Foundation. Foundation. Face powder Face powder VS Powder foundation. Functions: Hide the skin flaws

1702705 1-2010 Outline Foundation and  Foundation  and Concealer Concealer • Foundation • Concealer • Make‐ Make‐up Base Foundation • Equipment Req...
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1702705

1-2010

Outline

Foundation and  Foundation  and Concealer Concealer • Foundation • Concealer • Make‐ Make‐up Base Foundation • Equipment Requirements q p q Ampa Jimtaisong, PhD School of Cosmetic Science  MAE FAH LUANG UNIVERSITY 1-2010

Introduction

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Foundation

• Face powder • Face powder VS Powder foundation

Functions: • Hide the skin flaws • Even out various color tones  in the skin • Act as a protectant from the  environment • Make the skin surface appear  smoother

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Foundation

Foundation

Other properties of ideal foundation

Ideal make‐up foundation’s application • Water resistance  • Shade consistency between the bottle 

• Moderate fast drying to allow for an even 

and the skin tone

application • Non‐settling, pour easily, be stable in storage

• Product should be uniform

• Should not feel tacky, greasy, or too dry

• Coverage will vary with skin types

• Proper  play time Proper ‘play time’ and slip and slip

• Finish on the skin: matte, shiny, dewy  h h k h d

• Improve the appearance, not artificially  

• Wear properties: not peel‐ff, not rub‐

off on clothes 5

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Powder Compact Foundation

Foundation: Types of foundations

• Powder foundation

Easy to touch up the makeup when one is away from home

• Oil‐based (anhydrous) foundation • Aqueous‐based foundation • Emulsion foundation

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Powder Compact Foundation •

Extender pigments: Talc, mica, sericite pg , ,



Whitening & coloring pigments:  –

Powder Compact Foundation

TiO2, ZnO, iron oxides



Binding agents



Perfumes



Actives 9

Two‐way powder Foundation •

Used on dry or wet sponge



Main type of summer foundation



Convenience, cool, refreshing feeling

Powder • Talc  20.3 • Mica 35.0 • Kaolin 35.0 • TiO2 10.0 • TiO2 coated Mica 3.0 • Zinc stearate 1.0 • Iron oxides 4‐5% • Nylon powder 10.0 Bi di Binding agents t • Squalane 6.0 • Lanolin acetate 1.0 • Octyldodecyl myristate4.0 • Sorbitol monooleate0.5 Perfumes, actives

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Two‐way powder Foundation Powder • Silicone‐treated talc  • Silicone‐treated mica l d • Silicone‐treated TiO2 • Silicone‐treated ultrafineTiO2 • Silicone‐treated Iron oxides • Zinc stearate 0.1 • Nylon powder Binding agents • Squalane • Solid paraffin • Dimethyl polysiloxane 4.0 • Glyceryl triisooctanoate Perfumes, actives 11

19.2 40.0 15.0 5.0 4‐5% 2.0 4.0 0.5 5.0

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Anhydrous Foundation

Two‐ Two‐Way Foundation Make Way Foundation Make‐‐Up • Ingredients % w/w • Dimethicone Treated Sericite Treated Sericite 44 3 44.3 • Dimethicone Treated Talc  37.2 • Dimethicone Treated Titanium Dioxide, Alumina 3.5 • Dimethicone Treated Yellow Iron Oxide  2.4 • Dimethicone Treated Red Iron Oxide 0.9 • Dimethicone Treated Black Iron Oxide 0.3 Binder • Dimethicone 4.4 • Octyldodecyl Oleate 3.5 • Squalane 3.5 • Preservative q.s.

• Powdery, not fluid • Easy to travel with • Autumn and winter

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Anhydrous Foundation

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Anhydrous Foundation

• Ingredients • Waxes

• Ingredients • Pigments (often surface treated)

– Beeswax, jojoba, carnauba, candelilla – Paraffin, polyethylene,  – Dimethicone copolyol, beeswax, polyglyceryl‐3  beeswax (nice texture, compatibility with beeswax (nice texture, compatibility with  silicones) – Fatty alcohols

– TiO2 – ZnO – Iron oxides

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Anhydrous Foundation

Anhydrous Foundation • Ingredients

• Ingredients

• Bioactives

• Wetting agents

– Anti‐inflammatory

– Low HLB emulsifiers

– Moisturizer and skin protectant

– Polyglyceryl esters (polyglyceryl‐3 diisostearate)

– Antioxidant

– Lanolin alcohols

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Anhydrous Foundation‐‐ Liquid type Anhydrous Foundation

Anhydrous Foundation • Basic formulation E lli t Emollients

30 60% 30‐60%

Waxes

5‐10%

Wetting agents

0.5‐1.0%

Texturing agents

30‐60%

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• Anhydrous liquid translucent foundation Powder z

Mica

20-25 %

z

Iron oxides

q.s.

Oil phase

• Manufacturing procedure 1.Emollients,Waxes,Wetting agents‐heated 2.Pigment,Texturing agents‐added

z

Carnauba wax

5.0

z

Beeswax

1.0

z

Isopropyl myristate75.0

Perfumes, actives

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Anhydrous Foundation Anhydrous Foundation‐‐ Compact type Cake foundation Compact type Cake  foundation

Anhydrous Foundation Anhydrous Foundation‐‐ Cream type

Powder

• Anhydrous cream foundation Powder



Talc 

17.8



Kaolin

15.0



TiO2

15.0



Iron oxides

4‐5%

z

Talc

to 100

z

Mica

3.0

z

TiO2

20.0

z

Iron oxides

4-5



Solid paraffin



Microcrystalline wax6.0



Beeswax

20 2.0



Petrolatum

12.0



Lanolin acetate

1.0



Squalane

6.0



Isopropyl palmitate 18.0

Oil phase

Oil phase z

Carnauba wax

10.0

z

Mineral oil

30.0

z

Isopropyl myristate10.0

z

Lanolin

5.0

Perfumes, actives

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Anhydrous Foundation  Anhydrous Foundation ‐‐ Stick type

3.0

Perfumes, actives

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Emulsion Foundation

Powder •

Talc 

2.8



Kaolin

20.0



Mica 

3.0



TiO2

20.0



Iron oxides

4‐5%

• Compositions are vary widely depending on degree of  coverage and emollient desired. • Stability • Pigment wetting and dispersion

Oil phase •

Solid paraffin



Microcrystalline wax7 0 Microcrystalline wax7.0

• Easy spreading and blending



Petrolatum

• Good skin feel



Dimethyl polysiloxane3.0



Squalane



Isopropyl palmitate 17.0

Perfumes, actives

3.0 15.0

• Slippery feeling

5.0 23

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Emulsion Foundation

Emulsion Foundation • Oil‐in‐Water (O/W) Emulsion Foundations

• Formulation considerations Formulation considerations

– Oils and powder are  dispersed through the water phase to  form an emulsion

– Prolonged skin contact, minimize emulsifier levels  to avoid irritant

– Cream and liquid type

– Choose the oils based on low comedogenicity

– Shorter playtime than that of W/O emulsion

– Preservation‐difficult to preserve (gum+water) P i diffi l ( )

– Stability Stability 

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Emulsion Foundation •

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Emulsion Foundation

Oil‐in‐Water (O/W) Emulsion Foundation – Powder • Talc • TiO2 • Iron oxides

3.0 5.0 ~ 2.0‐3.0

– Oil • • • • •

Stearic acid Liquid paraffin Liquid lanolin Glyceryl monostearate Isohexadecyl alcohol

2.2 8.0 2.0 2.0 70 7.0

– Water • • • • •

Bentonite Deionized water POE sorbitan monostearate Triethanolamine Propylene glcol

– Other materials

0.5 to 100 0.9 1.0 10.0

1. Disperse bentonite in propylene

• Water‐in Oil (W/O) Emulsion Foundations ( / )

glycol, add water, mix well with

– This type has been used for long ago

others in water phase at 70 °C

– Easy to apply, long playtime, oily feel on use

2. Grind the powder ad add to

– Silicone oils—light feel, long wear, water‐resistant

water phase 3 The oil phase is heated to 70 °C 3.The C

–2 2‐layer layer dispersed foundation (shake well dispersed foundation (shake well‐type) type)

4. Add oil phase into water phase

– Cream type‐very popular

and process in a homomixer

– Undergo no change in color with wearing

5. While stirring, cool to 45 °C , and add other materials 27

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Emulsion Foundation •

Emulsion Foundation

W/O Foundation Cream



– Powder

– Powder

1 Mix water phase well at 70 °C 1. C

• Sericite

5.36

• Kaolin

4.0

2. Grind the powder ad add to water

• TiO2

9.32

phase

• Iron oxides

~ 2.0‐3.0

W/O liquid Foundation (2‐layer) • Talc

3.The oil phase is heated to 70 °C

– Oil

7.0

• Silicic acid anhydride

2.0

• TiO2

12.0

• Nylon powder

4.0

• Iron oxides

~ 2.0‐3.0

2. Grind the powder ad add to water phase

– Oil

• Liquid paraffin

5.0

4. Add oil phase into water phase and

• Decamethyl cyclopentasiloxane

12.0

process in a homomixer

• Polyethylene denatutured Polyethylene denatutured dimethylsiloxane

40 4.0

• Pentaerythritol rosinate

1.5

5. While stirring, cool to 45 °C , and

• Neopentyl glycol diisooctanoate

2.0

– Water

1. Mix water phase well

• Octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane

10.0

3.The oil phase is mixed and add oil phase into water phase, process

• Polyethylene denatutured dimethylsiloxane1.5

add other materials

in a homomixer

• Deionized water

to 100

• Dispersing agent

0.1

• Deionized water

to 100

• Propylene glcol

5.0

• Ethanol

7.0

• Propylene glycol

5.0

– Water

– Other materials 29

– Other materials

Emulsion Foundation

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Emulsion Foundation

Emulsions

1. Direct pigment

¾

Coloration of the emulsion base may be handled in  different ways:

¾

The pigments are weighted directly into the aqueous  phase and dispersed or colloid milled

1.

Direct pigment

¾

Then, the emulsion is formed

2.

Pigment dispersions

¾

Problems: 

3.

Mixed pigment blender

¾

too many color adjustments needed

4.

Monochromatic color

¾

Accurate color matching is difficult

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Emulsion Foundation

Emulsion Foundation

2. Pigment dispersions

3. Mixed pigment blender

¾

¾

The pigments and the extenders are premixed,  pulverized, and matched to a standard

¾

Then, dispersed in the aqueous phase of the  emulsion and the emulsion is formed

¾

The finished shade is color matched at the powder  blender stage

¾

Changes of error are reduced

The pigment is mixed with talc in 50:50 dispersion  ratio

¾

Then, pulverized to match a standard

¾

Reduce number of color corrections needed, but  d b f l d d b storage may be a problem 

¾

Taking time to make the  dispersion 33

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Aqueous‐ Aqueous‐based or Suspension Foundation

Emulsion Foundation 4. Monochromatic color solutions

} Water‐based foundation

¾

Make color concentrates of each pigment in a  finished formula

} Water

Easy to color match by blending finished base but  much storage space is needed

} Pigment

Possibility of contamination is increased

} Additives

¾ ¾

} Suspending agent } Preservative

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Concealer Product ™Cover facial blemishes: birthmarks,  chloasma, lack of pigmentation ™Stick or cream form ™Stick or cream form

Concealer Product



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CONCEALER COMES IN DIFFERENT FORMS

Concealer ¾Solid cream stick

‰ Formulation‐stick form

¾Pot ¾Tube ¾Wand ¾Pencil ¾Oil‐free compact 39

‰ Caster oil

29.4

‰ Butyl stearate

14.0

‰ Petrolatum

5.6

‰ Beeswax

10.5

‰ Ozokerite wax

7.0

‰ Paraffin wax

3.5

‰ TiO2

25.0

‰ Iron oxides

5.0 

Procedure ‰ Heat the oils, waxes, add the grind powders ‰ Pour into mold

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Make‐‐up Base Foundation Make

Make‐‐up Base Foundation Make

ƒ Correct your skin tone, to 

achieving flawless and long  lasting complexion.  ƒ Yellow, green, violet, white

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Make‐ Make‐up Base Foundation Complexion: 

Make‐‐up Base Foundation Make

Three basic color categories

™ Yellow = suitable for Dark and Uneven Skin Tone,  yellow helps to lighten dark complexion and unified  uneven skin tone ki

™Sallow:  ªYellowish, brownish Yellowish, brownish‐‐yellow or green color

™

™Florid: ªHighly colored, ruddy

™

Pink = suitable for Dull Skin Tone, pink can lighten  and illuminates dull skin tone  Use Lilac to calm yellow, sallow skin

™Green = suitable for redness skin tone, = suitable for redness skin tone green is very  green is very good to tone down the redness

™Neutral: ª Little or no color

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™Blue = suitable for slight redness Skin Tone, Very Fair  Skin Tone, blue helps to illuminates fair skin tone and  tone down slightly redness

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Equipment Requirements:

Equipment Requirements

Grinding or Dispersing

a Grinding of pigments

a Grinding of the pigment phase into the  Grinding of the pigment phase into the

a Mixing and blending of the liquid and the 

smallest possible particle size.

powder phases

aColloid mill aRoller mill

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Equipment Requirements:

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Choosing the right foundation

Mixing a A steam jacketed tank equipped with some  A steam jacketed tank equipped with some

type of agitator (for oil phase) and a steam  jacketed tank for water phase a Homomixer

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Choosing the right foundation

Choosing the right foundation œ Product forms:

œ Normal Skin Facial Foundations N l Ski F i l F d i

œLiquid

œ Coverage

œCream

œ Dry Skin Facial Foundations

œ Product finishes:

œ Acne/Oily Skin Facial Foundations œ Combination Skin Facial Foundations

œVery sheer œSheer œModerate

œMatte 

œHeavy

œSemimatte

œFull

œMoist  Moist semimatte semimatte œshiny 49

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Choosing the right foundation

Choosing the right foundation

Facial Foundation Finishes

Normal Skin Facial Foundations

Finish

Appearance Formulation Skin type Moisturizing ability

œ Numerous facial foundations of choice Numerous facial foundations of choice

zMatte

Flat, no shine

Oil-free

Oily

œ Semimatte to moist semimatte to moist semimatte finish

zSemimatte

Min. shine

Oil-free or O/W-based

Oily to Normal

O/W-based O/W based

Normal to dry Dry

zMoistMoistsemimatte

Dewy shine

zShiny

Obvious shine W/O-based

Least

œ Feature: œ Moisturizing foundation: additives œ Sun Protection (SPF) Sun Protection (SPF) œ Long‐lasting

Most

œ Natural‐look foundation œ Liquid or Cream form 51

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Choosing the right foundation

Choosing the right foundation

Dry Skin Facial Foundations

Acne/Oily Skin Facial Foundations

œ All day moisturizing foundations

œ Matte or  Matte or semimatte semimatte finish

œ Easy to apply, long playtime, moist feeling

œ Oil Oil‐‐free or low oil content

œ Semimatte or shiny finish

œ Less coverage œ More prone to cake

œ Feature:

œ Short playtime, difficult to apply

œOil‐based (anhydrous) foundations

œ W/S emulsions

œW/O emulsions

œ Liquid form

œCream form

œ Oil selection:  Oil selection: comedogenic comedogenic potential 53

Choosing the right foundation

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References

Combination Skin Facial Foundations œ The most common skin type yp

1. J. J. B. Wilkinson, R. J. Moore, Harry B. Wilkinson, R. J. Moore, Harry’ss Cosmeticology, 7th ed. Chemical  Cosmeticology, 7th ed. Chemical publishing, New York, USA, 1982.

œ T‐zone : oily central forehead, nose, cheeks

2. T. Mitsui, New Cosmetic Science, Elsevier Science B.V, Amsterdam, The  Netherlands, 1997.

œ No best foundation developed to date

3. M.S. Balsam, E. Sagarin. Cosmetics : Science and Technology. Volume I, II  and III, 2nd ed., Wiley‐Interscience, New York, 1972, 1974.

œ Oil‐ Oil‐control foundation (higher Talc, kaolin) œ Feature:

4 M 4. M. Paye, A.O. Barel, H.I. Maibach. Handbook of Cosmetic Science  Paye A O Barel H I Maibach Handbook of Cosmetic Science Technology. Taylor & Francis, New York, USA, 2006.

œ O/W liquid emulsions

5. M. G. deNavarre, J.H. Merritt, The Chemistry and Manufacture of  Cosmetics, 2nd ed.,Continetal Press, Orlando, FL,USA.,1974. 

œ W/S liquid emulsions

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