Freestyle Membrane Architecture
If it looks like the future, that’s because it is.
A relative newcomer in the construction materials scene, membrane architecture has made a stunning debut. No other construction material gives designers and architects the same flexibility to push the creative envelope while working with a strong, energy-efficient and aesthetically remarkable product. Architectural membrane is, in fact, a nomenclature that describes a variety of products. Dyneon, a 3M company, contributes elements to two of the most prominent styles. The first is a glass fabric coated with Dyneon™ PTFE and then with either Dyneon ™ PFA or Dyneon™ FEP to provide additional sealing and weldability. The second form of membrane is a clear film made from a fluorothermoplastic like Dyneon™ ET 6235 (ETFE). Each membrane product shares common strengths while possessing enough unique attributes to extend the spectrum of design even further. Translucent or transparent, flexible and dazzling, designs including membrane materials have opened up new perspectives in architecture. From small awnings to vast stadiums, membranes easily inspire new forms. Self-supporting curved surfaces are a reality. Light is incorporated more thoroughly than ever before. Strength and fire-resistance bring a functional yet striking style to a diverse range of projects and functions. The examples in this brochure depict what has already been achieved by using membranes made with Dyneon PTFE, Dyneon PFA, Dyneon FEP and Dyneon ETFE. And these are just the beginning. With Dyneon™ Fluoropolymers, the possibilities are endless.
Client: Eden Trust Architect: Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners, London, UK Membrane material: Special film made from Dyneon™ ET 6235 Membrane surface area: 100,000 m2 (25 acres, 1,076,000 sq ft) triple-glazed, 100 µm and 200 µm gauge film Construction: Steel pole frame, hexagonal structure Planning, preparation and assembly: Foiltec GmbH, Bremen, Germany Film Production: Nowofol Kunststoffprodukte GmbH & Co. KG, Siegsdorf, Germany
Paradise found The Eden Project A combination of environmental education and botanic attractions, the Eden Project in Cornwall, England showcases biomes and plants from around the world. Fascinated by the earth beneath their feet, Eden’s visitors have also responded enthusiastically to the roof over their heads; the spectacular geodesic dome structure is the world’s largest self-supporting roof construction. To build a structure of that size, the designers sought a material that would be cost-effective, while meeting several functional requirements. The roof needed to be lightweight and highly transparent to allow the plants their sunlight. Designers turned to transparent membrane cushions fabricated out of a versatile film made from Dyneon™ ETFE. Its flexibility allowed it to transform into the geodesic form, and retain its insulating capacity. Plants thrived because the 100 µm film made with Dyneon ETFE enables up to 88% of UV rays and over 90% of visible light to come through. And, in addition to the scientific benefits, the roof will remain impressive looking, because the film is practically self-cleaning, needing just a good rain to wash off accumulated dirt. With such impressive architecture and flora, it’s no surprise that most of Eden’s visitors don’t want to leave.
Client: Jumeirah Beach Resort, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Architect: W.S. Atkins & Partner Overseas, Epsom, UK Membrane material: Glass fabric coated with Dyneon™ PTFE and Dyneon™ Fluorothermoplastic Membrane surface area: 2 layers, 7,500 m2
Arabian lights The Burj Al Arab Hotel
(80,700 sq ft), height 168 m (551 ft) Construction: Double curved membrane panels between 12 horizontal steel arches, each 14 m (46 ft) apart, with a vertical load bearing into the building, and horizontal
The Burj Al Arab luxury hotel juts out of the Arabian Sea near
steel support cables
Jumeirah/Dubai. Resting on an artificial island, it stands at 321
Planning, preparation and assembly:
meters (1,053 ft) tall, making it the tallest hotel in the world – and
Skyspan GmbH (Europe), Rimsting, Germany
the most remarkable.
Fabric and coating: Verseidag-Indutex GmbH, Krefeld, Germany
The hotel is designed to resemble a sail, and a 168-meter (551 ft) membrane façade supports that vivid imagery. During the daytime the white, practically self-cleaning façade shines brilliantly, appearing to billow out over the sea, letting light into the hotel’s luxurious atrium. At night, multi-colored lights create an iridescent shimmer. The demands of building in the Arabian climate meant that the designers needed a material that was flexible and light, yet could accommodate the temperature differences between day and night, strong winds, and earthquake safety codes. Glass fabric coated with Dyneon™ PTFE and Dyneon™ Fluorothermoplastics met those requirements. Each membrane is up to 10-12% translucent, and has a high UV reflection power so the atrium behind can be filled with light, yet remain cool. The membranes can sustain broad span widths, even in the faces of high wind pressure. It’s a design that luxury deserves.
A sky without limits Munich Airport Center As the connecting link between Munich’s busy airport terminals, the Munich Airport Center has the character of a central market place. It’s a rare public area that contains places to meet, eat and shop, yet feels cleaner and friendlier than your average suburban mall (not to mention your average airport terminal). That friendly feeling is impressive, considering some of the challenges the architects originally faced. The roof needed to withstand extreme winds, meet strict fire safety requirements, and stay weather resistant. Examining their options, the architectural teams found that glass fabric coated with Dyneon™ PTFE and Dyneon™ PFA or Dyneon™ FEP, interspersed with steel and glass sections best fit their needs. Extremely strong and flame-resistant, this Client: Munich Airport, GmbH
membrane easily met the safety requirements. The architects designed an arching roof, spanning a central atrium
Architect: Murphy/Jahn, Chicago, USA
and creating space with a tremendously high ceiling. Seven white membrane shields act as a UV filter, and with
Membrane material: Glass fabric coated
10-12% translucency, bathe the area in a pleasant light. Because the coated membrane is virtually self-cleaning,
with Dyneon™ PTFE and
the ceiling will stay clean for many years to come.
Dyneon™ Fluorothermoplastic Membrane surface area: 7,875 m
(84,770 sq ft) Construction: Mixed construction of real glass and glass/PTFE membranes, seven membrane fields, each attached to support cables Planning, preparation, assembly: Skyspan GmbH (Europe), Rimsting, Germany Fabric and coating: Verseidag-Indutex GmbH, Krefeld, Germany
Stopovers have never been so nice.
Client: Prien am Chiemsee Town Council Architect: Zeller & Romstaetter, Traunstein, Germany Membrane material: Membrane film made from Dyneon™ ET 6235 Membrane surface area: 1,980 m2 (21,330 sq ft) 6,000 m2 (64,600 sq ft) treble-layered construction film Construction: Wooden truss beam construction Planning, preparation and assembly: Skyspan GmbH (Europe), Rimsting, Germany Film production: Nowofol Kunststoffprodukte GmbH & Co. KG, Siegsdorf, Germany
Sea shell by the sea shore Prienavera Leisure Center and Adventure Pool Perched on the shores of Lake Chiem in the Bavarian Alps, the Prienavera Leisure Center emphasizes its aquatic theme with a complimentary use of membrane design. A transparent membrane roof, built in the shape of a shell, stretches over the interior adventure swimming pool and out onto the lake, linking the interior with the natural world around the resort. For the shell-shaped roof, the architects used highly transparent membranes made with flame resistant Dyneon™ ETFE. They expanded the capabilities of this membrane film by literally printing a series of dots on it, providing an effective UV filter while still creating a sunny indoor experience. The membrane system also provides a simple means of insulation. Forget about oysters – this shell is a pearl in itself.
World Class Pusan Dome When soccer’s World Cup 2002 kicked off, one of the largest and most spectacular stadiums in Korea opened its doors – the Pusan Dome. Designed as a multi-function stadium, and covering a total area of 93,000 square meters (1,001,000 sq ft) the Pusan Dome has already proved its mettle by playing host to the world. The dome was inspired by Pusan’s coastal location. The stadium roof rises above the city like a white sea urchin, linking the stadium to an adjacent sports complex. Despite its size, the light membrane material makes the roof appear delicate. In the planning stage, the architects were faced with a number of challenges. Struggling with rocky soil, humidity, and safety requirements, the architects also needed to restrict the weight of the roof material, and select something that provided adequate noise reduction. The solution was glass fabric coated with Dyneon™ PTFE and Dyneon™ Fluorothermoplastic. With its low weight, humidity and flame resistance,
Client: City of Pusan, Korea
acoustic absorbancy and virtually self-cleaning properties, it was a simple choice.
Architect: Space Group Seoul, Korea Roof architect: Schlaich Bergermann & Partner, Stuttgart, Germany
The world cheered in the Pusan Dome. Designers still cheer for it.
Membrane material: Glass fabric coated with Dyneon™ PTFE and Dyneon™ Fluorothermoplastic Membrane surface area: Outer 34,000 m2 (366,000 sq ft), Inner 25,000 m2 (269,000 sq ft) Construction: Cable support construction, held by 48 supports, connected to a steel stress ring Detail planning, preparation, and assembly: B&O Hightex GmbH, Rimsting-Hochstaett, Germany Fabric and coating: Verseidag-Indutex GmbH, Krefeld, Germany; Taconic International Ltd., Mullingar, Ireland
Client: Government of Nigeria Architect: Planungsbuero Weidleplan, Stuttgart, Germany Membrane roof: Schlaich Bergermann & Partner, Stuttgart, Germany Membrane material: Glass fabric coated with Dyneon™ PTFE and Dyneon™ Fluorothermoplastic Membrane surface area: 30,000 m2 (323,000 sq ft) Construction: Cable support construction, held by supports connected to a circular concrete stress ring Detail planning, preparation, and assembly: B&O Hightex GmbH, Rimsting-Hochstaett, Germany Fabric and coating: Verseidag-Indutex GmbH, Krefeld, Germany
A landmark for tomorrow National Stadium Main Bowl Complex
Taking a cue from the Pusan Dome, membrane architecture plays a significant role in the design of Nigeria’s new National Stadium, the location of 2003’s "All African Games." Designed as a link between traditional regional architecture and the most modern construction technology, a membrane roof made up of 36 separate fields stretches over the 30,000 m2 (323,000 sq ft) stadium area and 60,000 seats. The Dyneon™ PTFE and Dyneon™ Fluorothermoplastic coated glass fabric sections that make up the roof are translucent, but at the same time protect against powerful UV radiation, rain and weather conditions. The membrane is so effective at blocking out UV rays that it will also reduce the build-up of heat inside the stadium, even on the sunniest days. Decade-long durability and positive acoustic properties also made this membrane the first choice for Nigeria’s newest national landmark. Talk about home-field advantage.
Honoring the past, welcoming the future Courtyard of Honor, Berlin Federal Chancellery Visiting state dignitaries at the Berlin Federal Chancellery are welcomed by a mix of architecture that honors its history while embracing a futuristic design. Representing "the future" here, is a translucent membrane roof that stretches over the Courtyard of Honor and acts as a counterpoint to the weighty architecture of the chancellery. The membrane awning links form and function perfectly. It fits in with the prestigious nature of the square without taking focus away from the buildings, and it offers the guests of honor protection from wind and weather. The translucent nature of the material, glass fabric coated with Dyneon™ PTFE and Dyneon™ Fluorothermoplastic, allows the light to be conveyed with subtle differences – perfect in a location likely to be visited by photographers and filmmakers. As a self-supporting construction, the large 240 m2 (2,600 sq ft) membrane field is resistant to an enormous amount of force. And, due to its durability, it will welcome honored guests for many years to come.
Client: Bundesbaugesellschaft Berlin GmbH Architect: Axel Schultes Architekten, Berlin, Germany Membrane material: Glass fabric coated with Dyneon™ PTFE and Dyneon™ Fluorothermoplastic Membrane surface area: 240 m2 (2,600 sq ft) Construction: Cable support construction, anchored in pillars, circular two-part aluminum trim Planning, preparation, and assembly: Skyspan GmbH (Europe), Rimsting, Germany Fabric and coating: Verseidag-Indutex GmbH, Krefeld, Germany
The final frontier manufacturers of fluoropolymers. With more than 800
The Strengths of Dyneon™ PTFE and Dyneon™ Fluorothermoplastic Coated Membranes:
employees worldwide, we develop, produce and sell
• Material: Glass fabric with PTFE/Fluorothermoplastic coatings
innovative fluoropolymers for the most diverse requirements.
• Processing: Malleable, can be welded
Dyneon, a 3M company, is one of the world’s leading
• Long life span: Installations in place over 22 years and still performing Our product portfolio for architectural applications includes
without significant degradation
high performance PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), PFA
• Translucency: 10-25%
(a copolymer from tetrafluoroethylene and perfluorovinyl-
• UV stability: Excellent, even in intensive sunshine
ether), FEP (a copolymer from tetrafluoroethylene and
• Weather resistant: Practically no water absorption, universal
hexafluoropropylene) for glass membrane coatings and ETFE (a polymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene) for films.
chemical resistance • Virtually self-cleaning: Non-stick, shiny surface • High flame resistance: Fire classification A2 according to DIN 4102,
Leading scientists, technicians and other experts at
depending on actual membrane construction
Dyneon work in the research and further development of
• Temperature resistance: ~ -200ºC to +260ºC
fluoropolymers for architectural applications. Our efforts to
• High tensile strength: Up to 10,000 N/5cm for large span widths
research and create the best pay off: Dyneon™ PTFE and
• Stable: High propagative tear strength
Dyneon™ Fluorothermoplastic coatings and Dyneon™ ETFE
• Weight advantage: 500 g-1500 g/m2, based on strength of membrane
for films distinguish themselves while meeting the
• Colors: White, colored
requirements for membrane architecture. Dyneon is committed to creating new opportunities in space planning and design. Thus, it is our goal, together with project designers, to develop comprehensive solutions for users of these materials and offer individual technical support to increase the user-friendliness of this forwardthinking technology. We’ll help you build what you’ve only imagined.
The Strengths of Dyneon™ ETFE Membranes:
Koch Membranen GmbH
Vector Special Projects Ltd.
• Material: Film made from partially fluorinated thermoplastic
B&O Hightex GmbH
Studio 4, The Cooperage
91 Brick Lane, London W1 6QL
Tel. +49 8051 6909 80
Tel: +44 20 7375 2756
Tel: +49 8054 9029 0
Fax +49 8051 6909 83
Fax: +44 20 7375 2759
(Dyneon™ ET 6235) • Very transparent: >90% light transmittance (380-780 nm; 100 µm film) • Dye-able and printable: Can reduce light transmittance to
Fax: +49 8054 9029 25
nearly 0% • UV transmittance: 83-88% (320-380 nm; 100 µm film)
• Stable: Highly resilient, shatter proof, good hail
Berghamer Strasse 19
Tel: +49 8051 6888 0
Tel. +49 2151 876 222
• Virtually self-cleaning: Non-stick, shiny surface
Tel. +49 8624 8969 0
Fax: +49 8051 6888 290
Fax +49 2151 876 291
• Weather-resistant: Installations in place over 18 years
Fax +49 8624 8969 20 Skyspan Ltd.
The Portway Centre
Dyneon™ ET 6235
Old Sarum, Salisbury
• Wide span widths: Can be sewn and welded
Wiltshire SP4 6EB, UK
GmbH & Co. KG
• Weight advantage: 175 g/m2 for 100 µm film
Tel. +49 421 69351 0
Tel: +44 1722 331599
• Economic: Low maintenance
Fax +49 421 69351 19
Fax. +44 1722 415922
resistance, high propogative tear strength
without significant changes in properties • Does not support combustion: Fire classification B1 according to DIN 4102, flame retardant non-burning drip
Tel. +49 8662 6602 0
FABRIC AND COATING
13 Green Mountain Drive
Cohoes, New York 12047
Taconic International Ltd.
Tel: +1 518 783 0575
Mullingar Business Park
Fax: +1 518 783 0474
Ireland-Mullingar, County Westmeath Tel. +353 44 40477 Fax +353 44 42514
Fax +49 8662 6602 50
Technical Information and Test Data
Dyneon GmbH & Co. KG
Technical information, test data, and advice provided by Dyneon personnel are based on information and tests we believe are reliable and are intended for persons with knowledge and technical skill sufficient to analyze tests types and conditions, and to handle and use raw polymers and related compounding ingredients. No license under any Dyneon or third party intellectual rights is granted or implied by virtue of this information.
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Milano San Felice
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e-mail: [email protected]
Tel. +39 02 7035 3206 7
Important Notice: Because conditions of product use are outside Dyneon’s control and vary widely, user must evaluate and determine whether a Dyneon product will be suitable for user’s intended application before using it. The following is made in lieu of all express and implied warranties (including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose): If a Dyneon product is proved to be defective, Dyneon‘s only obligation, and user’s only remedy, will be, at Dyneon‘s option, to replace the quantity of product shown to be defective when user received it or to refund user’s purchase price. In no event will Dyneon be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential loss or damage, regardless of legal theory, such as breach of warranty or contract, negligence, or strict liability.
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Dyneon GmbH & Co. KG
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Tel. +49 6107 772 516
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© Dyneon 2002 Issued: 12/02
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