2007-SME-1) is to develop novel temperature regulating fibers with high amounts of PCM incorporated into fibers. There are two approaches applied i.e. bi-component melt spinning technique for incorporating PCM into fiber core and wet spinning technology for incorporating free PCM directly into cellulose solution and thus into cellulose fibers.

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Sensor-based Personal Protective Equipment “HORST” for forestry work with power saws Andreas Schmidt, Jan Beringer, Martin Rupp, Angela Mahr-Erhardt Hohenstein Institute, Boennigheim, Germany

Special cut-protection clothing has been part of the legally prescribed personal protection equipment (PPE) for foresters for many years now. In Germany, about 25,000 people work professionally in forestry, about half of them in privately-owned woodland. However, conventional cut-protection clothing only provides its wearer with passive protection: the trousers and jacket incorporate cut-protection inserts consisting of several layers of special material made of ultra-strong fibres. If the chain of the saw comes in contact with the textile, it becomes caught in the fabric and therefore stops before the wearer is affected. However, the multilayered material results in greater thermal insulation which puts additional physiological stress on the wearer, especially at the warmer times of year. By contrast, with the newly developed electronic protection system HORST, there is no contact at all, and the system kicks in before there is any risk of even the outer textile layer being damaged. The aim of the development work was to reduce the "passive" cut-protection layers to an absolute minimum and increase the "active" protection, so that the clothing feels lighter and has less of an insulating effect. That makes it more comfortable to wear while simultaneously reducing the physiological strain on the wearer. Magnets on the guide bar of the chainsaw and highly sensitive magnetic field sensors (reed switch contacts) incorporated in the textile fabric create a sort of protective electronic field for the forester. If the saw comes too close, the contacts in the trousers close due to the magnetic field from the chainsaw and a radio signal is sent which stops the saw immediately. Following trials, a minimum distance of 5 to 10 centimetres between the saw and the trousers was judged to be appropriate and practical. As the saw comes closer, it is detected extremely accurately and very fast. This means that, in real life, both the forester and his clothing would remain untouched. For wearers, whether they are forestry workers or private individuals undertaking ever more ambitious tasks, the sensor-based textile layer can be neither seen nor felt and is also extremely robust. Practical tests have shown that the innovative protective function is stable and reliable even during heavy physical work. The trousers are also very easy to look after: they can be washed many times without impairing the protective function. A further advantage of the newly developed textiles is that they do not in any way restrict the cutting or manufacture of the garments. This property means that in future manufacturers will be able to use this innovative textile for all types of protective clothing, both trousers and jackets.

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A textile integrated system extending the awareness of an electrician for dangerously high voltages Emma Kaappa*, Aki Halme, & Jukka Vanhala Tampere University of Technology, Department of Electronics, Wearable Technology Research Unit, Kankaanpää, Finland * corresponding author: [email protected]

The protective warning glove which identifies the present voltage was developed to improve the electricians' industrial safety. The idea of the protective glove is to warn the mechanic in the situation in which the power supply is turned on before the mechanic has been able to finish his work. In this version of the protective glove, the warning will take place through red LED-light when the dangerous situation threatens. As a rule, the glove identifies a normal main supply (>230Vac) but in favourable conditions the detection of considerably smaller voltage is also possible. The electronics was made as simple as possible to observe the voltage from reliability however to haggle, in this case, cannot compromise on safety. Furthermore, with the simple electronics the manufacturing costs are made to remain moderate. The detection of the threatening mains voltage near to the glove is based on the observation of the forming electric field. The most strategic component of the electronics is a microcontroller (Atmel ATTiny13). In addition to this only a few passive components of the electronics (resistors, capacitors etc.) are needed. The electronics contains a certain type of antenna to which the inducing voltage is accumulated. This voltage is measured with the AD-converter of the microcontroller. Finally, the microcontroller analyses the input level and makes decision whether voltage is present or not. The signal which comes to the converter from the antenna has been adjusted on the suitable level of sensitivity utilizing the previously mentioned passive components. The antenna has been placed on the upper surface of the forefinger. When testing a cable, conducting wire under test is pointed with finger from a safe distance. The electronics are powered with Lithium-Polymer battery. The antenna, electronics and battery is integrated between surface material and lining. LED is encased in the upper surface of the glove with silicone. The battery can be reloaded considering long-term usage. The charging takes place with the small portable charger that has been especially manufactured for the glove. The detector operates a few days with the fully charged battery, depending on the conditions. The protective glove has been a few months on usage in the electric power plant and the user feedback has been truly positive. In the future, the system will be moved from the glove to the cuff of the electrician’s jacket.

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Prospie Project (Protective Responsive Outer Shell for People in Industrial Environments) Prof. dr. Hein Daanen1,Henk Vanhoutte, 2 1 2

TNO Behavioural and Societal Sciences, Soesterberg, the Netherlands - Scientific coordinator of Prospie Henk Vanhoutte Consulting, Harelbeke, Belgium

In the Prospie-project a new generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) is developed and produced. The special feature of the PPE is a heat shield that prevents the worker to become too hot. Although sweat evaporation is an excellent cooling mechanism for work in the heat, this system is compromised when working in protective clothing. The body temperature rises and consequently the vigilance and task performance decrease. Eventually the worker has to abandon his task due to incompensable heat strain. Prospie aims to supply the worker with personal protective equipment that enables him or her to work longer in protective clothing with less discomfort. Sensors in the garments measure relevant physiological data, such as skin temperature, heat flux and heart rate, to assess the thermal status of the worker, and the environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity). The physiological signals are used in an algorithm that generates a warning signal when a certain safety threshold is surpassed. Data are also transferred to industrial safety systems in order to alert rescue workers if needed. The operational benefit of prototypes of the suit are determined in a controlled setting as well as in the industry where protective suits are indispensable. For this field tests at different industries are running (including industrial washing) during the last part of the project. The Prospie Project is funded under the EU FP7 program and is a collaboration of 16 partners from 7 different countries, including end users. During the presentation the system will be explained as well as the results obtained so far.

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Development of a new functional PPE system based on protective clothing improvement – challenges and experiences from i-Protect project Piotr Pietrowski*, 1

Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute, Department of Personal Protective Equipment, Lodz

* corresponding author: [email protected]

The main objective of i-Protect project is to develop advanced personal protective equipment (PPE) system that will ensure active protection and information support during rescue activities carried out by fire fighters as well as chemical and mining rescuers. The new PPE system should be ergonomically designed and as fully as it possible adapted to end-users’ needs and expected working conditions. The project approach takes into consideration research and development in the field of microsensors modules integrated with protective clothing for real-time monitoring of risk factors (temperature, concentration of toxic gases, oxygen level), optical fibres integrated with underwear textiles for monitoring users' health status (body temperature, heart rate), functional nanomaterials for achieving special properties of fabrics (antielectrostatics, conductivity) as well as communication module for data transmission. The core of the project is integration of the advanced materials and modules applied for the development of multifunctional PPE system. All safety and quality parameters of new PPE solution should be first tested in laboratory conditions in order to assess a proper functioning of each individual element to be elaborated within the project as well as protective properties of modified PPEs used as a basis for integration. Special attention should be paid to effectiveness checking and reliability of integration of individual system modules against the user’s safety, comfort, accessibility of individual system elements, as well as legibility and quality of information delivered to the user. After laboratory tests the PPE system should be tested in field tests by test subjects in order to assess field functionality. The interdisciplinary character of the project consists of R&D activities in various fields of science and technology (electronics, nano-engineering, optical fibers, ICT, fabrics and textiles modification, ergonomics) and requires expertise – based on different technologies - in integrating these elements into one functional system. For the achievement of project objectives adequate evaluation criteria and testing methods for the new PPE system should be taken into consideration. The new requirements, covering the end-users’ needs, could determine test methods applied for advanced PPE systems assessment. The need of specific requirements and test methods could form the basis for future activities to be carried out within relevant standardization committees and aimed at new standard elaboration (including new areas for standardization).

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5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10

New materials and clothing protecting against electromagnetic field of law, middle and high frequencies A.Kurczewska Central Institute of Labour Protection National Research Institiut, Czerniakowska 16, Warsaw, Poland Contact person: Agnieszka Kurczewska, [email protected]

One way of reducing the sources of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields is shielding the employee by applying the barriers in the form of protective clothing. For this purpose, a fabric and garment shielding electromagnetic field in the frequency range 50 MHz - 3 GHz have been developed. This presentation shows designs of fabrics, the test results in the scope of electromagnetic shielding of materials and garment as well as the criteria in terms of meeting the essential requirements of Directive 89/686/EEC. Developed materials shields the electromagnetic field, and furthermore shows good performance in the scope of flexibility, mechanical and dimensional resistance, low surface mass, low water vapor permeability. Developed fabrics and garment can be used for protection against electromagnetic fields for law, medium and high frequencies.

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5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10

Some experiences on integration of advanced ICT solutions into smart Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) Jesús María López de Ipiña (1), David Ramos (1), Piotr Pietrowski (2), Lorenzo Fiore (3) and Javier Goitia (4) (1) TECNALIA Research and Innovation, Industrial Systems Unit; Parque Tecnológico de Alava, Leonardo Da Vinci 11, 01005 Miñano – Alava (Spain) (2) Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB); Czerniakowska 16, 00701 Warsaw (Poland) (3) Aero Sekur S.p.A.; Via delle Valli 46, 04011 Latina (Italy) (4) IBERDROLA Distribución Eléctrica S.A.U.; Gardoki 8, 48008 Bilbao (Spain) (*) Corresponding author: Jesús María López de Ipiña ([email protected])

The i-Protect project is a 4-year FP7 – NMP 2008 collaborative project funded by the European Commission and aimed to develop new intelligent Personal Protective Equipment systems (PPE) to ensure active protection and information support for personnel in high risk and complex environments, in particular chemical rescue teams, fire fighters and mine rescuers. One of the main challenges of the project is to integrate advanced materials and ICT solutions produced by the project into several final PPE prototypes. ICT developments include sensory and communication modules aimed at real-time monitoring of environmental parameters (temperature, oxygen and gas concentrations, etc), users' health status (body temperature, heart rate) and keeping the PPE in working order (end-of-service-life, air pressure in compressed units, etc.). The general framework of integration activities is described and some preliminary results are presented. Under the Dalia project framework - Development of technological solutions for safe and efficient integration of pruning and tree felling activities into the electrical grid management – a project funded by the CDTI of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, a group of Spanish companies are conducting research to integrate ad-hoc embedded systems into PPEs of personnel working in maintenance of power lines, in order to improve safety and productivity issues. Project outcomes will include prototypes of advanced PPEs with new functionalities such as location of workers & machinery at work area, monitoring of environmental and physiological parameters and surveillance of proper use of PPEs. A non-intrusive interaction between endusers and PPEs will be also guaranteed.

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5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10

general PPE's session 2 21

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10

Barrier properties of composites with nanofillers designed for protective clothing and gloves Sylwia Krzemińska*), Krzysztof Łężak *) *)

Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute, Department of Personal Equipment, Wierzbowa 48, 90-133 Łódź, Poland, e-mail: [email protected], [email protected]

The health hazard for workers due to contact with mineral oils and solvents is present primarily in chemical, petrochemical, machine-building, metallurgical and car industry. The basic prophylactic measures include safeguarding of the human skin with appropriate protective clothing and gloves, which constitute an effective barrier against a wide spectrum of chemicals present in mineral oils. The prerequisite for effective protection provided by the barrier material is the use of appropriate polymer and additional components to produce a polymer mixture. The results of research works aimed at development of modern polymer nanocomposites designed for production of protective clothing and gloves resistant to permeation by chemical substances including in particular mineral oils and solvents are presented. The progress in nanotechnology has made it possible to undertake research with the aim to obtain polymer barrier materials containing nanofillers, the use of which is attempted to reinforce barrier properties of materials, in view of their specific physical and chemical properties. The paper presents the results of tests performed on flat membranes made of butyl rubber (IIR), hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HNBR) and carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) containing a nanofiller - bentonite modified with various types of ammonium salts. Results of the research indicate, that the introduction of nanofillers to a polymer leads to differentiation of its barrier properties dependent on the nanofiller type and quantity, as well as on the polymer itself. Considerable improvement of resistance to permeation by chemicals, including both polar and non-polar substances, has been observed in the case of hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber nanocomposites.

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5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10

Efficacy of microclimate cooling by air and cooling vest for reducing heat strain and chemical contamination while wearing PPE during fuel cell replacement Sirkka Rissanen1*, Juha Laitinen2 and Hannu Rintamäki1,3 1

Physical Work Capacity Team, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland Chemicals at Work Team, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Kuopio, Finland 3 Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland 2

* Corresponding author: [email protected]

Replacement of a F-18 fighter aircraft's fuel tank is physically demanding work. Due to adverse health effects of kerosene aircraft mechanics wear personal protective equipment. Protective equipment, static postures, small space, high ambient temperature and high intensity work expose the mechanics to heat stress conditions. The aim of this study was to reduce heat strain as well as chemical contamination during the replacement of fuel tanks. Different cooling strategies were tested. Six male aircraft mechanics volunteered for the study. They performed a tank cell replacement simulation in a climatic chamber at ambient temperature of 25 °C. The volume of the tank was 1 m3 and the size of the container was 131x120x92 cm (HxLxW). Their work was to pack the tank ready for removal trough an opening (30x40 cm). The simulation lasted for 50 min. The mechanics were wearing long sleeved and legged underwear and impermeable protective coverall, pneumatic respirator, protective gloves and socks. Two cooling systems were used 1) air cooling (AIR) and 2) cooling vest with PCM elements (CV). No cooling was used as a control (C). Core (Tcore) and skin temperatures were measured, and thermal sensation and rate for perceived exertion (RPE) were asked. Sweat rate was measured. In addition, concentrations of naphthalene on skin and total exposure to naphthalene in urine were measured during real fuel tank replacements. At the end of the simulation Tcore was 37.9 ± 0.4 (p