First Aid Merit Badge Requirements: Updated Requirements as of January 1, 2007 1. Satisfy your counselor that you have current knowledge of all first-aid requirements for Tenderfoot, Second Class, and First Class ranks. 2. Do the following: a. Explain how you would obtain emergency medical assistance from your home, on a wilderness camping trip, and during an activity on open water. b. Explain the term triage. c. Explain the standard precautions as applied to bloodborne pathogens. d. Prepare a first-aid kit for your home. Display and discuss its contents with your counselor. 3. Do the following: a. Explain what action you should take for someone who shows signals of shock, for someone who shows signals of a heart attack, and for someone who shows signals of stroke. b. Identify the conditions that must exist before performing CPR on a person. Then demonstrate proper technique in performing CPR using a training device approved by your counselor. c. Explain the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED). d. Show the steps that need to be taken for someone suffering from a severe cut on the leg and on the wrist. Tell the dangers in the use of a tourniquet and the conditions under which its use is justified. e. Explain when a bee sting could be life threatening and what action should be taken for prevention and for first aid. f. Explain the symptoms of heatstroke and what action should be taken for first and for prevention. 4. Do the following: a. Describe the signals of a broken bone. Show first-aid procedures for handling fractures (broken bones), including open (compound) fractures of the forearm, wrist, upper leg, and lower leg using improvised materials. b. Describe the symptoms and possible complications and demonstrate proper procedures for treating suspected injuries to the head, neck, and back. Explain what measures should be taken to reduce the possibility of further complicating these injuries. 5. Describe the symptoms, proper first-aid procedures, and possible prevention measures for the following conditions: a. Hypothermia b. Convulsions/seizures c. Frostbite d. Dehydration e. Bruises, strains, sprains
f. Burns g. Abdominal pain h. Broken, chipped, or loosened tooth i. Knocked out tooth j. Muscle Cramps 6. Do TWO of the following: a. If a sick or an injured person must be moved, tell how you would determine the best method. Demonstrate this method. b. With helpers under your supervision, improvise a stretcher and move a presumably unconscious person. c. With your counselor’s approval, arrange a visit with your patrol or troop to an emergency medical facility or through an American Red Cross chapter for a demonstration of how an AED is used. d. Teach another Scout a first-aid skill selected by your counselor.
Syllabus: Prepared Summer 2011 Monday REQ#5: (Instruction) Explain first aid stuff. REQ#1: (Evaluate) Get proof of completion. Tuesday Review from Monday REQ#2: (Instruction) Explain more first aid stuff. REQ#3: (Instruction) Explain even more first aid stuff. Wednesday Review from Tuesday Ask about OA eligibility REQ#5: (Evaluate) Quiz first aid stuff. REQ#4: (Instruction and Evaluation) Explain first aid stuffers. Thursday Review from Wednesday REQ#2: (Evaluation) Quiz scouts on more first aid stuff. REQ#3: (Evaluation) Quiz scouts on even more first aid stuff. REQ#7: (Instruction and Evaluation) Demonstrate teaching a skill. Friday Review from Thursday, go over any missed requirements REQ#6: (Instruction and Evaluation) Demonstrate injury assistance.
Breakdown of Requirements: REQ#1: Get proof of completion.
REQ#2: (A) You can obtain emergency assistance from home by dialing 911 or contacting your local authorities. Creating a fire and using it for smoke signals can identify people nearby that you need assistance. Also using a mirror to reflect sunlight can get the attention of low flying planes. You can also be prepared for an emergency situation by having a first aid that includes medical supplies, blankets, food, water, etc. You can obtain medical assistance on a boat by using lights, flags, and horns to get the attention of local boaters. (B) Triage – is a system of classifying of based on severity of their condition. a. Immediate – the patient needs to seek medical attention as soon as possible or they will not survive b. Delayed – the medical situation requires attention within 6 hours, injuries are potentially life threatening c. Minimal – requires medical attention once all higher medical situations have been taken care of d. Expectant – spare any time left after high medical situations have been handled. (C) Barriers such as masks, gloves, and gowns can be used to prevent the exposure of blood borne pathogens. Washing hands before and after a medical situation can eliminate the spread of disease. Using proper storage of materials can prevent contamination. (D) Have scouts bring in their first-aid kit.
REQ#3: (A) Explain the following: a. Shock – when someone is under great stress or injured, they may not be getting enough blood to their body parts. i. Symptoms – restlessness, weakness, confusion, clammy skin ii. Treating – call for help, check airway, lie victim on back and elevate legs about 12 inches, keep victim warm b. Heat attack – when an artery that supplies to blood to the heart becomes blocked i. Symptoms – uncomfortable pressure, night sweats, weakness ii. Treating – call for help immediately and be ready to perform CPR if heartbeat and breathing stops c. Stroke – disturbance of blood supply to the brain i. Symptoms – numbness, muscle weakness of the face ii. Treating – someone who appears to be having a stroke should be admitted to the hospital (B) Check to see if the victim is breathing. Check to see if the victim can respond to you. If they cannot respond and are not breathing you should call for help and begin CPR. a. Performing CPR i. Use a breathing barrier ii. Check Airway, tilt head back and chin-up iii. Rescue breaths: look, listen, feel
iv. Compressions: place hand over hand, heel of hand on center of victims chest, compress about an 1 inch to 2 inches, 100 compressions per minute v. Rescue breaths vi. 30 more chest compressions vii. Check for breathing viii. Repeat step 3 to 8 (C) Automated external defibrillator (AED) – can be used my trained individuals when someone is suffering a heart attack (D) Steps for a severe bleeding victim: a. Have someone contact 911 b. Use a sterile pad and apply pressure to the wound; use a elastic wrap to secure the pad in place c. Once bleeding has stopped wrap pad in sterile bandage d. Check further up the limp for several minutes for warmth and pulse; if cold or too slow of pulse the bandage may be too tight e. If the pad becomes soaked in blood just put a new over it f. Tourniquets should be used as a last resort and if only all other methods to stop bleeding have failed (E) Bee stings can cause the victims lungs to close up within in minutes. 911 should be called immediately. Benadryl can be given to the victim to help calm the allergic reaction. Help the victim administrate an Epi-Pen shot if they have one. (F) Heatstroke – is when the bodies cooling system in overworked or not functioning properly for a long period of time; if left untreated it can be deadly a. Symptoms – hot skin, rapid pulse, dry skin, confusion b. Move to cool area c. Remove excess clothing d. Wrap victim in cool objects; Ex. Ice packs e. Have them sip water REQ#4: (A) Closed (simple) fracture – broken bone that has not punctured the skin. Open (compound) fracture – broken bone that has punctured the skin. Ask the following questions to the victim: i. Did you hear or feel a bone snap? ii. Do you feel pain when you press on the skin over the injured area? iii. Are you unable to move the injured limb b. Treating broken bone: i. Call 911 ii. Treat victim for breathing issues, heart problems, and serious bleeding iii. Protect the spin column by supporting the head and neck iv. If a compound fracture control bleeding using a sterile bandage v. If a compound fracture and medical emergency hasn’t arrived within in an hour run a small flow of water over wound vi. Treat for shock, but do not raise a broken leg
c. Cravat Bandage – can be used to support a sprain ankle, support splints i. Fold the point of a triangular bandage up to the long edge ii. Fold the bottom edge several times toward the top edge iii. Tie all bandages in place with square knots (B) To minimize further injury to suspected neck injury clear the area of and hazards that still may remain, tree branches and people. Stabilize the victim by supporting their head and neck. Try to move the victim as little as possible. Contact 911 right away. Use a backboard as needed. REQ#5: (A) Hypothermia – the body is losing more heat that it can produce a. Symptoms – cold, numb, tired, shiver, poor decisions b. Treatment – gradually warm the victim, remove wet clothing c. Prevention – wear layers, try not to wear cotton or other materials that provide minimal insulation (B) Convulsions/seizures – excessive or abnormal neural activity in the brain a. Symptoms – sudden contractions of muscles, tightening of chest, dizzy b. Treatment – clear the area of items that the victim could harm themselves with, call 911, once they stop moving treat patient as needed (C) Frostbite – skin and tissue have begun to freeze a. Symptoms – red extremities, numbness, pain b. Treatment – move victim to warm place, remove wet clothing, gradually warm body part up c. Prevention – wear layers, remove wet clothing before it becomes a problem (D) Dehydration – more is being given off than taken in a. Symptoms – feeling thirsty, yellow urine, weak, tired, body aches b. Treatment – have the person drink water that does not have alcohol or caffeine c. Prevention – carry water bottle with you throughout the day (E) Bruises, strains, sprains – breaking of blood vessels underneath the surface of the skin a. Symptoms – black and blue skin b. Treatment – elevate injured part, ice for 30 to 60 minutes twice a day (F) Burns – exposure to a heat source for a long period of time a. Symptoms – red skin, pain, blisters b. Treatment – apply cool wet cloths (G) Abdominal pain – pain felt in the abdomen a. Symptoms – pain, uneasiness, vomiting b. Treatment – anti-acid, vomiting, sprite, if pain persists for a long of period of time seek medical attention (H) Broken, chipped, or loosened tooth – tooth not in proper position a. Treatment – if broken or chipped put took in milk and seek medical attention immediately; also, if loosened seek medical attention (I) Knocked out tooth – tooth has fallen out of socket a. Treatment – put tooth in milk and seek medical attention immediately, use a sterile pad to stop bleeding in tooth socket
(J) Muscle cramps – involuntary contract of the muscle a. Symptoms – pain or a lump in the muscle b. Treatment – stretch, massage, apply heat c. Prevention – properly stretch before and after physical activity REQ#6: (A) Devise a method to transporting a sick or injured person. Do not move a person who has a possible spine injuries, heart attack, seizures, frostbitten, burned foot, broken foot, etc. a. Walking assist – put victim arm around your shoulder b. Blanket Drag – wrap victim in blanket and drag slowly c. Clothes Drag – drag victim by their clothes d. Four-handed seat – grab your right wrist, with your right hand friends left wrist, have victim sit on the box with arms around the two supporting Scouts e. Pack-strap – victim puts arms around your neck and you carry them f. Two-handed carry – place arms on each other shoulder, then link free arm, carry victim (B) Stretcher. Get a large blanket and two long logs. Put logs on blanket, fold either side of the blanket over the logs so that the seam of the blanket is facing up REQ#7: Teach a fun and interesting first aid skill
Tips and Tricks:
Requirements #2, #3, #4, #5, and #6 are explanation or discussion requirements. That means they cannot be completed in one day. They must have instruction on one day, followed by an evaluation on a different day. Spend extra time on understanding requirement #5 You should not be completing all of the requirements before Friday. However, if you have a very small class and get through the requirements ahead of schedule, just go fishing for the remainder of the time.