Future Availability of Lithium Does Recycling Help?

3rd Int. Congress on Advanced Battery Technology Future Availability of Lithium – Does Recycling Help? Marcel Weil Karlsruhe Institute Of Technology ...
Author: Simon Randall
1 downloads 0 Views 2MB Size
3rd Int. Congress on Advanced Battery Technology

Future Availability of Lithium – Does Recycling Help? Marcel Weil Karlsruhe Institute Of Technology (KIT) Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis 1

2

New and Emerging Technologies

Li-Batteries

• Li • Ni • Co • Mn • Ti 3

Question: Enough Li in the future?

4

Availability of Lithium a Bottleneck for Li-Ion Batteries ( Emerging Key Technologies)?

5

Availability of Lithium Basic Questions • Lithium Reserves and Resources? • Consumption (past, present, future)? • Recycling?

6

Reserve / Resource

Resource Reserve-Base Reserve • identified • economic 7

The Case of Lithium – World Resources

(

8

)

Source: Yaksic & Tilton 2009 and others

The Case of Lithium – World Reserven

9

Source: USGS 2010, Haber 2009 and others

World Li Resources/Reserves Lithium content (metric tons)

Source Reserves

Reserve base

Resources

USGS 2009

4,100,000

11,000,000

13,760,000

Roskill 2006

4,100,000

11,000,000

13,000,000

Roskill 2009 (cit. by Chemetall 2009 (online))

Reserves & Resources

30,000,000

Tahil 2007

6,800,000

Tahil 2008

4,000,000

15,000,000 17,380,000

Yaksik & Tilton 2008 ( cit. in Evans 07/2008)

35,000,000

Evans 2008b

30,120,000

Evans 2008a

20,266,400

8,723,700

Evans 1978 Kogel et al. 2006 (based on data from Evans 1978) Garret 2004

10,600,000 2,536,200

9,357,000

Will 1996

7,000,000

Haber 2009 (representative of Chemetall) FMC 2009

10,647,100

16,915,400

Hochschwimmer 2004

Solminihac 2009 (representative of SQM)

14,000,000

18,786,399*1

56,359,196* 1

28,400,000

28,400,000

16,077,964*1

*1 Figures for lithium are calculated from LCE (lithium carbonate equivalent) considering a general conversion factor of 5.323

10

28,500,000

Source: Weil, Ziemann, Schebek 2009

Recoverable Lithium? Recovery rate Lithium (Yaksic & Tilton 2009) ƒ

Minerals (pegmatites):

50%

ƒ

Minerals (hectorites):

50%

ƒ

Brines :

45%

11

Resources in Germany („little hope“) Erzgebirge, Sachsen ¾ > 50.000 t Lithium ¾ Economic ? Zinnwaldit (Fluor, Chlor, Lithium, Bor, Beryllium )

12

Resources/Reserves in Bolivian („big hope“) Salar de Uyuni, Bolivian ¾ 5.500.000 t Lithium ¾ Economic? Problems (in comparison to Chile): ¾ Lower Li concentrations ¾ Higher magnesium content ¾ Higher annual precipitation 13

„Freiberger Kegel“ Lithium extraction in Salar de Uyuni

14

15

Availability of Lithium Basic Questions • Lithium Reserves and Resources? • Consumption (past, present, future)? • Recycling?

16

Production of Lithium 30.000

25.000

20.000 [t] 15.000 10.000

5.000

0 1990

17

1995

2000

2005

2010

Lithium Production Others; 11% China; 10% Chile; 43%

Australia; 21%

Argentina; 15% SQM 2009

18

Lithium Production and Use [t Li]

30000 25000 2004

2006

2008

20000 15000 10000 5000 0 ta

rs

l

he

to

ot

iu m

t in

/a ll o y

an d

an

s

es

as

al

g

tic

in

eu

gl

as re tg

di

in

on

um

rc

al

ai

an

ac m

ic

ar

br

d

y ar r im (p

an

s

ic

rie

m

tte

ra

ph

lu

ba

ce

po

d

ly

se

er m

co

s

nd ar y)

19

Lithium production for different applications in 2004-2008, based on data from USGS 2009, SQM 2009, and Ebensberger et al. 2005

Application fields of Lithium 2007 „Basic demand“ others 28%

aluminium / alloy 4%

ceramic and glass 18%

batteries (primary and secondary) 25%

air conditining 6%

20

pharmaceutical and polymers 7%

lubricant greases 12%

Future Consumption?

21

Lithium-Batteries for Electric Vehicles

22

Li-Ion secondary batteries High Energy Battery (Full EV) Max. Energy Density ~ 0.2 kWh/kg Max. Peak Power Density ~ 0.5 - 1.3 kW/kg

High Power Battery (Hybrid) Max. Energy Density ~ 0.08 kWh/kg Max. Peak Power Density ~ 3 kW/kg

23

24

EVONIK

Ressource Competition Future Technologies

Lithium for Fusion Reactors for tritium production: 6Li + n → 4He + T + 4.78 MeV

25

Three considered „technologies“

• „Basic demand“ technologies: glass, ceramic, aluminium production, aluminium alloy, grease, medicine, primary battery, rechargeable batteries for cell phone and laptop • New technology: Li-Batteries for EV • Future technology: Fusion reactors 26

27

28

life cycle [years] Li need for production [t/year] Li need for service [t/year] start of technology recycling rate (1= no recycling) growth of technology (linear, exp., square) Period of technology growth [years] upper limit of technology growth

29

Scenario 1

Basic demand (glass, ceramic, aluminium production, aluminium alloy, grease, medicine, primary battery, rechargeable batteries for cell phone and laptop) ƒ 25000 t/year ƒ growth +3%/year ƒ starts 2008 ƒ no Li recycling 30

25000 t/a Li

4 million t

basic demand

31

Scenario 2

Basic demand + electric vehicles ƒ500 million electric vehicles in 100 years (with Li batteries), ~ 50% of present existing cars ƒmass production of EV starts 2015 ƒexponential growth ƒ50% Hybrid (1-3 kWh), 50% full EV (10-25 kWh) ƒ0.3kg Li/kWh (0.15-1.5 kg) ƒlifetime vehicles and Li batteries: 10 years ƒno Li recycling 32

EV 20 million t

4 million t

basic demand

33

Scenario 3

Basic demand+electric vehicles+fusion reactors ƒ1000 GW in 100 years (~ 667 fusion reactors) ƒ790 t Li/ reactor (blankets) and 9 t Li/reactor and year ƒlifetime fusion reactors: 30 years ƒfusion reactors starts with energy production 2050 ƒno Li recycling

34

20 million t

4 million t

35

Recycling

36

37

Umicore 2009

Li‐Ion battery Dismantling Battery cells (anode, cathode, electrolyte,  separator, protect casing)

electronics,  steel casing

Total discharge against fire and explosion hazard

Deactivation of lithium metall

Destillation electrolyte (recycled by a deep frozen condenser)

Conditioning 1. 2.

Pyrolisis to delete organic components (binder, separator) Comminution metal fraction (Cu, Al)

38

Electrode material

e.g. copper recycling company

39

ACCUREC GmbH / RWTH Aachen

40

Lithium recycling rate - Example -

90% X

90% X

90% X

70%

e t n l y n o b r i e t e m c v m e t e o ll s a c s e o e r a r c t s i e d pr

41

=

51%

Effect of Lithium Battery Recycling EV 20 million t

Decrease of primary Li demand by recycling

4 million t

basic demand

42

Summary Mayor Li reserves and resources are concentrated in only a few countries Present consumption pattern do not endanger confirmed reserves of Li The production of Li-Ion batteries could significantly decrease Li reserves, as far as EV (with Li-Ion batteries) reach a high market penetration Recycling could decrease significantly the use of primary Li and the dependency on imports 43

Suggest Documents