FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MINDFULNESS Conference Proceedings The First International Conference on Mindfulness 1° ICM Rome, May 8-12 2013 ...
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Conference Proceedings

The First International Conference on Mindfulness 1° ICM Rome, May 8-12 2013

Keynote lectures (in alphabetical order, according to keynote speakers’ last names) Mindfulness and its supportive friends Amaro Ajahn Amaravati Buddhist Monastery, UK In order for mindfulness to fulfil its potential as a liberating quality, leading the individual to lasting peace, happiness & well-being, it can be aided by many other factors. This talk will explore the nature of some of those friends and relations of mindfulness and outline ways that they can be cultivated to support its transformative powers

Mental states and their transformation by mindfulness Henk P. Barendregt Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies, Radboud University The development of mindfulness interventions has been inspired by insight meditation (vipassana) coming from classical Buddhism. By using the notion 'mental state' and 'stream of consciousness' one may describe the principal aim of both mindfulness interventions and insight meditation, and at the same time differentiate between these. Mindfulness interventions conduct the practitioner towards domestication of dysfunctional mental states, so that their occurrence is reduced or even eliminated. Insight meditation, on the other hand, aims also at domestication of some mental states that usually are considered functional. The reason to do this is that there may ̶and in fact will ̶come situations in which these no longer are wholesome. Both practices need various cycles of developing discipline and concentration aimed at insight, using a trained form of the simple but individually often forgotten act of friendly mindfulness. This insight results in stress reduction, with its well-known benefits for mind and body. Insight meditation eventually aims at the domestication of the interpretation of 'personal self', by which this notion is no longer seen and felt as a permanent entity, but rather as an ongoing process. A developed fine resolution of awareness brings about the insight that the stream of consciousness runs by itself and determines 'our' mental states, without us being directly able to determine them. Having clearly seen and accepted this, paradoxically results in considerably greater freedom and well-being. The reason is that no longer one needs to pretend (e.g. to be the boss who is in absolute control of one's mind and body). This is both a relief and a resource for wholesome action.

Mindful parenting in mental health care: Effects on parental stress, (co)parenting, and child and parental psychopathology Bögels Susan University of Amsterdam & UvA minds Despite its inherent joys, the challenges of parenting can produce considerable stress. These challenges multiply-and the quality of parenting may suffer-when a parent or child has mental health issues, or when parents are in conflict. Even under optimal circumstances, the constant changes as children develop can tax parents' inner resources, often undoing the best intentions and parenting courses. Mindful Parenting is an eight-week structured mindfulness training program, based on MBSR and MBCT. It is designed for use in mental health care contexts, for parents who

have (had) mental health problems that interfere with parenting, or whose child or children have mental health problems. The program's eight sessions focus on mindfulness-oriented skills for parents, such as parenting with beginner’s mind, responding to (as opposed to reacting to) parenting stress, handling conflict with children or partners, fostering empathy, and setting limits. In this keynote the theories on which Mindful Parenting is based, the rationale, and the build-up of the program, is outlined. Scientific research as well as qualitative reports about the effects of Mindful Parenting in a mental health care context on outcome measures such as parental and child psychopathology, parenting stress, parenting, and co-parenting, are reviewed. Also, the effects on variables that are assumed to mediate the change, such as mindfulness, mindful parenting, and parental experiential avoidance, are presented. With videotapes and short meditation practices that we have found to be helpful in teaching mindful parenting to parents, parts of the program are demonstrated. Finally, the attitudes and skills of a Mindful Parenting instructor are discussed.

Mindfulness and its obstacles in science and in practice Grossman Paul University of Basel Hospital, Switzerland As ‘mindfulness’ reaches a stage of broad acceptance in science and society, opportunities abound to reorient and recalibrate our knowledge of the human psyche, behavior and actions in the world: On the one hand, a powerful tool of phenomenological investigation has been rediscovered that may be capable of enriching the experience and understanding of our inner lives. On the other hand, this tool—the practice of mindfulness—(perhaps more an approach to life than a tool) engenders ways of thinking that deviate radically from those of the past, such as the consideration of an interwoven relationship between the cognitive and the ethical, or stark insights into the limitations of positivist scientific traditions and methods in psychology. Nevertheless, potential for such innovations of thinking and being in the world relies upon the extent to which facilitators of mindfulness-based interventions and scientists examining mindfulness remain cognizant of the soteriological and ethical foundations of the Buddhist percept, so as not to denature or reify mindfulness to make it fit into staid academic models, methods and theories. This presentation will explore obstacles that a mindful approach faces as ‘mindfulness’ becomes mainstream in science and in the marketplace: 1) how ‘mindfulness’ may have already become reified and restrictively redefined in the psychological literature; 2) how inherent forces of human nature, such as greed, delusion and ignorance collude with the marketplace in science and the self-help industry, to influence dissemination of MBI’s and distort the scientific literature on mindfulness; 3) how current scientific pressures and incentives contribute to the problem of overoptimistic reporting of mindfulness findings; 4) how professional occupation with ‘mindfulness’ may contribute to taboo-ization of discussion of these issues; and 5) how current methods of investigation may not offer optimal approaches to the objective examination of benefits of mindfulness practice and may actually lead to false leads. Finally, procedures will be suggested by which some of these issues may be addressed and possibly partially overcome.

The Future of Mindfulness: Transformation and Healing at the Confluence of Science and Dharma Kabat-Zinn Jon University of Massachusetts Medical School, USA Interest in mindfulness is expanding exponentially. Along with the enthusiasm come both profound opportunities and the usual dangers that accompany any bandwagon phenomenon - in particular, that the essence of mindfulness as a liberative meditative practice and challenging discipline will be lost, downplayed, or even ignored in favor of more conceptual attempts to investigate and understand it from the outside, without taking equal care to investigate and understand it from the inside - through direct experience on the part of the investigators. In this keynote talk, Dr. KabatZinn will discuss both the promise and the dangers associated with the mindfulness phenomenon, analyze why it is so popular, and point out the potential power of bringing the depths and rigor of the third-person perspective of science, including medical science, together with the depths and rigor of the first-person orientation of meditative practices. He will argue that if we can succeed in understanding mindfulness from both the inside and the outside with equal rigor and objectivity, we will be able to dramatically reduce human suffering, elucidate with far greater precision the nature of what we commonly refer to as “the self,” promote physical and psychological healing, and transform of our relationship with ourselves, society, the environment, and the planet itself.

The self-fulfilling brain: predictions, categories, and what all this has to do with meditation Pagnoni Giuseppe University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy The brain is a very energy-demanding organ and, intriguingly, most of its metabolic budget is spent on maintaining neural activity even when we are not involved in any explicit task. While this intrinsic activity has long been considered as lacking functional meaning, it has recently come to the forefront of neuroimaging research for its potential to illuminate some fundamental questions about the brain and the mind. One of the most promising theory in this field views the brain as a prediction machine that is constantly seeking to confirm its hypotheses about the world, based on past experiences. In this lecture, we will discuss these issues and how findings from the meditation research literature can be interpreted in the light of this theoretical framework.

Mindfulness, Suicidality and Early Adversity Professor Mark Williams University of Oxford, UK There are large differences from one person to another in the extent to which suicidal ideation and behaviour can be triggered by mood or by difficult circumstances. New understandings from psychology (e.g. from mood challenge paradigms to examine long-term vulnerability in high risk people even when in remission) show us a way in which mindfulness might begin to address these on-going vulnerabilities. The talk will describe research suggesting that it is how people react to suicidal thoughts that creates the conditions in which they persist and escalate. Although some people take comfort from suicidal feelings, most people either try to suppress these feelings, or ruminate about what it means to have them. Both ways of coping with suicidal feelings can tragically backfire: the feelings become stronger. The talk will report data from a trial that has

studied whether Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), which seeks to train people to notice and change their habitual tendencies to react to their own thinking in unhelpful ways, can reduce recurrence of depression in those who are at highest risk, and whether, if they experience another episode, they can be depressed without becoming suicidal.

Symposium on Mindfulness and Dharma Developing heart qualities through meditation Ajahn Chandapalo Santacittarama Buddhist Monastery, Rieti, Italy There is a common tendency among westerners to approach meditation in a very cerebral way, with an emphasis on willful effort and control, which can result in a heightened sense of separation and alienation. This can leave one with a feeling of inner emptiness, of something lacking, of ones heart not being fully engaged. Fundamental to traditional Buddhist meditation practice are what are known as the Four Brahma Viharas, or sublime abidings of friendliness, empathy, joy and serenity. These natural and skilful qualities of the heart can be directly accessed and developed, helping to foster a sense of connectedness and wholeness and an ability to relate more skillfully both to ones own inner experience and to the outside world.

Now and Zen: Shikantaza, koan and mindfulness Dario Doshin Girolami L’Arco Zen Center, Rome, Italy The practice of being in the present moment is crucial in Zen as in Mindfulness. Shikantaza is the main practice of the Soto Zen Tradition: although normally is translated as “just sitting”, Shikantaza entails to be fully in the infinity of the present moment. Then, the question is: “How small is the idea that we have of what is the present moment?”. The Zen practice of Koan on some level is a practice of mindfulness, but on another level is a practice that reconnects the practitioner with the whole Universe. It’s the practice of harmonizing the particular with the universal, or recognizing the Absolute in the present moment. Again the question is: “what is the limit of here and now”?. Both Shikantaza and Koan practice work in the context of the Eightfold Path taught by the Buddha. They entails, certainly, right mindfulness, but also right effort, right concentration, right view and right intention. Also they are aimed to a right conduct (right speech, action and livelihood). So the questions are: Does Mindfulness work apart from the context of the Eightfold Path? What is the difference between Buddhist meditation, and the practice of Mindfulness? Is it possible to enter Samadhi only through the practice of Mindfulness? Those are the questions the talk will deal with.

Living with Tonglen and the bliss of breathing Geshe Gedun Tharchin LamRim Institute, Rome, Italy The Eight Verses Thought Transformation says, “In brief, directly or indirectly, I will offer help and happiness to all my mothers, and secretly take upon myself. All their hurt and suffering. ”The Tong Len practice is primarily it is a method for awakening the compassion that is in herent in all of us, no matter how cruel or cold we might seem to be. Tong Len reverses the usual logic of avoiding suffering and seeking pleasure and, in the process, we become liberated from a very ancient prison of selfishness. We begin to feel love both for ourselves and others and also we begin to take care of ourselves and others. It awakens our compassion. Tong Len can be done either as a formal meditation practice or right on the spot at anytime. For example, if you are out walking and you see someone in pain —right on the spot you can begin to breathe in their pain and send out some relief.

Symposia (In alphabetical order, according to the first convenor’s last name and, within each Symposium, according to the first author’s last names) MEDITATION   PRACTICE   IN   NONCOMMUNICABLE   DISEASES:   EVIDENCE  ON  CARDIAC,  DIABETIC  AND  CANCER  PATIENTS     Convenors:  Bruno  G.  Bara1,  Fabio  Giommi2,3   1Center   for   Cognitive   Science,   Department   of   Psychology,   University   of   Turin,   ITALY,   Via   Po,   14   -­‐   10123  Torino  (IT)  Phone:  +39  011  6703036   2AIM-­‐Associazione  Italiana  Mindfulness2     NOUS-­‐  School  of  Psychotherapy,  Milano3    

General  abstract:     In   the   context   of   medical   care,   where   patients   experience   a   wide   range   of   physical   and   emotional  difficulties,  consensus  is  growing  around  the  notion  that  care  must  be  given  to  the   patient  as  a  whole  person.  Within  the  present  symposium,  four  papers  will  be  presented  on   the  relationship  between  self-­‐  awareness  practices  and  total  well-­‐being  of  the  individual.  The   common  underlying  assumption  is  that  when  people  are  in  contact  with  themselves  they  can   create   the   conditions   to   become   healthy   human   beings.   In   particular,   meditation   practice   offers  a  new  perspective  on  the  suffering  linked  to  a  medical  condition.  Research  studies  show   how   meditation   practice   and   a   mindful   approach   to   organic   diseases   can   also   lead   to   an   improvement  of  the  medical  condition  of  patients,  as  well  as  to  better  psychological  outcomes.   The   Symposium   will   take   into   account   a   specific   field   of   medical   conditions:   Noncommunicable   diseases   (NCDs),   so   called   because   they   are   not   passed   from   person   to   person.   NCDs   are   chronic   diseases   with   a   long   duration   and   a   generally   slow   progression.   They   cause   more   than   36   million   people’s   deaths   each   year,   and   the   WHO   has   activated   an   Action  plan  to  prevent  and  control  them.  The  four  main  types  of  noncommunicable  diseases   are  cardiovascular  disease,  cancer,  chronic  respiratory  disease  and  diabetes.  They  share  four   risk   factors:   tobacco   use,   physical   inactivity,   harmful   use   of   alcohol   and   unhealthy   diet.   The   challenge  of  meditation  practice  with  patients  affected  by  NCDs  is  to  change  the  relation  of  the   individual   with   her/his   own   disease,   even   if   chronic,   investigating   which   measurable   variables   can   show   this   evolution.   The   aim   of   the   Symposium   is   to   present   four   research   studies  on  meditation  and  mindfulness  practice  with  patients  affected  by  NCDs.    

Mindfulness  Based  Stress  Reduction  Program  for  cancer  survivors:  a  pilot   study  in  Italian  Oncology  Setting     Eleonora Capovilla, Irene Guglieri1, Fabio Giommi 1 UOS Psiconcologia, Istituto Oncologico Veneteo IOV-IRCCS

Introduction:   A  cancer  diagnosis  is  a  life-­‐changing  event  and  adverse  consequences  of  cancer  survival  have   the   potential   to   cause   physical,   psychological   and   social   morbidity.   Few   studies   have  

investigated   the   efficacy   of   psychosocial   interventions   in   survivorship   and   research   is   needed   to   identify   appropriate   strategies   to   support   cancer   patient   survivors.   Results   from   meta-­‐ analyses   suggest   that   mindfulness   based   therapy   is   effective   for   reduction   of   psychological   distress  both  in  cancer  patients  and  survivors.   Method:   This  study  is  designed  as  a  descriptive  pilot  study  to  examine  1)  the  effect  of  participation  in  a   MBSR  program  on  cancer  survivors  2)  the  feasibility  of  MBSR  in  a  public  oncology  setting  in   Italy.   59   cancer   survivors   were   recruited   from   oncology   clinic   of   IOV   from   2009   to   2012.   A   self-­‐assessment  questionnaire  package  was  fulfilled  before  and  after  participation  in  a  MBSR   program.   Outcome   measures   included   quality   of   life   (EORTC   QLQ   C-­‐30),   distress   (PGWBI),   anxiety   and   depression   (HADS),   mindfulness   skills   (KIMS;   MAAS).   Qualitative   data   were   collected.   Results:   Actually   preliminary   data   analysis   showed   significant   severe   distress   reduction   (from   56%   to   24%)  and  enhancement  of  non  distress  state  (from  39%  to  62,5%)  after  the  program.  Levels   of   mindfulness   increased   significantly   over   the   course   of   the   program   (61%)   and   was   maintained  until  12  months  after  the  treatment.  Further  analyses  are  now  underway.   Discussion:   This   pilot   study   shows   the   feasibility   of   MBSR   program   with   cancer   survivors   in   oncology   setting  and  represents  the  first  experience  in  Italian  public  oncology.    

Mental   Fitness   in   patients   with   cardiovascular   disease:   Awareness   is   effective  on  psychological  and  medical  variables     Rabellino   Daniela,   Claudia   Chiavarino,   Erika   Cavallero,   Luigi   Palumbo,   Serena   Bergerone,   Fiorenzo  Gaita,  Bruno  G.  Bara   Center  for  Cognitive  Science,  Department  of  Psychology,  University  of  Turin,  ITALY       Introduction   Cardiovascular   disease   represents   one   of   the   leading   causes   of   death   in   western   countries.   Growing   evidence   shows   that   psychological   interventions   may   enhance   the   efficacy   of   standard  cardiological  treatment.  The  aim  of  this  study  is  to  investigate  the  contribution  of  an   integrated  approach,  named  Mental  Fitness,  which  comprehends  meditation  practice  within  a   brief  psychological  group  intervention.   Method   Prospective  randomized  controlled  single-­‐blind  trial,  recruiting  patients  with  coronary  heart   disease  within  a  week  from  their  acute  cardiac  event.  At  the  time  of  recruitment,  all  patients   (N=65)  were   Results   The  experimental  group  patients  reported  increased  mental  (F(1,52)=12.253,  p=.001),  social   (F(1,52)=13.654,  p=.001)  and  environmental  (F(1,52)=5.247,  p=.026)  quality  of  life  compared   to  the  control  group.  They  showed  better  emotional  (F(1,59)=12.354,  p=.001)  and  problem-­‐ centered   coping   strategies   (F(1,59)=10.227,   p=.002),   and   higher   emotional   awareness   (F(1,58)=4.647,   p=.035).   They   also   showed   a   better   improvement   of   medical   outcomes,   and   specifically   on   lipid   profile   (cholesterol   F(1,43)=4.589,   p=.038   and   triglycerides   F(1,44)=4.161,   p=.047)   and   cardiac   functioning   (heart   rate   F(1,56)=9.187,   p=.004   and   ejection  fraction  F(1,57)=5.628,  p=.021).   Discussion  

This   study   demonstrates   the   positive   effect   of   Mental   Fitness   on   specific   psychological   and   clinical  variables  potentially  influencing  cardiological  patients’  prognosis.    

Individual  Mindfulness-­‐Based  Cognitive  Therapy  for  people  with  diabetes:   a  pilot  randomized  controlled  trial     Maya J. Schroevers1, K. Annika Tovote, Joost C. Keers, Thera P. Links, Robbert Sanderman, Joke Fleer 1 Section Health Psychology, University of Groningen/University Medical Center, Netherlands   Introduction   Diabetes  puts  a  considerable  psychological  burden  on  patients.  In  this  pilot  RCT,  we  examined   the   feasibility   and   acceptability   of   individual   Mindfulness-­‐Based   Cognitive   Therapy   (I-­‐MBCT).   Descriptive  analyses  were  performed  to  explore  changes  in  patients’  functioning  over  time.   Method   Consecutive  diabetes  patients  were  screened  on  psychological  symptoms  and  when  reporting   elevated   levels   of   symptoms,   approached   for   the   study.   Patients   completed   self-­‐report   questionnaires  pre-­‐  and  post-­‐intervention.   Results   347   diabetes   patients   filled   out   the   screening   questionnaire:   104   patients   reported   elevated   levels   of   psychological   symptoms.   Of   the   38   eligible   patients,   24   patients   were   randomized   in   I-­‐MBCT  (n=12)  or  waitlist  (n=12).  Two  of  12  patients  assigned  to  I-­‐MBCT  dropped  out  of  the   intervention.   Most   patients   were   very   satisfied   with   I-­‐MBCT.   Preliminary   analyses   showed   that   patients   receiving   I-­‐MBCT   reported   significant   reductions   in   depressive   symptoms   and   diabetes-­‐related  distress  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  improvements  in  mindfulness  and  attention   regulation,  compared  to  controls.   Discussion   This   may   be   the   first   RCT   on   individual   MBCT.   Findings   support   the   feasibility   and   acceptability  of  I-­‐MBCT  in  diabetes  patients  and  suggest  that  I-­‐MBCT  may  be  associated  with   improvements  in  psychological  functioning.  As  such,  our  results  warrant  larger  trials  on  this   alternative  form  of  mindfulness-­‐  based  therapy.  

  Mindfulness-­‐based   cognitive   therapy   for   patients   with   diabetes   and   emotional   problems:   Follow-­‐up   findings   from   the   DiaMind   randomized   controlled  trial     Jenny van Son, Ivan Nyklíček1, Victor J. Pop, François Pouwer 1 Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic diseases (CoRPS), Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, Netherlands

Introduction   The  DiaMind  randomized  controlled  trial  showed  beneficial  immediate  effects  of  mindfulness-­‐ based  cognitive  (group)  therapy  (MBCT)  on  emotional  distress  and  health-­‐related  quality  of   life,   but   not   on   diabetes   specific   distress   and   HbA1c.   The   aim   of   the   present   report   was   to   examine   if   the   effects   would   be   sustained   after   6   months   follow-­‐up   and   if   diabetes   related   factors  predict  effectiveness.   Method  

In   the   DiaMind   trial,   139   outpatients   with   diabetes   and   low   levels   of   emotional   well-­‐being   were   randomized   to   MBCT   (n=70)   or   a   waiting   list   group   (n=69).   Primary   outcomes   were   perceived   stress,   anxiety   and   depressive   symptoms,   mood,   and   diabetes   specific   distress.   Secondary  outcomes  were  health-­‐related   Results     Compared   to   the   control   group,   MBCT   showed   sustained   reductions   in   perceived   stress   (P1000hrs)   showed   a   strikingly   different   pattern,   however.   Their   self-­‐ reported   attentional   state   corresponded   with   alpha   power   during   a   more   extended   time   interval   preceding   those   of   controls   and   novice   meditators.   In   addition,   self-­‐reported   low   attention  trials  showed  a  distinctive  alpha  suppression  preceding  prove  onset,  suggesting  that   the   ability   for   moment-­‐by-­‐moment   monitoring   of   the   attentional   state   permitted   greater   attentional  control.    


  Convenor:    Fabio  Giommi   AIM-­‐Associazione  Italiana  Mindfulness   NOUS-­‐  School  of  Psychotherapy,  Italy       During   the   last   decade     there   has   been   an   surge   of   interest   about   the   potential     benefit   of   mindful   individuals   in   leadership   roles   within   organizational   life.   One   the   one   side,   the   promise   of   it   seems   evident;   on   the   other   side,   actual   training   experiences   aimed   to   favour   more  mindful  people  are  not  so  frequent  in  large  organizations,  and  rarely  they  go  behyond   pilot  projects  limited  to  rather  small  sample.   The  aim  of  the  present  symposium  is  to  present  two  case  hystories  from  real  life  application   of  mindfulness  in  organisational  life,  and  to  reflect  on  the  obstacles  and  the  constrains  as  well   as  the  benefit  and  the  promise  of  such  attempt.   The   first   presentation   is   an   account   of   a   massive,   possibly   the   largest   ever   in   Europe,     experience  of  an  introductory    mindfulnes  exercises  as  part  of  a  training  program  at  Telecom   Italia,  a  TLC  multinational.     The   interest   of   this   case   hystory,   between   other   things,   is   in   how   mindfulness,   although   an   introductory  taste,  was  received  by  several  hundreds  persons  in  leadreship  roles.   The  second  presentation  is    about  quite  the  opposite  setting:  a  single  young  individual  with  a   leadership   role   in   a   big   multinational   consultancy   firm,     who   was   personally   moved   and   transformed  by  attending  an  MBSR  course,  and  brought  and  a  consistently  practiced  a  more   mindful  attitude  in  leading  his  team.    In  this  specific  case,  also  the  financial  results  of  a  more   mindful  leadership  were  measurable.  

The  third  presentation  will  offer  a  summary  reflection,  based  on  the  previous  case  histories   and  other  cases,     on  pros  and  cons  of  proposing  mindfulness  in  organizations.    

Management   of   trade   investment   in   the   FMCG   sector.   Practical   case   hystory  of  trade  investment  optimization  and  control  based  on  a  model  of   “responsibility”  through  the  application  of  mindfulness  and  ACT  principles     Gabriele  Rossi  De  Gasperis,  Business  development  manager       This   paper   presents   a   model   that   improves   the   return   on   investment   in   the   FMCG   sector,   considering  a  practical  case  of  management  of  trade  investment  developed  in  a  multinational   company   in   Italy.   Trade   investment   in   the   FMCG   sector   is   the   main   budget   to   develop   the   business   and   it   holds   long   term   strategies   of   multinational   companies.   This   is   a   model   of   “responsibility”,   wherewith   the   sales   management   team   has   the   instruments   to   manage   the   profit  and  loss  with  full  awareness.  The  objective  is  to  allow  business  decision  in  line  with  the   company   mission   and   values   through   an   efficient   management   of   trade   investment.   I   have   developed  this  model  based  on  my  own  personal  meditation  experience  through  attending  an   MBSR   8-­‐weeks   class,   and   then   through   the   application   of   ACT   (Acceptance  and  Commitment   therapy)   principles,   a   technique   based   on   mindfulness   that   leads   to   be   in   contact   with   the   present  here  and  now  and  do  actions  in  line  with  companies’  values.  Once  I  have  proved  that   trade   investment   can   be   managed   in   a   context   of   complexity   through   a   simple   process   of   “responsibility”  I  have  set  a  system  of  control  able  to  identify  deviations  from  the  guidelines.    

Bringing  mindfulness  into  organizational  life:  easy  to  say,  much  less  to  do,   beautiful  when  succeed     Fabio  Giommi   AIM-­‐Associazione  Italiana  Mindfulness     NOUS-­‐  School  of  Psychotherapy,  Italy     The   third   presentation   will   offer   a   summary  reflection,  based  on  a  rather  extended,  real  life   professional  experience    about  the  obstacles,  the  illusions  as  well  as  the  potential  benefit  and   the  beauty  that  might  come  from  developing  mindfulness  into  organizational  life.  In  the  last   years   there   has   been   a   vivid   interest   of   the   business   world   and   of   the   consultancy   communities  about  the  potential  of  bringing  mindfulness  into  organizations.    This  is  easy  to   say,   much   less   to   do.   And   the   risk   is   that   this   opportunity   promote,   instead,   lots     of   wishful   thinking,  over-­‐simplistic  ideas  about  mindfulness  and  leadership,  and  eventually  to  promote   illusions.  The  presentation  is  aimed  to  show  how,  in  order  to  be  successful,  a  mix  of  (not  so   common)   requirements   and   conditions   is   needed,   as   prerequisites.   However,   when   these   conditions   are   met,   the   results   are   often   not   only   really   remarkable   and   sustained   but   also   beautiful:  organizational  life  can  be  experienced  as  a  more  fully  human  life.  

Telecom   Italia   HRS:   promoting   mindful   attention   in   executives   and   managers.  Case  history  from  a  “massive”  training  experience  

  ¹Maria  Antonietta  Russo,  ¹  Imma  Ardito,  ¹  Marco  Granone    ¹  Telecom  Italia  HRS     Telecom   Italia   is   a   multinational   telecom   company-­‐   the   biggest   Italian   industrial   company.   During   the   last   three   years,   Telecom   Italia   Human   Resources   Services   (HRS)   -­‐   the   group   company     specialized   in   delivering   H.   R.   consultancy,   training,   and   services   to   the   other   group   companies   in   Italy   ,   South   America,   and   other   countries   –   has   launched   a   massive   training   program  targeting  almost  all  Telecom  Italia  executives,  managers  and  middle  managment  in   Italy.   The   training   consisted   of   5   different   one   -­‐day   intensive   workshops.   One   of   these   workshop   was   aimed   to   develop   awareness   about     the   way   we   are   conditioned   by   our   attentional  processes,    and  the  crucial  important  of  mindful  attention  in  decision  making  and   emotional   intelligence.   The   workshop   increased   participant's   knowledge   about   the   recent     scientific   developments   in   neuroscience   and   cognitive   psychology   of   attention.   Most   importantly,   the   workshop   was   mainly   devoted   to   develop   experiential,   first-­‐person   awareness   about   the   power   of   attention   in   conditioning   our   mind   ,   as   well   as   to   introduce   some   basic   mindfulness   practices   to   improve   attentional   awareness.   The   workshop   main   teacher  was  delivered  by  a  small  team  of  consultants  led  by  Fabio  Giommi.  Between  July  2010   and   June   2012,   in   two   distinct   flows,   613   executives   and   managers,   and   744   middle   management,   attended   this   workshop.   The   mean   overall   evaluation   from   executives   and   managers   about   the   training   was   4.5   on   a   1-­‐5   likert   scale   (1=   not   satisfied   at   all;   5   =   very   satisfied);   and   the   evaluation   about   how   the   workshop   had   met   expectations   and   achieved   its   objectives   was   4.5.     While,   the   mean   overall   evaluation   from   middle   management   about   the   training   was   4.1;   and   the   evaluation   about   how   the   workshop   had   met   expectations   and   achieved   its   objectives   was   4.4.   During   this   presentation   qualitative   data   and   narrative   accounts   of   such   unique   training   experience   will   be   shared.   The   focus   of   the   presentation   will   be   particularly   on   how   the   “strange”   mindful   attention   practices   were   received   and   experienced  by  participants.    

CULTIVATING   MIND,   ENHANCING   LIFE.   A   MINDFULNESS   INTERVENTION   FOR   CHILDREN   WITH   AUTISM   SPECTRUM   DISORDER  AND  AGGRESSIVE  BEHAVIOUR,  AND  THEIR  MOTHERS       Convenors: 1Dr.Yoon-Suk Hwang, 2Patrick Kearney 1  Griffith  University,  Australia   2     General  Abstract:     In   this   symposium   we   will   present   a   research   project   that   is   applying   mindfulness   to   those   living  with  Autism  Spectrum  Disorders  (ASD)  and  aggressive  behaviours.  “Mindfulness”  here   is   not   being   treated   as   a   newly   discovered   and   isolated   psychological   technique,   but   as   an   integral   part   of   a   broader   approach   to   human   fulfilment   though   cognitive   and   affective   development   as   originally   developed   in   the   Pāli   Nikāyas,   or   “collections.”   These   texts   constitute  the  earliest  stratum  of  Indian  Buddhist  literature,  and  they  give  us  a  sophisticated   and   subtle   presentation   of   the   nature   and   role   of   mindfulness   as   a   basis   for   research.   This  

classical   understanding   is   being   adapted   to   accommodate   the   requirements   of   a   contemporary  social  science  research  project.  We  are  examining  the  relevance  of  mindfulness   practice   for   those   living   with   ASD   through   a   pilot   study   that   applies   mindfulness   to   five   children  and  a  young  adult  (CA  range  8  -­‐  16)  with  ASD  and  aggressive  disorders,  along  with   their  mothers.  This  study  investigates  a  variety  of  mindfulness-­‐related  research  issues,  such   as  the  effects  of  mindful  parenting,  the  training  of  mothers  to  become  mindfulness  teachers  of   their   own   children,   the   relationships   between   mindfulness   practice   and   aggressive   behaviours,   the   use   of   an   iPad   as   an   interactive   tool   for   young   people   with   ASD   to   learn   mindfulness,   and   the   strengths   and   weaknesses   of   mindfulness   practice   for   this   population.   This   study   comprises   four   consecutive   phases;   1)   a   mindfulness   intervention   phase   for   mothers,   2)   a   mindfulness   self-­‐practice   phase   for   mothers,   3)   a   mindfulness   intervention   phase   for   each   child,   and   4)   a   mindfulness   practice   phase   for   both   children   and   mothers.   Mindfulness   training   is   being   provided   through   programs   based   on   inclusive   Mindfulness-­‐ Based  Attention  Training  (iMBAT).  These  programs  have  their  theoretical  foundations  in  the   Nikāyas,  and  their  practical  foundations  in  the  researchers’  extensive  training  in  the  teaching   and   practice   of   satipaṭṭhāna   meditation   in   the   Theravāda   Buddhist   tradition.   The   effects   of   mindfulness   practice   for   the   mothers   and   their   child   are   being   explored   through   the   Freiburg   Mindfulness   Inventory,   Child   Behaviour   Checklist,   Parenting   Stress   Scale   and   The   Beach   Family   Quality   of   Life   Questionnaire.   In   addition,   the   mothers   are   keeping   a   record   of   the   nature   and   frequencies   of   their   child’s   aggressive   behaviour   along   with   a   reflective   diary   of   their  own  mindfulness  practice  throughout  the  four  phases.  The  results  to  date  of  this  study   will  be  presented  and  discussed.  The  difficulties  and  successes  reported  by  and  observed  in   parents  and  their  children  with  ASD  and  aggressive  behaviours  will  be  discussed  in  terms  of   the   Buddha’s   theoretical   framework,   to   the   degree   this   is   found   to   be   relevant   to   the   experience   of   these   participants.   Aspects   of   this   framework   that   have   already   emerged   as   useful  include  clear  understanding,  the  intelligence  associated  with  mindfulness,  the  analysis   of   mindfulness   practice   into   the   two   counterparts   of   serenity   and   insight,   and   the   Buddha’s   understanding   of   the   three   universal   characteristics   of   human   experience,   those   of   impermanence,  unsatisfactoriness  and  not-­‐self.  

  Mindful   parenting   for   children   with   Autism   Spectrum   Disorders:   Leading   by  example,  not  orders     Yoon-­‐Suk  Hwang     Griffith  University,  Australia     Autism  Spectrum  Disorders  (ASD)  is  a  cluster  of  developmental  disorders  that  demonstrate  as   significant   difficulties   in   essential   human   activities   such   as   social   interaction   and   communication.   These   difficulties   are   often   manifested   through   aggressive   behaviours,   which   become   a   main   stressor   for   people   living   with   ASD.   Parents   of   children   with   ASD   and   aggressive   behaviours   are   particularly   in   danger   of   burnout,   as   they   frequently   experience   mental   stress   and   physical   hardship   associated   with   parenting.   This   pilot   study   with   six   Australian   mothers   aims   to   examine   the   effects   of   mindful   parenting   for   both   mothers   and   their   child   and,   in   the   next   stage   of   this   study,   train   each   mother   to   become   a   mindfulness   teacher   for   their   own   child.   Inclusive   Mindfulness-­‐Based   Attention   Training   (iMBAT)   was   developed   for   these   mothers   to   train   them   to   learn   to   remember   to   be   aware   of   their   present   experience   of   body   and   mind,   and   to   apply   this   awareness   into   their   everyday   life.   They   gathered  together  eight  times  for  two  hours  over  a  period  of  three  months.  This  was  followed   by   a   two   month   self   practice   period.   The   effects   of   mindfulness   parenting   were   evaluated  

through   the   observation   of   their   child’s   aggressive   behaviour,   keeping   a   reflective   diary   of   their   own   mindfulness   practice   and   the   completion   of   the   Freiburg   Mindfulness   Inventory,   Child   Behaviour   Checklist,   Parenting   Stress   Scale   and   The   Beach   Family   Quality   of   Life   Questionnaire.  The  results  of  both  qualitative  and  quantitative  data  analysis  will  be  presented   and  discussed.    

Mindfulness  and  Autism  Spectrum  Disorders:  “I  love  you  guys.”    

Yoon-­‐Suk  Hwang     Griffith  University,  Australia     Recent   studies   of   young   adults   with   Autism   Spectrum   Disorders   (e.g.,   Singh   et   al.,   2011a;   2011b)  show  that  mindfulness  practice  can  be  successfully  applied  to  reduce  the  aggressive   behaviours   of   people   with   these   conditions.   A   pilot   study   with   six   Australian   learners   with   ASD   and   aggressive   disorders   (CA   range   8   -­‐   16)   is   examining   whether   this   is   the   case   for   younger  people.  The  learners  participated  in  inclusive  Mindfulness  Based  Attention  Training   (iMBAT)  for  children,  consisting  of  weekly  home  visits  and  on-­‐line  meetings  for  four  weeks,   and  subsequently  practised  mindfulness  with  their  family.   The  content  and  instruction  of  the  iMBAT  for  children  were  differentiated  to  meet  the  range   of  individuality  that  characterises  ASD.  Initial  in-­‐depth  interviews  were  conducted  to  allow  for   the   content   of   the   iMBAT   program   to   be   individualised   to   reflect   the   specific   needs   and   capacities   of   each   learner.   The   process   of   teaching   iMBAT   was   individualised   by   creating   a   teaching   team   for   each   learner,   consisting   of   the   researchers   and   the   learner’s   mother.   In   addition,   a   video   modelling   approach   was   adopted   through   customising   an   autism   app   demonstrating  the  basic  mindfulness  activities.   The   effects   of   mindfulness   practice   for   the   learners   are   being   explored   through   Child   Behaviour   Checklist,   on-­‐going   observation   of   the   nature   and   frequency   of   aggressive   behaviours  and  interviews  with  these  learners  and  their  mother.  The  results  up-­‐to-­‐  date  will   be   discussed   and   implications   of   mindfulness   intervention   for   learners   with   ASD   will   be   drawn.    

Forgetting  and  remembering  –  the  dynamics  of  mindfulness  

  Patrick  Kearney     “Mindfulness”   is   the   standard   translation   of   the   Pāli   word   sati,   which   literally   means   “memory.”  In  contemporary  research,  mindfulness  has  become  a  floating  signifier  referring  to   anything   from   a   psychological   technique   to   a   way   of   life.   Yet   if   we   are   to   develop   a   sophisticated   understanding   of   mindfulness   and   its   associated   mental   states,   we   need   to   be   clear   about   their   nature   and   function.   This   paper   will   take   a   trajectory   that   begins   with   the   Buddha’s   understanding   of   mindfulness   as   memory.   Mindfulness   indicates   memory   of   the   present   rather   than   of   the   past.   This   is   central   to   the   continuity   of   attention.   How   does   attention   to   the   present   lapse?   The   Buddha’s   analysis,   supported   by   empirical   observation,   shows   us   that   while   it   is   easy   to   be   aware,   it   is   also   very   easy   to   forget   our   awareness.   Mindfulness  allows  a  continuity  of  awareness,  though  which  other  mental  states,  such  as  calm   and   concentration,   can   develop.   Weak   mindfulness   creates   an   awareness   that   is   patchy,   unable   to   hold   and   follow   a   given   activity.   Mindfulness   training   seeks   to   develop   a   felt   continuity   of   awareness   by   training   the   participant   to   remember   awareness   over   time.  

Cultivating  an  understanding  the  nature  of  mindfulness  should  allow  for  a  more  sophisticated   approach   to   developing   programs   to   train   mindfulness,   a   greater   capacity   to   adapt   mindfulness   training   to   the   needs   of   different   populations,   and   a   more   creative   approach   to   reading  the  landmarks  of  the  development  of  mindfulness  in  different  populations.    




  Convenor:  Cesare  Maffei   University  Vita-­‐Salute  San  Raffaele,  Faculty  of  Psychology,  Milan,  Italy     General  abstract:     During   the   last   decades,   research   in   psychology   and   psychopathology   has   shown   an   increasing   interest   in   emotions   and   their   role   in   determining   both   psychological   well-­‐being   and  maladjustment.  Even  if  different,  and  also  contrasting,  theories  and  models  of  emotions   are   now   available,   consensus   is   growing   about   the   central   role   of   emotion   regulation   and   dysregulation.   The   construct   of   emotion   dysregulation   has   been   used   to   explain   diverse   psychopathologies.   Elaborated   emotion-­‐dysregulation   theories   have   been   applied   to   depression,  generalized  anxiety  disorder,  alcohol/substance  abuse,  self-­‐injury,  suicide,  eating   disorders,   and   borderline   personality   disorder.   Conceptualizations   of   emotion   regulation   that   emphasize   the   functionality   of     both   positive   and   negative   emotions   view   adaptive   emotion   regulation   as   the   ability   to   control   one’s   behaviors   (e.g.,   by   inhibiting   impulsive   behaviors   and/or   engaging   in   goal-­‐directed   behaviors)   when   experiencing   negative   emotions,   rather   than   the   ability   to   control,   or   inhibit,   one’s   emotions.   Although   this   means   that   adaptive   regulation   could   involve   efforts   to   modulate   the   intensity   or   duration   of   an   emotion,   these   efforts   are   in   the   service   of   reducing   the   urgency   associated   with   the   emotion   in   order   to   control  one’s  behavior  (rather  than  the  emotion  itself).  This  approach  suggests  the  utility  of   behaviors   that   function   to   “take   the   edge   off”   an   emotion   or   self-­‐soothe   when   distressed,   provided  that  the  individual  is  not  attempting  to  get  rid  of  the  emotion  or  escape  it  altogether.   As   such,   this   approach   is   acceptance-­‐based,   conceptualizing   both   positive   and   negative   emotions  as  functional  and  encouraging  the  awareness,  understanding,  and  acceptance  of  all   emotions.  According  to  this  model  of  emotion  regulation,  it  is  evident  that  mindfulness  plays  a   fundamental   role.   In   this   symposium   the   relationship   between   emotion   dysregulation   and   mindfulness   in   borderline   personality   disorder   and   allied   disorders   is   discussed   from   different   perspectives:   Elicitation   of   specific   emotions   through   selected   videoclips   and   evaluation   of   subjective   response,   psychophysiological   response   (heart   rate   variability)   and   eyes   movements.   The   values   of   these   variables   are   related   to   dispositional   mindfulness   capacities  evaluated  with  the  MAAS  and  the  FFMQ.    

Mindfulness   Based   Cognitive   Therapy   (MBCT)   in   patients   with   brooding   and  Personality  Disorders:  a  clinical  experience         Stefania  d’Angerio,  Donatella  Fiore,  Giovanni  Pellecchia,  Antonio  Semerari   Terzo  Centro  di  Psicoterapia  Cognitiva,  SPC,  Rome,  Italy     Introduction   The   practice   of   Mindfulness   is   a   particular   way   of   paying   attention   that   originated   from   Eastern   meditative   practices.   It   is   described   as   "paying   attention   in   a   particular   way:   intentionally,   in   the   present   moment   and   in   a   non-­‐judgmental   way"   (Kabat-­‐Zinn,   1994,   p.   4).   Mindfulness  Based  Cognitive  Therapy  (MBCT)  has  demonstrated  its  effectiveness  in  reduction   of   depressive   relapses   (Segal   2002),   working   in   particular   on   depressive   symptoms,   on   anxiety   and   on   brooding.   The   Dialectical   Behaviour   Therapy   (DBT)   has   used   mindfulness   in   the   treatment   of   Borderline   patients   (DBP)   by   inserting   a   module   in   the   skills   training   (Linhean   1993).   A   study   has   shown   the   effectiveness   of   MBCT   for   borderline   personality   disorders,   showing   that   the   training   acts   on   anxiety   symptoms   as   well   as   on   dissociative   symptoms   and   avoidant   behaviors   (Sachse   2010).   Preliminary   studies   on   neuroimaging   show   that  mindfulness  acts  on  emotional  regulation  increasing  regulation  of  the  limbic  system  and   the   control   of   attention   (Sipe   2012).   There   are   no   studies   that   investigate   the   effectiveness   of   MBCT  in  Personality  Disorders  other  than  the  DBP.   Objectives   This   research   aims   to   study   the   symptoms   of   anxiety   and   brooding   in   patients   with   also   a   Personality  Disorder.   Methodology   The  pilot  study  was  performed  on  10  subjects  (patients  which  came  from  a  private  study  of   psychotherapy)  with  symptoms  of  anxiety,  in  particular  brooding  and  who  had  had  a  history   of  depressive  symptoms.  Some  of  these  patients  suffered  also  from  a  Personality  Disorder.  We   have  given  them  MBCT  expanded  to  10  sessions  with  an  additional  specific  psychoeducational   module   on   brooding.   Were   applied   tests   that   measured   the   Personality   Disorder   (SCID   II)   the   depression  (BDI),  the  alexithymia  (TAS),  the  brooding  (Worry  Penn  State)  and  specific  skills   on  mindfulness  (Kentucky).   Results   Changes  in  anxiety  and  depressive  symptoms  were  observed.    

The   association   between   temperament   and   character   traits,   mindfulness   and   emotion   regulation   skills   in   borderline   personality   disorder:   an   exploratory  study.     Nicolò  Gaj  and  Raffaele  Visintini   San  Raffaele  Hospital,  Milan,  Italy     Introduction   Emotional  dysregulation  is  commonly  considered  as  a  core  feature  of  borderline  personality   disorder.   Many   studies   ascertain   that   difficulties   in   managing   emotions   and   their   resulting   behavioral   urges   are   at   the   basis   of   impulsive   behaviors,   such   as   non-­‐suicidal   self-­‐injuries   (Selby  et  al.,  2013)  and  suicidal  behaviors  (Hamza  et  al.,  2012).  The  biosocial  theory  (Linehan,   1993;   Crowell   et   al.,   2009)   seems   to   suggest   that   emotional   dysregulation   implicates   both   temperament   and   character   aspects,   since   both   biological   vulnerabilities   and   environmental  

factors  are  thought  to  be  involved  in  the  development  of  the  emotional  dysregulation  of  BPD.   However,   this   remains   a   controversial   issue   that   needs   more   empirical   research.   Moreover,   Dialectical  Behavior  Therapy  (DBT),  whose  theoretical  foundations  plunge  into  the  biosocial   theory,   is   strongly   based   on   mindfulness   as   a   powerful   mechanism   of   emotion   regulation.   Though,  it  is  still  unclear  whether  subjects  with  BPD  lack  in  mindfulness  skills  and  whether   mindfulness  relates  to  emotional  regulation  skills  and  temperament  and  character  traits.  The   aim   of   the   present   research   is   to   explore   the   relationships   between   emotion   dysregulation,   mindfulness  and  temperament  and  character  traits  in  subjects  with  a  BPD.       Method   Sample.  12  subjects  with  a  BPD  diagnosis  (SCID  II)  dispatched  to  a  daily  intensive  treatment   for  BPD.  Assessment:  Subjects  are  assessed  at  T0  with  TCI-­‐R,  DERS,  MAAS  and  FFMQ.   Results   Significant  associations  between  aspects  of  mindfulness,  emotional  dysregulation  and  specific   temperament  (Harm  Avoidance)  and  character  traits  (Self-­‐Directedness,  Self-­‐Transcendence)   are  detected.   Comment   The   results   show   that   mindfulness   skills   and   emotion   regulation   skills   are   linked   both   to   temperament  and  character  traits.    

Emotional   dysregulation   and   mindfulness   in   borderline   personality   disorder:  an  empirical  study     Cesare  Maffei   University  Vita-­‐Salute  San  Raffaele,  Faculty  of  Psychology,  Milan,  Italy     Introduction   Emotional   dysregulation   is   considered   both   as   a   pathogenetic   mechanism   and   a   nuclear   dysfunctional  aspect  in  borderline  personality  disorder  (Linehan,  1993).  Treatments  such  as   Dialectical   Behavior   Therapy   (DBT),   that   is   demonstrated   to   be   effective   in   borderline   subjects,   are   based   on   mindfulness   that   is   also   considered   as   a   powerful   regulator   of   emotional   dysregulation.   At   present   empirical   research   on   emotional   dysregulation   in   borderline   subjects   is   diffused   and   controversial   as   to   the   results,   moreover   it   is   unclear   if   borderline   subjects   lack   mindfulness   capacities,   indeed   empirical   research   on   this   subject   is   minimal.   Aim   of   this   research   is:   to   study   emotional   reactivity   in   borderline   subjects,   compared   to   non-­‐clinical   ones,   from   different   perspectives,   that   is   subjective,   psychophysiological   and   related   to   eyes   movements;   to   evaluate   mindfulness   dispositional   capacities  and  emotional  dysregulation.   to   evaluate   if   mindfulness   capacities   are   mediators   of   emotional   regulation   and   if   they   have   a   different  role  in  borderline  and  non-­‐clinical  subjects.   Method   Video   clips.   The   stimulus   set   consisted   of   the   Italian   version   of   the   20   video   clips   extracted   from  commercial  films  and  used  by  Hewig  and  colleagues  (2005).  Clips  were  designed  to  elicit   target  emotions  of  amusement,  sadness,  fear,  disgust,  anger,  and  there  were  four  emotionally   neutral   ones.   Sample:   The   sample   was   composed   of   16   females   with   borderline   personality   disorders  compared  to  16  non-­‐clinical  female  adult  subjects.     Emotional   dysregulation:   was   assessed   using   the   Difficulties   in   Emotion   Regulation   Rating   Scale   (DERS)   (Gratz   and   Roemer,   2004).   Mindfulness:   was   assessed   using   the   Five   Facet   Mindfulness  Questionnaire  (FFMQ)  (Baer  et  Al.,  2008)  and  the  Mindfulness  Attention  Awareness   Scale   (Brown   and   Ryan,   2003).   Subjective   reactivity:   participants   were   asked   to   watch  

carefully   every   video   clip   and   immediately   fill   in   a   short   questionnaire.   Psychopysiological   reactivity:  Heart  Rate  Variability  (HRV)  was  assessed.   Eyes  Movements:  saccadic  eyes  movements  were  assessed.     Results   The  intensity  of  subjective  reactivity  of  borderline  subjects  is  spread,  showing  that  not  all  of   them   react   strongly   to   emotional   stimuli,   while   from   a   qualitative   perspective   negative   emotions  are  diffused  and  present  also  in  pleasant  and  neutral  videoclips.    Borderline  subjects   are   psychophysiologically   dysregulated   (sympathetic   and   para-­‐sympathetic   systems   are   unbalanced)   and   show   a   significant   reduction   of   saccadic   eye   movements.   Mindfulness   capacities  are  a  mediator  of  emotional  activation  in  non-­‐clinical  subjects,  but  not  in  borderline   ones.   Comment   Mindfulness  capacities  fail  to  regulate  emotional  dysregulation  in  borderline  subjects.      


  Convenors: 1Ivan Nyklíček, PhD, 2Paul Grossman, PhD 1 Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic disease, Tilburg University, Netherlands 2Basel   University   Hospital,   Switzerland,   Department   of   Psychosomatic   Medicine,   Division   of   Internal  Medicine,  Switzerland       General  abstract:     Assessment   of   mindfulness   is   crucial   for   advances   in   mindfulness   research,   but   also   for   clinical   evaluations   of   effects   obtained   and   mechanisms   involved.   Many   different   instruments   for   assessing   mindfulness   already   exist,   several   of   which   have   proved   their   usefulness   in   various   contexts.   However,   there   has   been   critique   regarding   existing   instruments,   which   especially   pertains   to   questions   involving   content   and   construct   validity   when   used   is   certain   contexts,   such   as   intervention   studies   and   studies   comparing   experienced   mindfulness   practitioners   with   naive   controls.   In   addition,   validated   instruments   are   largely   lacking   for   (i)   assessment   of   momentary   mindfulness,   capturing   day-­‐by-­‐day   or   even   moment-­‐by-­‐moment   variation,  and  (ii)  the  assessment  of  mindfulness  by  other  than  self-­‐reports.  In  addition,  from   a  conceptual  point  of  view,  the  question  may  arise  if  all  important  aspects  of  mindfulness  are   covered   by   existing   instruments.   Therefore,   in   the   present   symposium,   an   overview   will   be   presented   of   existing   mindfulness   assessment   instruments   and   new   assessment   methods   and   instruments  will  be  introduced.  Data  regarding  their  validity  will  be  presented  and  the  results   will  be  critically  discussed,  among  others  from  the  perspectives  of  (i)  theory  and  the  concept   of  mindfulness,  and  (ii)  the  context  of  mindfulness  assessment.    

The   Comprehensive   Inventory   of   Mindfulness   Experiences   (CHIME):   Construction  and  Validation     Claudia  Bergomi,  Wolfgang  Tschacher,  &  Zeno  Kupper   Department   of   Psychotherapy,   University   Hospital   of   Psychiatry,   University   of   Bern,   Bern,   Switzerland     Introduction   In   this   presentation,   a   new   mindfulness   self-­‐report   measure,   the   Comprehensive   Inventory   of   Mindfulness   Experiences   (CHIME),   will   be   presented.   The   questionnaire   was   constructed   taking  into  account  current  critics  to  the  self-­‐report  assessment  of  mindfulness.   Method   The  coverage  of  aspects  of  mindfulness  in  the  CHIME  is  based  on  a  review  of  the  aspects  of   mindfulness  assessed  by  eight  available  mindfulness  questionnaires  and  on  analyses  based  on   the  first  version  of  the  questionnaire  (N=313).  The  final  version  of  the  CHIME  was  validated  in   661  individuals  from  the  general  population  and  MBSR  groups.     Results   Factor-­‐analytical   procedures   supported   an   eight-­‐factor   structure:   awareness   towards   inner   experiences   (Cronbachs   α=.73),   awareness   towards   outer   experiences   (Cronbach's   α=.73),   acting   with   awareness   (α=.70),   acceptance   (α=.86),   decentering   (α=.85),   openness   to   experiences   (α=.73),   relativity   of   thoughts   (α=.78)   and   insightful   understanding   (α=.82).   The   CHIME   was   strongly   correlated   to   the   Five   Facet   of   Mindfulness   Questionnaire   (FFMQ),   whereas   each   CHIME   subscale   showed   the   strongest   association   to   the   semantically   related   subscale   of   the   FFMQ.   Differential   item   functioning   analyses   suggested   that   the   interpretation   of   the   CHIME’s   items   does   not   systematically   differ   across   groups   differing   in   gender,   age   and   meditation   experience.   Moreover,   the   CHIME   did   not   show   problematic   patterns   of   association   within   its   subscales   nor   with   other   measures.   Cluster   analyses   produced   groups   differing   in   their   response   patterns,   which   were   meaningfully   related   to   meditation   experience.   Discussion   The   CHIME   seems   to   be   a   valid   new   self-­‐report   instrument   of   mindfulness   that   extends   mindfulness  assessment  to  facets  not  captured  by  other  instruments.      

Mindfulness  Assessment:  A  map  of  the  Current  Territory  

  Kirk  Warren  Brown   Virginia  Commonwealth  University,  Richmond,  VA,  USA     The   assessment   of   mindfulness   has   become   increasingly   important   in   the   field,   is   evolving   rapidly,   but   the   enterprise   remains   poorly   understood.   This   presentation   will   discuss   the   current  state-­‐of-­‐the-­‐science  on  the  predominant  approach  to  assessment,  namely  self-­‐report-­‐ based   methods,   first   reviewing   the   published   measures,   then   highlighting   key   criteria   for   choosing  psychometrically  sound  measures,  the  uses  toward  which  the  measures  have  been   applied,  and  the  strengths  and  limitations  of  this  approach  to  mindfulness  assessment.  A  brief   preview   of   the   developing   field   of   mindfulness   assessment,   including   the   use   of   behavioral   methods,  will  also  be  given.      

Process   research   in   Mindfulness   Based   Cognitive   Therapy   for   Depression   using  the  Daily  Mindfulness  Scale     Zeno  Kupper,  Eveline  Aschwanden,  Claudia  Bergomi,  Maija  Dundure,  Angela  Lanz,  &  Wolfgang   Tschacher   University  Hospital  of  Psychiatry,  Department  of  Psychotherapy,  University  of  Bern,  Switzerland     Introduction   Mindfulness   based   cognitive   therapy   for   depression   (MBCT)   has   shown   to   be   an   effective   intervention  for  the  reduction  of  depressive  relapse.  However,  processes  of  changes  regarding   mindfulness  and  changes  in  depression  specific  patterns  such  a  cognitive  reactivity  to  mood   swings  have  rarely  been  researched  in  intensive  longitudinal  studies.   Method   A   newly   developed   self-­‐report   measure   (Daily   Mindfulness   Scale,   DMS)   was   applied   daily   during   the   MBCT   program,   yielding   49   detailed   daily   reports.   The   self-­‐reports   included   the   assessment  of  mood,  the  mindfulness  facets  of  present  moment  awareness,  concentration  and   acceptance  (Cronbach's  α=0.88,  0.81  and  0.70  respectively).  Additionally,  participants  filed  a   short   qualitative   report   of   their   experience   and   mindfulness   practice   at   a   given   day.   60   patients  from  MBCT  groups  were  included  in  this  study.  These  approaches  allowed  for  single   case  studies,  multiple  time-­‐series  analyses,  as  well  as  for  an  analysis  on  a  group  level.   Results   Qualitative   analysis   allowed   for   the   identification   of   typical   obstacles   and   beneficial   experiences   from   daily   practice.   The   quantitative   assessments   allowed   analyzing   typical   change   processes   during   MBCT.   Trends   in   the   daily   assessments   of   mindfulness   correlated   moderately  (r=0.4-­‐0.5)  with  pre-­‐post  changes,  e.g.  in  symptoms  (BSI),  mindfulness  (CHIME-­‐β)   and   dysfunctional   attitudes   (DAS).   Time   series   analysis   aggregated   on   group   level   using   vector-­‐autoregression  analysis  suggested  an  associated  change  in  cognitive  reactivity.     Discussion   The  assessment  methods  and  analysis  strategy  used  in  this  study  seem  both  feasible  in  clinical   practices   and   a   promising   approach   to   a   more   precise   understanding   of   the   processes   of   change  during  MBCT.    

An   Observational   Measure   of   Mindful   Awareness:   Validation   of   the   Assessment  of  Momentary  Mindful  Awareness  (AMMA)     Ivan  Nyklíček,  Jenny  van  Son   Center   of   Research   on   Psychology   in   Somatic   disease   (CoRPS),   Department   of   Medical   and   Clinical  Psychology,  Tilburg  University,  Netherlands     Introduction   Mindfulness   is   paying   full   attention   to   the   present   moment   without   judgment.   Self-­‐report   instruments   for   mindfulness   assessment   have   been   criticized.   Therefore,   the   aim   was   to   develop  a  new  behavioral  measure  of  mindfulness  and  examine  its  reliability  and  validity.     Method     The   new   measure,   the   Assessment   of   Momentary   Mindful   Awareness   (AMMA)   consists   of   verbally   expressing   one’s   momentary   experiences   and   thoughts,   which   are   recorded   and   scored   into   different   categories   by   trained   raters.   Thirty-­‐five   experienced   meditators   and   forty-­‐seven  control  participants  matched  on  age  and  sex  performed  the  AMMA  and  completed   self-­‐report  instruments,  among  which  the  Five  Factor  Mindfulness  Questionnaire  (FFMQ).    

Results   Intraclass   correlations   between   two   raters   were   satisfactory   (>.80)   for   all   but   one   category.   The   AMMA   variables   correlated   with   self-­‐reported   introspective   interest   and   awareness   of   one’s   emotions,   but   not   with   self-­‐reported   mindfulness,   except   Mindful   Exteroception   with   FFMQ  Observe  (r  =.28,  p     80)   participated   in   a   9-­‐week   group   mindfulness   training   modified   for   youngsters   with   ASD.   Their   parents   participated   in   a   parallel   9-­‐week   group   Mindful   Parenting   training.   Questionnaires  were  rated  by  the  youngsters,  as  well  as  their  parents.  Their  behavior  was  also   rated   by   the   test   observer,   and   computerized   data   of   emotion   recognition   were   acquired.   Measurements   were   taken   at   pre-­‐test,   post-­‐test   and   at   eight   weeks   follow-­‐up.   Results:   The   results   showed   some   improvement   on   social   cognition   and   communication.   In   line,   some   improvements   in   emotion   recognition   were   found.   Worry   did   not   change   but   rumination   tendencies   seemed   to   decrease.   Attention   and   hyperactivity   improved   according   to   the   test   observer   but   not   according   to   the   parents.   Parents   rated   themselves   as   more   mindful   in   general   and   in   their   parenting.   One   patient   dropped   out   after   he   started   and   adolescents   attended   85%   of   the   sessions.   No   parents   dropped   out,   they   attended   84%   of   the   sessions.   Response   rate   on   all   measurements   was   100%.   Discussion:   Societal   costs   for   treatment   of   patients   with   ASD   are   very   high   and   hardly   any   evidence-­‐based   treatments   are   available.   Therefore   there   is   room   for   additional   treatments.   This   study   showed   that   Mindfulness   training   is   feasible   and   acceptable   in   teenagers   with   ASD   and   their   parents   and   although   very   preliminary,  findings  seem  to  be  hopeful.      

Mindfulness  training  for  children  with  ASD:  Results  of  a  pilot  study  

  Dr.  Hans  Nanninga   Dimence,  the  Netherlands       Children  with  autism  spectrum  disorders  (ASD)  have  elevated  rates  of  anxiety  and  depression   symptoms.  Although  these  complaints  impair  their  daily  functioning  and  increase  the  risk  for   negative   lifespan   development,   only   few   interventions   have   been   developed.   In   this   pilot   study   we   tested   the   hypotheses   that   an   eight   week   mindfulness   based   group   treatment   will   decrease   the   anxiety   and   depressive   symptoms   in   children   with   ASD   and   improve   their   quality   of   life.   Method:   11   children   with   ASD   (mean   age   10.2   years,   four   girls,   FSIQ   >   80)   participated  in  an  8-­‐week  group  mindfulness  training  adjusted  for  children.  Pre  and  post  test   data   were   analyzed   on   both   a   group   and   an   individual   level.   Results:   The   results   show   a   significant   decrease   of   anxiety   and   depressive   symptoms   as   measured   by   children’s   self-­‐

reports,   and   parent   ratings.   Parents   did   not   report   improvement   of   their   child’s   withdrawal   behavior.  Fathers  and  children  reported  significant  improvement  of  the  child’s  psychological   wellbeing   and   mothers   reported   significant   improvement   of   the   child’s   physical   wellbeing.   Discussion:   The   training   was   evaluated   as   positive   by   children   and   parents.   This   combined   with  preliminary  but  positive  findings  indicates  the  potential  of  Mindfulness  training  in  this   group  of  children  with  chronic  impairments.      

Mindfulness-­‐based  therapy  (MBT)  in  high-­‐functioning  adults  with  ASD  

  Dr.  Annelies  Spek   GGZ-­‐Eindhoven,  Autism  Center,  the  Netherlands       Individuals   with   autism   spectrum   disorders   (ASD)   are   at   increased   risk   for   developing   co-­‐ morbid   psychiatric   disorders.   For   instance,   up   to   50%   of   adults   with   ASD   meet   criteria   for   depression.   Mindfulness-­‐based   therapy   (MBT)   has   been   found   effective   in   reducing   psychological   symptoms   of   distress,   anxiety   and   depression   in   several   psychiatric   populations.  We  aimed  to  examine  the  effectiveness  of  a  modified  mindfulness  intervention  in   adults  with  ASD  on  symptoms  of  depression,  rumination  and  general  well-­‐being.  Method:  20   adults  with  ASD  (mean  age  was  44)  participated  in  a  9-­‐week  group  MBT  intervention.  They   were   compared   with   21   adults   with   ASD   (mean   age   was   40)   in   a   waitlist-­‐control   group.   In   both   groups,   seven   female   patients   participated.   All   participants   had   average   intelligence   (FSIQ   >   85).   Results:   The   results   showed   a   significant   reduction   in   depression,   anxiety   and   rumination  in  the  intervention  group,  as  opposed  to  the  control  group  that  did  not  show  any   changes.   Furthermore,   an   increase   in   positive   affect   was   found   in   the   intervention   group   as   opposed   to   the   control   group.   The   reduced   depression   and   anxiety   were   partly   due   to   the   decrease  in  rumination  tendencies.  Discussion:  The  present  study  is  the  first  to  demonstrate   that   adults   with   ASD   can   benefit   from   MBT.   Apparently,   high-­‐functioning   adults   with   ASD   are   able  to  acquire  meditation  techniques  and  apply  them  in  their  home  environment  in  a  manner   that   diminishes   their   symptoms   of   depression,   anxiety   and   rumination.   This   finding   is   particularly  hopeful  since  it  stresses  opportunities  in  adults  with  ASD.    

MINDFULNESS-­‐BASED   INTERVENTIONS   FOR   SEVERE   AND   ENDURING   MENTAL   HEALTH   PROBLEMS:   EVIDENCE   OF   EFFECTIVENESS  AND  PARTICIPANT  EXPERIENCES       Symposium  Convenor:  Dr  Clara  Strauss   School  of  Psychology   ,  University  of  Surrey,  UK   Sussex  Partnership  NHS  Foundation  Trust,  UK     General  abstract:     Evidence   for   the   effectiveness   and   acceptability   of   mindfulness-­‐based   therapies   (MBTs)   for   mental  health  conditions  has  mainly  focused  on  those  mental  health  problems  typically  seen   in   primary   care   populations.   Do   these   positive   findings   generalise   to   people   experiencing   severe   and   enduring   mental   health   conditions   such   as   chronic   depression,   bipolar   disorder   and   psychosis,   where   the   severity   of   symptoms,   distress   and   hopelessness   presents   a   particular  challenge?    

This  symposium  will  present  data  from  four  studies  of  MBT  for  people  using  secondary  care   mental   health   services   and   who   are   experiencing   severe   and   enduring   mental   health   conditions.   The   version   of   MBT   is   especially   designed   for   this   group   of   people   (Chadwick,   2006).  Findings  from  the  four  studies  all  support  the  potential  benefits  of  this  adapted  form  of   MBT  for  people  experiencing  severe  and  enduring  mental  health  conditions.  The  symposium   papers  will  present  on  outcomes  of  these  four  studies  as  well  as  provide  details  of  how  and   why  MBT  has  been  adapted  for  people  with  severe  and  enduring  forms  of  distress.    

Experience   of   mindfulness   in   people   with   bipolar   disorder:   A   qualitative   study     Dr  Lyn  Ellett   Department  of  Psychology,  Royal  Holloway,  University  of  London,  UK     Introduction   Recent   research   suggests   that   mindfulness   might   be   beneficial   for   individuals   with   bipolar   disorder  (BD,  e.g.  Williams  et  al,  2008,  Miklowitz  et  al,  2009,  Weber  et  al,  2010).    However,  it   is   also   important   to   understand   more   about   how   mindfulness   practice   relates   to   living   with   and  managing  BD.  The  current  study  explored  experiences  of  practising  mindfulness  and  how   this   related   to   living   with,   and   managing,   BD.     In   particular,   how   do   the   unique   challenges   facing   people   with   BD   impact   on   mindfulness   practice?     What   is   the   impact   of   mood   state   and   mood  change  on  mindfulness  practice  and  how  do  participants  find  the  range  of  mindfulness   practices  included  within  MBCT?   Method   12  people  with  BD  who  had  ‘relapsed’  within  the  past  year,  and  reported  struggling  to  cope,   attended   a   mindfulness   group:   all   12   participated   in   semi-­‐structured   interviews   exploring   how   mindfulness   practice   related   to   living   with   BD.   Interviews   were   recorded,   transcribed   verbatim  and  analysed  using  thematic  qualitative  analysis.   Results   Seven  themes  emerged  from  the  analysis:  focusing  on  what  is  present;  clearer  awareness  of   mood   state/change;   acceptance;   mindfulness   in   different   mood   states;   reducing/stabilising   negative  affect;  relating  differently  to  negative  thoughts;  and  reducing  impact  of  mood  state.       Discussion   The   themes   suggested   several   benefits   and   some   key   challenges   of   mindfulness   practice,   as   well   as   casting   some   light   on   how   these   changes   occurred.     The   study   suggests   possible   adaptations  to  MBCT  for  people  struggling  to  manage  their  BD.        

Mindfulness  for  Paranoid  Beliefs:  Evidence  from  two  case  studies.  

  Dr  Lyn  Ellett       Department  of  Psychology,  Royal  Holloway,  University  of  London,  UK     Introduction   Emerging   evidence   suggests   that   mindfulness   can   be   beneficial   for   people   with   distressing   psychosis.    This  study  examined  the  hypothesis  that  for  people  with  persecutory  delusions  in   the   absence   of   voices,   mindfulness   training   would   lead   to   reductions   in   conviction,   distress,   preoccupation  and  impact  of  paranoid  beliefs,  as  well  as  anxiety  and  depression.       Method  

Two   case   studies   are   presented.     Participants   completed   measures   of   mindfulness,   anxiety   and   depression   at   baseline,   end   of   therapy   and   1   month   follow   up,   and   bi-­‐weekly   ratings   of   their  paranoid  belief  on  the  dimensions  of  conviction,  preoccupation,  distress  and  impact.   Results   Ratings   of   conviction,   distress,   impact   and   preoccupation,   and   measures   of   anxiety   and   depression,   reduced   for   both   participants   from   baseline   to   end   of   intervention.     Improvements   in   mindfulness   of   distressing   thoughts   and   images   occurred   for   both   participants.    These  gains  were  maintained  at  1  month  follow  up.       Discussion   Findings   suggest   that   mindfulness   training   can   impact   on   cognition   and   affect   specifically   associated   with   paranoid   beliefs,   and   is   potentially   relevant   to   both   Poor   Me   and   Bad   Me   paranoia.    

Group   person   based   cognitive   therapy   for   distressing   voices:   data   from   nine  groups     Dr  Mark  Hayward     School  of  Psychology,  University  of  Sussex   UK  &  Sussex  Partnership  NHS  Foundation  Trust,  UK     Introduction   There   is   emerging   evidence   supporting   the   integration   of   mindfulness   and   CBT   approaches   for  psychosis  offered  in  a  group  format.    Two  small  studies  of  mindfulness  groups  for  people   with   treatment-­‐resistant   positive   symptoms   of   psychosis   both   found   significant   pre-­‐post   group   improvement   in   general   wellbeing   (Chadwick   et   al.,   2005;   2009).   Person-­‐Based   Cognitive   Therapy   (PBCT:   Chadwick,   2006)   integrates   traditional   CBT   for   psychosis   and   mindfulness  practice,  with  its  explicit  emphasis  on  acceptance  of  voice  hearing.  The  present   study   examines   the   outcomes   of   group   PBCT   for   distressing   voices   within   an   uncontrolled   evaluation,  and  through  interviews  with  participants.   Method   Sixty-­‐two   participants   entered   one   of   nine   PBCT   groups   conducted   over   8-­‐12   sessions.   Fifty   participants   completed   therapy.   Measures   of   well-­‐being,   distress,   control   and   relating   characteristics   were   completed   pre-­‐   and   post-­‐therapy   and   at   brief   follow-­‐up.   Data   were   subjected   to   an   intention-­‐to-­‐treat   analysis.   Also,   28   participants   were   interviewed   about   their   experience  of  the  therapy  and  data  were  analysed  using  qualitative  methods.   Results   There   were   significant   improvements   in   well-­‐being,   distress,   control   and   dependence   upon   the  voice.  Therapy-­‐specific  themes  emerged  from  the  qualitative  analysis  and  suggested  that   each  of  the  four  domains  of  the  PBCT  model  are  important  in  facilitating  change.   Discussion   The  present  study  is  the  first  to  report  significant  improvement  in  both  distress  and  control.   Consequently,   group   PBCT   for   distressing   voices   may   prove   a   useful   addition   to   existing   psychological  interventions  and  is  worthy  of  further  investigation.    

A   mindfulness-­‐based   CBT   group   for   chronic   depression:   A   randomised   controlled  trial  and  participant  experiences     Dr  Clara  Strauss     School  of  Psychology,  University  of  Surrey     UK  &  Sussex  Partnership  NHS  Foundation  Trust,  UK     Introduction   Chronic   depression   occurs   when   symptoms   of   depression   are   unremitting   for   at   least   two   years.   CBT   has   disappointing   outcomes   for   chronic   depression.   Mindfulness-­‐based   approaches   teach   participants   to   bring   a   non-­‐judgemental   stance   towards   difficult   thoughts   and  feelings.  Person-­‐based  cognitive  therapy  (PBCT)  integrates  CBT  with  a  mindfulness  based   approach.  This  study  aimed  to  evaluate  the  effectiveness  and  acceptability  of  group  PBCT  for   chronic  depression  using  an  RCT  design  and  interviews  with  participants.     Method   28  participants  were  randomly  allocated  to  a  PBCT  group  or  to  treatment  as  usual  (TAU),  with   depression   score   as   the   primary   outcome.   Six   participants   were   interviewed   about   their   experience  of  the  therapy  with  data  analysed  using  IPA.   Results   Intention-­‐to-­‐treat   analysis   found   significant   group   by   time   interactions   for   both   depression   and   mindfulness.   Depression   and   mindfulness   scores   significantly   improved   for   PBCT   participants   but   not   for   TAU   participants,   with   64%   of   PBCT   participants   showing   reliable   improvement   in   depression,   compared   with   0%   of   TAU   participants.   Four   therapy-­‐specific   themes   emerged:   increased   awareness   of   experience,   increased   ability   to   accept   difficult   experience,  greater  self-­‐compassion  and  ability  to  respond  differently.     Discussion   Group   PBCT   is   effective   in   reducing   symptoms   of   depression   and   in   improving   mindfulness   skills  in  comparison  to  TAU.  Mindfulness  aspects  of  the  therapy  were  valued  by  participants.   A  dismantling  study  would  now  allow  the  different  components  of  PBCT  to  be  scrutinised.  

Oral presentations (in alphabetical order, according to lecturers’ last names) Mindfulness and Yoga: Revitalizing the Hearts of Undergraduate Students Debra Alvis, Ph.D. The University of Georgia University students report a crisis of meaning and purpose. This crisis is expressed through an absence of engagement in academics and career goals. The dream of attending college has become an imperative no longer vitalized by interest and pleasure in learning. Instead, the college experience unfolds in reaction to introjected societal and parental values. Without meaning or purpose, students proceed on the belief that higher education and career are irrelevant and overwhelming stressors. Our institutions seek to address disengagement through creating stimulating environments. This experiential paper proposes that beyond fostering conducive environments, educators must teach students how to engage. Through tapping into neuroplasticity, mindfulness and yoga provide a technology for engagement. With repeated practice of this technology, the brain’s hardwiring changes enhancing the ability to focus and direct attention, the endocrine system secretes the relational hormone, and positive emotions increase allowing openness to new possibilities – all critical components of engagement. With the goal of teaching engagement, an undergraduate study skills course was redesigned. Each class period began with ten minutes devoted to mindfulness and yoga. Students completed a journal and reflective essay based on their home practices. A four week unit on focusing on whole brain learning offered additional flow experiences. Excerpts from journals and course evaluations evidence positive shifts towards intrinsic motivation, enhanced meaning in academics, and efficacy in meeting university requirements and life demands. Conference attendees will briefly review scientific findings evidencing the use of contemplative practices to foster engagement, participate in mindfulness and yogic class starters, and discuss application to other courses, age groups, courses, and educational settings.

Variations on the Presence of Mind: The Relation between Mindfulness and Mentalisation G. Amadei, C. Giovannini, A. Tagini University of Milano-Bicocca Mind-mindedness (Meins, 1997), a form of mentalising, was initially conceived as the tendency to adopt an intentional stance towards significant others. Wallin (2007) suggested that mindfulness can facilitate the development of mentalisation and other authors (Choi-Kain & Gunderson,2008) have pointed out areas of conceptual overlap between these constructs, although to date, no empirical studies were carried out. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of the relation between mindfulness and mind-mindedness (relative to self), in participants with and without meditation experience. 117 adults (66 females; mean age=42.4; range 30-60) were divided into two groups according to their experience (N=37) or inexperience (N=80) with meditation techniques. Participants were administered the Italian version of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; Giovannini et al., in press) to assess mindfulness. Mind-mindedness was evaluated by recording self-descriptions which were assessed with a coding scheme (Meins & Fernyhough, 1997), measuring the cognitive and emotional attributes employed. The results indicate that the

Observe factor of mindfulness (i.e.,the ability to attend to external and internal cognitions and emotions) correlated negatively with self-cognition in the meditation experienced group (r=-.388; p