FENNAGH WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT CONTROL PHILOSOPHY

. to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny ot he ru se FENNAGH WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT CONT...
Author: Tracey Skinner
1 downloads 0 Views 8MB Size
.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

FENNAGH WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

CONTROL PHILOSOPHY

Co

ns en

TO BE READ IN CONJUNCTION WITH P+ID PLAN (Rev. 02)

CARLOW COUNTY COUNCIL

Prepared by: Declan Mc Carthy Checked by: George Henchion Approved by: George Henchion

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:12

Control Philosophy

1/28

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. PRELIMINARY I.

Over view....................................................................................................................... 3

II.

Abbreviations List........................................................................................................... 5

III.

Tags and codes in P+ID plans ....................................................................................... 6

IV. Alarms............................................................................................................................ 7

se

.

Treatment Plant Inlet Works ..................................................................................................................... 8

2.

Forward Feed Pumping Station.................................................................................... 11

3.

Storm Tank .................................................................................................................. 13

4.

Aeration Tank............................................................................................................... 15

5.

Clarifier and RAS/ WAS Pumps ................................................................................... 17

6.

Sludge Holding Tanks (SHT)........................................................................................ 20

7.

Tertiary Filter Feed Sump............................................................................................. 21

8.

Tertiary Treatment Filter............................................................................................... 23

9.

Final Effluent P.S ......................................................................................................... 26

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

1.

10. Ferric Dosing................................................................................................................ 28

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:12

Control Philosophy

2/28

REVISION TABLE Index

Date

Modification

Written

Draft

07 /2007

First Issue

D.C

Rev. 1

05/ 2008

Tertiary Filter

D.M.C

Design

Contract

Client

App.

Eng. App.

App.

The process control description is based on the following “P+ID” drawing: Title / description

107417-501

P&ID – Fennagh Waste Water Treatment Plant

Revision 2

Date 06/ 2008

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Drawing No.

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:12

Control Philosophy

I.

3/28

OVER VIEW

The existing waste water treatment plant at Fennagh Co. Carlow is being upgrade to treat waste water from a population equivalent of 1500. The treated waste water will be pumped to the River burren some 1600m away.

a.

Waste Water Treatment Plant

Waste water enters the treatment plant from the existing local sewer network. The incoming waste water passes through a mechanical spiral screen where solid non-biodegradable objects are removed from the incoming flow and transferred to a waste skip. A sampler automatically collects samples of the incoming waste water for analysis. ru

se

.

Following the spiral screen the flows gravitate to the grit trap where grit settles to the bottom

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

compacted prior to disposal into a skip.

ot

he

of the grit chamber. Periodically grit is removed to a classifier where it is dewatered and The waste water gravitates to the forward feed pumping station from where it is pumped to the aeration tank by 2 No. D/ S submersible centrifugal pumps. During storm conditions, flows in excess 11.7 l/s (3 x DWF) overflow the pumping station to the storm tank (Existing aeration tank). If the incoming flows exceed the capacity of the storm tank the excess flows overflow to the nearby stream. Co

ns en

The contents of the storm tank are pumped back to the forward feed pumping station by 2 No. D/ S pumps at a rate of 5 l/s via a DN100 pipe when storm conditions recede. Oxygen is introduced to the aeration tank by a fixed film aerator on a VSD drive. The drive is controlled by a dissolved oxygen probe located in the tank. Ferric Sulphate is dosed into the inlet pipe to the aeration tank to reduce Phosphorus levels. The effluent flows from the aeration tank to the clarifier. A rotating half bridge cause the sludge to settle to the bottom of the tank where it is pumped to the sludge holding tanks as WAS or returned as RAS to the aeration tank. Clarified effluent overflows a weir in the clarifier and flows by gravity to the tertiary filter feed pumping station. The clarified effluent is pumped to the tertiary filter for final treatment and gravitates to the final effluent pumping station. The tertiary filter is periodically back washed using treated effluent. The wash water is directed back to the forward feed pumping station. A sampler automatically collects samples of the treated effluent for analysis. The treated effluent is pumped to the Burren river at a rate of 13.75 l/s via a DN150 rising main.

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

b.

4/28

Waste Sludge

Scum from the clarifier and WAS is stored transferred to the sludge holding tanks. Supernatant is automatically decanted off at a high level and flows to the forward feed pumping station. Settled sludge is periodically removed from the tanks by a road tanker. A

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

flow meter on the bauer connection pipe monitors the sludge removed from the tanks.

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

5/28

II. ABBREVIATIONS LIST

AB = Air Blower B = Bin / Skip BV = Butterfly Valve CO = Compressor D/S = Duty / Standby DO = Dissolved Oxygen DWF= Dry Weather Flow FEPS = Final Effluent Pumping Station FFPS = Forward Feed Pumping Station ru

se

.

FM = Flow Meter ot

he

GV = Gate Valve to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

LS = Limit Switch M = Motor P = Pump

P&ID = Process & Instrumentation Diagram PLC = Programmable Logic Controller PS = Position Switch SA = Sampler

Co

ns en

RAS = Return Activated Sludge SC = Screen SHT = Sludge Holding Tank SV = Solenoid Valve US = Ultrasonic Level Sensor VSD = Variable Speed Drive

WAS = Waste Activated Sludge

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

6/28

III. TAGS AND CODES IN P+ID PLANS

Tags for equipment instruments are specified as follows:

01-

SV

05

Unit No. (e.g. inlet works,

Instrument / equipment

Instrument

pumping station)

(see note 1)

number.

/

equipment

E

Existing

R

Replaced

--

New

Letter codes for identification function of plant / equipment instruments as follows: First letter

Succeeding letter(s)

B

--

Display of state (e.g. motor running)

C

--

Controlling

F

Flow

--

I

--

K

Time or time programme

L

Level

M

Moisture or humidity

R

--

P

Pressure (analysis, concentration, conductivity, etc.)

--

Q

Quality

--

S

Speed

Indicating

On/Off

Z

--

ns en

Temperature

X

Co

T

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Letter

---Recording

Switching Transmitting -Emergency of safety acting

Additional specifications (used as “first letter; OC = Open / Close

In case of 2 or more succeeding letters, they will be placed one after the other in the sequence I-R-C-T-Q-S-Z-A-B. Note 1: For explanation of tags / symbols, please refer to “Process and Instrumentation Diagram Details” plan.

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

7/28

IV. ALARMS

Priority 1 • Event Locally displayed at control panel. Priority 2 • Attention (High level detected) • Caution

ot

he

ru

se

.

Alarm raised locally and at the county councils head office.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

Priority 3

• Urgent (Over flow, pump fail to start, etc)

Alarm raised locally and at the county councils head office.

ns en

Where duty / standby pumps are installed. If the duty pump fails to start, the standby pump Co

automatically becomes the duty pump. A priority 2 alarm is raised. All electrical equipment and instruments are wired to the control panel (PL-01) located in the control house.

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

8/28

1. INLET WORKS 1.1.

Process Description

Inlet screening Flow enters the inlet works in a gravity 225Ø sewer from the local area. The spiral screen & compactor (01-SC01) is automatically controlled on a level-time basis. Control process is detailed as follows:



A high level to be set during commissioning (500 mm – variable) is detected by (01US01), located prior (01-SC01). An enable signal is triggered from panel (PL-01) and (01-SC01) is activated.



Solid matter is removed by the conveyor spiral from the separation screen, which is to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.



cleaned by a brush attached to the conveyor spiral. Screenings are compacted in the compaction zone and binned into a wheelie bin. Drained liquid is diverted downstream of (01-SC01). •

(01-SV01) (Lower washing valve) starts with (01-SC01) and is controlled on a time basis (2 seconds running / 5 seconds pause) while (01-SC01) is running. (01-SV02) (compaction zone cleaning valve) starts with (01-SC01) as well, and it is ns en



Co

controlled on a time basis while (01-SC01) is running (5 seconds running after every 120 seconds running time of (01-SC01). •

(01-SC01) and solenoid valves stop 0-5 minutes (to be set during commissioning) after a low level is detected by (01-US01) (100mm – variable), or on a time basis if (01SC01) is continuously running after a period based on screen manufacturer’s recommendations.

Wash water for the screen will be supplied by 2 No D/ S wash water supply pumps (07-P03/ P04) located at the tertiary filter feed sump.. “Y type” strains 01-YS01/ YS02 will be installed prior to the solenoid valves to prevent dirt particles that affect their functioning. In the event of any kind of failure (power, mechanical, etc), the effluent overflows to the bypass screen (01-SC02), and an overflow alarm is raised. Screening are manually raked and removed by an operator. Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

9/28

The sampling system (01-SA01) will have variable set point controls which will be calibrated during commissioning. The system is equipped with time and flow proportional manual overrides. The sampler is controlled from its local panel. Screened effluent passes through a Ø225mm UPVC pipe to the grit trap. Grit trap. The grit trap is a vortex type. Grit settles to the bottom of the chamber and is lifted on an intermittent basis by means of air flow from 01-AB01 to the bottom of the chamber via 2 No air pipes. The settle grit is removed in a two stage timed process. The wash and the lift sequence are

1.2.

Control Philosophy

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

described as follows (the following time periods may need to be adjusted on commissioning):

(Levels to be set during commissioning)

(01-AB01) and (01-SC04) are off and (01-3BV01) is in “air position” (i.e. external to the Co



(Automatic Operation) ns en

1.2.1.

discharge pipe). •

A 0-24 hour timer is used to initiate the process timer.



(01-AB01) and (01-SC04) starts running for 0-60 minutes.



When (01-AB01) is started, air is diverted to the bottom of the chamber where it agitates the settled grit locally, causing it to be suspended in solution.



Grit is transferred to the grit classifier (01-SC04) and discharged into a bin after being drained. Drained liquid is diverted to the grit trap inlet pipe.



(01-3BV01) into the discharge pipe creates an air lift pump as follows: o

After 0-10 minutes, the 3-way valve changes to the air lift position.

o

After 0-10 minutes, the 3-way valve reverts to the air wash position.

o

After 0-10 minutes, the 3-way valve changes to the air lift position.

o

After 0-10 minutes, the 3-way valve changes to the air lift position. 01-AB01 stops.

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

o

10/28

At the end 01-AB01 stops, 01-3BV01 set to air wash position, and (01-SC04) stops 5 minutes after (01-AB01).

The cycle frequency is variable and will be determined during commissioning and adjusted as appropriate by operator. Flow from the grit trap is directed to the forward feed pumping station. DRIVES – PLANT Tag

Description

Control

Control parameter

Comment • Duty

Mechanical spiral 01-SC01

screen and compactor

01-US01

Level

Timer

Time

• Controls at PL-01 • An “ON” signal controls

01-SC04

Grit classifier

01-SV01

Solenoid valve

01-SV02

Solenoid valve

Manual

he

Grit trap

ot

Manual screen

01-SC03

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

01-SC02

ru

se

.

wash water pumps (07-P03/

-

Air blower

01-3BV01

3-way actuated valve

Time

Timer

Time

Timer

Time

Timer

Time

Timer

Time

Description

Signal

Alarm

Ultrasonic level

Analogue

• Bypass screen

-

• Duty • Controls at PL-01 • Lower washing valve • Compaction zone cleaning valve • Duty • Controls at PL-01

Co

ns en

01-AB01

Timer

P04)

• Duty • Controls at PL-01

INSTRUMENTATION Tag 01-US01

01-SA01

sensor Sampler

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

-

Comment • LIC

High level

• Controls 01-SC01 • QIR

-

• Controlled by local timer

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

11/28

2. FORWARD FEED PUMPING STATION 2.1.

Process Description

The pumping station receives flows from: • Inlet grit trap via a Ø225 pipe • Waste water from the control house via a Ø100 pipe • Supernatant return flows via a Ø150 pipe • Backwash flows from the tertiary filter via a Ø225 pipe • Return flows from the storm tank via a Ø100 pipe The pumping station consists of 2 No. submersible centrifugal pumps (02-P01 & 02-P02)

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

located in the wet well.

(02-P01 & 02-P02) each have a capacity of 11.70 l/s and operate on a D/ S basis. Automatic pump control is obtained by use of an ultrasonic level sensor in the wet well (02US01) which transmits a 4-20Ma signal to (PL-01).

ns en

Pump controls allows for the automatic changeover of duty pumps on a time basis set out at Co

24 hours initially. The forward flow rate to treatment is monitored and recorded by flow meter (04-FM01), which transmits a 4-20 ma signal to (PL-01). The forward flow rate is restricted to 11.7 l/s. In the event of the incoming flows exceeding the capacity of the forward feed pumps over an extended period i.e. storm conditions, the excess flows overflow to the storm tank (existing aeration tank).

2.2.

Control Philosophy

(Levels to be set during commissioning)

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

2.2.1.

12/28

Automatic Operation

Forward Feed Pumps (02-P01/ P02) • In the event of a high level as monitored by level sensor (02-US01), duty pump starts. • In the event of a low level as monitored by level sensor (02-US01), duty pump stops. • If the level in the pumping station increases as monitored by (02-US01) the duty pump ramps up. • If the level in the pumping station decrease as monitored by (02-US01), duty pump ramps down. • In the event of a high – high level as monitored by (02-US01) an alarm is raised at the local control panel and at the County Councils head office. Excess flows over flow to the storm tank. se

.

• If the duty pump fails to start the standby pump becomes the duty pump. A priority 2 alarm

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

is raised.

DRIVES – PLANT Description

02-P01/ P02

Foul Pumps

Control

02-US01 / 04-FM01

Control parameter

Comment • Duty/ Standby VSD

Level / Flow

• Controls at PL-01

Co

ns en

Tag

INSTRUMENTATION Tag 02-US01

Description

Signal

Ultrasonic level

Analogue

sensor

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

Alarm

Comment

Overflow level

May 2008

• Controls 02-P01/ P02, 03P01/ P02

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

13/28

3. STORM TANK 3.1.

Process Description

The storm tank receives overflows from the forward feed pumping station during storm conditions (incoming flows >11.70 l/s) via a Ø225 overflow pipe. Once storm conditions have subsided the storm water is pumped back to the forward feed pumping station by storm return pumps (03-P01 & 03-P02) at a rate of 5l/s. These pumps are controlled by the level sensor (03-US01) located in the storm tank and level sensor (02US01) located in the forward feed pumping station and operate on a duty/ standby basis. If the capacity of the storm tank is reached the incoming flows overflow a weir and discharge ru

se

.

to the nearby stream. outfall weir in the tank.

3.2.

Control Philosophy

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

The ultrasonic level sensor (03-US01) mounted in the tank records the flow rate over the

Automatic Operation Co

3.2.1.

ns en

(Levels to be set during commissioning)

• In the event of a high level detected in the storm tank as monitored by level sensor (03US01) and a low level detected in the forward feed P.S as monitored by (02-US01) the duty storm pump starts. • In the event of a high level detected in the forward feed P.S as monitored by (02-US01) the duty storm pump stops. • In the event of a low level detected in the storm tank as monitored by level sensor (03US01) the duty storm pump stops. • If the duty storm pump fails to start the assist storm pump starts. A priority 2 alarm is raised/ • The duty pump is alternated after every cycle.

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

14/28

DRIVES – PLANT Tag

Description

Control

03-P01/ P02

Storm Return Pumps

03-US01 02-US01

Control parameter

Comment • Duty/ Standby

Level / Flow

• Controls at PL-01

INSTRUMENTATION Tag

Signal

Ultrasonic level

Analogue

sensor

Alarm

Comment • LIRC (Overflow monitoring)

Overflow level

• Controls 03-P01/ P02

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

03-US01

Description

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

15/28

4. AERATION TANK 4.1.

Process Description

The system consists of an aeration tank, aeration wheel and an aeration wheel drive motor (04-M01). The aeration tank receives incoming flows from the forward feed pumping station via a DN100 pipe and RAS flows from the clarifier via a DN150 pipe. The Aerator wheel is powered by a drive motor (04-M01) using a chain a sprocket transmission. The drive motor is controlled by DO probe (04-DO01) located in the tank, which is maintained within an operating band between 2 and 3 mg/l (levels to be adjusted during commissioning). The drive motor ramps up/ down in relations to the DO level of the ru

se

.

waste water. If (04-DO01) records either a high or low oxygen level, a priority 1 alarm will be to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

activated. Ferric sulphate is dosed in to the inlet pipe from the forward feed pumping station. The ferric sulphate reduces the phosphorus level in the process by causing the phosphorus to coagulate and settle as sludge in the clarifier.

Aerated liquid overflows a weir on the outlet side of the tank and gravitates to the clarifier tank through a Ø250 mm pipe. 4.2.

Control Philosophy

Co

ns en

(Levels to be set during commissioning)

4.2.1.

Automatic Operation

Aeration Wheel Drive Motor (04-M01)

• In the event of low dissolved oxygen levels as monitored by (04-DO01), the motor ramps up. • In the event of high dissolved oxygen levels as monitored by (04-DO01), the motor ramps down. • At a high - high dissolved oxygen level the motor stops. • The drive motor is also started by the PLC timer if it has not operated with in a set time (60 minutes). On start up the drive motor is configured to operate at full speed for 10 minutes.

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:13

Control Philosophy

16/28

DRIVES – PLANT Tag

04-M01

Description

Control

Control parameter

Aeration wheel drive

04-DO01

Dissolved oxygen

motor

Timer

Timer

Comment • Duty • VSD • Controls at PL-01

INSTRUMENTATION Tag

Description

Signal

Alarm

Comment

04-DO01

Dissolved oxygen

Analogue

High / Low

• Controls 04-M01 • FIRC

04-FM01

Flow meter

Analogue

-

• Controls 05-P02/ P03,

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

10-P01/ P02, 02-P01/ P02

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:14

Control Philosophy

17/28

5. CLARIFIER AND RAS/ WAS PUMPS 5.1.

Process Description

The system consists of a clarifier tank, 2 No. Sludge pumps mounted on a RC plinth (05-P02 & 03), a scum pump (05-P01). Flow from the aeration tank enters the clarifier and is directed to the central diffusion drum, which is designed such that flows will discharge radially at the bottom. As settlement occurs the clarified effluent rises and overflows the peripheral weir. The heavier activated sludge settles to the floor of the tank. The rotating half bridge is supported on a steel tripod and at the perimeter. The drive unit

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

(05-M01) is fitted to the wheel at the perimeter of the bridge and is constantly rotating. The rotating bridge is fitted with a series of floor scrappers which continuously direct the settled sludge to a central hopper. At the base of the hopper is the sludge draw off pipe which is directed to the RAS / WAS pumps.

Sludge pumps (05-P02/ P03) each have a capacity of 11.7 l/s, operate on a D/S basis, and ns en

are controlled by VSD’s which ramp up/ down in relation to the incoming flow to aeration tank Co

as monitored by flow meter (04-FM01). Pump controls allow for the automatic changeover of duty pumps on a time basis set out at 24 hours initially. If duty pump does not cut-in the standby pump becomes the duty pump. Under normal operation the sludge is returned to the aeration tank as RAS. Periodically the operator directs the sludge to the sludge holding tanks as WAS by manually operating the change over valves. Scum on the surface of the clarified effluent is directed to a scum box by a scraper on the top of the half bridge. The scum is pumped by scum pump (05-P01) to the sludge holding tanks. The pump operates on a duty basis. The pump is controlled by a limit switch (05-LS01) located adjacent to the scum pump.

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:14

Control Philosophy

18/28

The limit switch is activated by a striker on the rotating half bridge every complete revolution of the half bridge. Clarified effluent overflows the V-notch weir and flows by gravity to tertiary filter feed P.S.

5.2.

Control Philosophy

(Levels to be set during commissioning)

5.2.1.

Automatic Operation

Clarifier Scraper Motor (05-M01)

ru

se

.

• The clarifier scraper motors operate continuously.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

Scum Pump (05-P01)

• When the position switch (05-LS01) is activated the sludge pump operates for a set period of time.

Co

ns en

RAS / WAS Pumps (05-P02/ P03)



The duty RAS / WAS pump operates continuously.



In the event of higher incoming flows as monitored by (04-FM01), the duty pump ramps ups. In the event of lower incoming flows as monitored by (04-FM01), the duty pump



ramps down. DRIVES – PLANT Tag

Description

Control

Control parameter

Comment

05-M01

Clarifier drive

On/off

On/ Off

• Duty

05-LS01

Position

• Duty

Timer

Time

• Controls at PL-01

04-FM01

Flow

05-P01

05-P02/ P03

Scum pump

Sludge pumps

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

• Duty/ Standby VSD • Controls at PL-01

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:14

Control Philosophy

19/28

INSTRUMENTATION Description

Signal

05-LS01

Limit switch

Digital

Alarm

Comment • P.C

-

• Controls 05-P01

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Tag

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:14

Control Philosophy

20/28

6. SLUDGE HOLDING TANKS (SHT) 6.1.

Process Description

Flow enters the sludge holding tank from the sludge pumps and the scum box in the clarifier. The contents of the tank are the allowed to thicken through the separation of the clear liquid and sludge by gravity. Clear liquid at the top of the tank overflows the high level decant pipe or is manually decanted at a lower level. This liquor is then returned to the forward feed pumping station. The Bauer coupling at the base of the tank allows for sludge to be removed using a mobile tanker. The bauer coupling line is fitted with a flowmeter (06-FM01) to record sludge flows

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

taken from the site.

DRIVES – PLANT Description -

INSTRUMENTATION Tag

Description

06-FM01

Flow meter

Control parameter

-

ns en

-

Control

Co

Tag

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

Signal

Alarm

Analogue

-

Comment

-

-

Comment • FIR • Records sludge flows

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:14

Control Philosophy

21/28

7. TERTIARY FILTER FEED SUMP 7.1.

Process Description

Clarified effluent enters the tertiary filter feed sump from the clarifier through a DN200mm pipe. The pumping station consists of 2 No. submersible pumps (07-P01/ P02) and 2 No. dry mounted wash water pumps (07-P03/ P04). The wash water pumps supply wash water to the inlet screen at a rate of 4 l/s. Clarified effluent is pumped to the tertiary treatment filter by the 2 No. feed pumps (07-P01/ P02) at a rate of 11.7 l/s. The pumps operate on a duty / standby basis and are controlled by level sensor (07-US01) and by the PLC timer during a back wash cycle. At a high level the pumping station can overflow to the final effluent P.S via a DN 200

7.2.

Control Philosophy

7.2.1.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

overflow pipe.

Automatic Operation

Co

ns en

Tertiary Filter Feed Pumps (07-P01/ P02).

• In the event of a high level as monitored by (07-US01), duty pump starts. • In the event of a low level as monitored by (07-US01), duty pump stops. • If the duty pump fails to start the standby pump becomes the duty pump. A priority 2 alarm is raised. • When a backwash cycle is initiated for the tertiary filter, the PLC prevents the filter feed pumps from operating while the backwash cycle takes place irrespective of level in the sump. • The duty pump alternates after every cycle.

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:14

Control Philosophy

22/28

Wash Water Pumps (07-P03/ P04). • The duty pump is started by an ON signal from the (PLC) when inlet screen (01-SC01) is running. • The duty pump is stopped by an OFF signal from the (PLC) when inlet screen (01-SC01) is stopped. • In the event of a low level detected in the sump as monitored by level sensor (07-US01), duty pump stops. • If the duty pump fails to start the standby pump becomes the duty pump. A priority 2 alarm is raised.

.

• The duty pump alternates after every cycle.

ru he

Control

Control parameter

ot

Description

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

Tag

se

DRIVES – PLANT

Comment

07-US01

07-P01/ P02

Tertiary filter feed pumps

PLC

Level

• Duty/ Standby

(Backwash

Time

• Controls at PL-01

timer)

Wash Water pumps

Level

(ON signal

Inlet Screen “ON”

• Duty/ Standby

from 01-

signal

• Controls at PL-01

Alarm

Comment

SC01)

Co

ns en

07-P03/ P04

07-US01

INSTRUMENTATION Tag

07-US01

Description Ultrasonic Level sensor

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

Signal

• LIC Analogue

-

• Controls 07-P01/ P02/ P03/ P04

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:14

Control Philosophy

23/28

8. TERTIARY TREATMENT FILTER 8.1.

Process Description

The tertiary filter consists of: • 1 No. Tertiary Filter. • 2 No. Filter Feed Pumps (07-P01/ P02) located in the tertiary filter feed sump (See chapter 7). • 1 No. Backwash pump (09-P01) located in the final effluent P.S (See chapter 9). • 1 No. DN150mm Actuated Ball Valve (08-BV01) located on the filter outlet pipe. • 1 No. DN200mm Actuated Ball Valve (08-BV02) located on the backwash waste pipe.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

• 1 No. DN150mm Actuated Ball Valve (08-BV03) located on the filter rinse pipe.

Filtering Process

Clarified effluent is pumped from the tertiary filter feed pumping station to the tertiary treatment filter by 2 No. Duty/ Standby tertiary feed pumps (07-P01/ P02) at a rate of 11.7 l/s. As the clarified effluent passes down through the filter, suspended solids in the effluent will ns en

be retained in the filter. Following the filter the filtered effluent is directed to final effluent p.s. Co

During the filtering process actuated ball valve (08-BV01) is in the open position and valves (08-BV02 & 08-BV03) are in the closed position. A sampler (09-SA01) automatically collects a sample of the treated effluent in the final effluent P.S. The sampler is controlled by the PLC timer.

Back Wash & Rinse Cycle Periodically the tertiary filter is backwashed (initially set to 4 times/ day) by isolating the incoming flow and pumping filtered water back through the filter by duty pump (09-P01) located in the final effluent P.S at a rate of 47.5 l/s. A back wash only takes place during periods of low incoming flow through the plant. Following a backwash cycle, the filter is rinsed for 30 seconds.

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:14

Control Philosophy

24/28

• When a backwash is scheduled by the PLC timer, and a low level detected in the tertiary filter feed P.S as monitored by level sensor (07-US01), the pumps (07-P01/ P02) are stopped and actuated valve (08-BV02) is opened and valve (08-BV01) is closed. • Pumps (07-P01/ P02) are prevented from operating during a backwash even if a high level is detected in the filter feed p.s as monitored by (07-US01), • Backwash pump (09-P01) starts for a time (t1) initially set to 180 seconds. Filtered water is pumped back through the filter and gravitates to the FFPS via a 225mm pipe. • After time (t1) backwash pump (09-P01) stops. • The filter is allowed to settle for a time (t2) set to 60 seconds. • After time (t2) valve (08-BV02) closes and valve (08-BV03) opens for the rinse cycle. • After the duty filter feed pump operates for time (t3) initially set to 30 seconds, valve (08BV01) opens and valve (08-BV03) closes.

Control Philosophy

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

8.2.

ot

he

ru

se

.

• Back wash cycle complete.

(All times to be set during commissioning)

8.3.

Automatic operation

Co

ns en

Actuated valve (08-BV01)

• During normal operation of the filter, actuated valve (08-BV01) is in the open position. • When a back wash cycle is initiated by the PLC the valve closes. The valve remains closed until the backwash and rinse cycle is complete. • When the rinse cycle is complete the valve opens. Actuated valve (08-BV02)

• During normal operation of the filter, actuated valve (08-BV02) is in the closed position. • When a back wash cycle is initiated by the PLC the valve opens. The valve remains open until the backwash cycle is complete (270 seconds variable).

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:14

Control Philosophy

25/28

Actuated valve (08-BV03) • During normal operation of the filter, actuated valve (08-BV03) is in the closed position. Following a backwash and filter settling time of 1 minute the valve opens. • The valve remains open for 30 seconds while the duty pump (07-P01/ P02) in the FEPS operates. • The rinse water is directed to the FFPS. • After the rinse cycle the valve closes. Backwash Pump (09-P01)

.

(See chapter 9)

08-BV01

08-BV02

PLC

outlet)

wash)

(Back

PLC (Back

(Backwash outlet) Actuated Ball valve

wash)

PLC (Back wash)

(Drain)

he

ru

Actuated valve (Filter

Actuated valve

Control parameter

Comment • Duty

Time

• Controls at PL-01 • Duty

Time

• Controls at PL-01 • Duty

Time

• Controls at PL-01

Co

ns en

08-BV03

Control

ot

Description

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

Tag

se

DRIVES – PLANT

INSTRUMENTATION Tag

Description -

-

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

Signal -

Alarm

Comment -

-

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:14

Control Philosophy

26/28

9. FINAL EFFLUENT P.S 9.1.

Process Description

Flow enters the pumping station through a Ø150mm pipe from the tertiary filter and is pumped approximately 1600m to the Burren River. Rising main pumps (09-P02 & 09-P03) each have a capacity of 13.75 l/s and operate on a D/ S basis. The sampling system (09-SA01) operates on variable set point controls which will be calibrated during commissioning. The system is equipped with time and flow proportional

ru

se

Control Philosophy

9.2.1.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

9.2.

.

manual overrides. The sampler is controlled from its local panel.

Automatic Operation

(Levels to be set during commissioning)

Co

ns en

Backwash Pump (09-P01)

• The pump is controlled by an “ON” signal from the PLC during a back wash cycle. • The pump runs for 180 second as part of the back wash cycle. • In the event of a low level detected in the sump as monitored by level sensor (09-US01) the pump stops. • The pump is prevented from running when the filter supply pumps (07-P01/ P02) are operating. Rising Main Pumps (09-P02/ P03) During a back wash cycle the pumps are prevented from operating to ensure sufficient level in the sump for a back wash cycle. • In the event of a high level detected in the sump as monitored by level sensor (09US01) the duty pump starts. Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:14

Control Philosophy

27/28

• In the event of a low level detected in the sump as monitored by level sensor (09-US01) the duty pump stops. • If the duty pump fails to start the standby pump becomes the duty pump. A priority 2 alarm is raised. • The duty pump alternates after every cycle.

DRIVES – PLANT Tag

Description

Control

Control parameter

Comment

PLC

Level

• Duty

(Backwash

Time

• Controls at PL-01

PLC

Level

• Duty/ Standby

(Backwash

Time

09-US01 09-P01

Backwash pump

timer)

INSTRUMENTATION Description

Signal

Analogue

sensor

09-FM01

Flow meter

09-SA01

Sampler

ns en

Ultrasonic Level

Co

09-US01

se ru

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

timer)

Tag

he

Rising main pumps

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

• Controls at PL-01

ot

09-P02/ P03

.

09-US01

Analogue

-

Alarm

Comment • LIC

-

• Controls 09-P01/ P02/ P03

-

• FIR • QIR

-

• Timer controlled

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:15

Control Philosophy

28/28

10. FERRIC DOSING The Ferric dosing unit consist of a ferric dosing tank and 2 No. dosing pumps (10-P01/ P02). The ferric solution is pumped at a rate of 0-5 l/hr to the inlet to the aeration tank by means of dosing pumps (10-P01/ P02). The Phosphate level is reduced in a chemical reaction and settles as sludge. The dose rate is set manually by the operator based on the incoming effluent. Once the dose rate is set the pumps are controlled automatically based on the incoming flow to the aeration tank as monitored by flow meter (04-FM01).

PLANT Description

Control

Control parameter

10-P01/ P02

Dosing pump

04-FM01

Flow

Comment

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Tag

INSTRUMENTATION Tag

Description -

-

Alarm

• Controls at PL-01

Comment -

-

Co

ns en

-

Signal

• Duty / Standby

Fennagh WWTP – Ref No. 1728

May 2008

Rev. 01

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:15

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:15

Co en t

ns of co For py in rig sp ht ect ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny he ru

ot se .

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:15

en t

ns

Co of co For py in rig sp ht ect ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny .

se

ru

he

ot

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:15

Co en t

ns of co For py in rig sp ht ect ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny he ru

ot se .

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:15

Co

en t

ns

of

co For py in rig sp ht ect ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

he ru

ot

se .

Section C1

The village of Fennagh is serviced by a waste water drainage system and wastewater treatment works (WWTW). The original WWTW was constructed in the early 1970’s and was designed for a population equivalent of 180PE. The treatment works consisted of an extended aeration treatment process with settlement and sludge drying beds. The original secondary settlement tank was replaced by a GRP hopper bottomed secondary settlement tank with lamella plates in the mid ‘90’s, as there was hydraulic overloading. There was also disused sludge drying beds. By 2005 the contributing load to the WWTW was determined as 390PE and the WWTW was significantly overloaded, with poor treatment capacity. In 2008 Carlow County Council replaced the old WWTW with a new treatment works with a capacity of 1,500 pe, this works was put into use in Dec 2008 and is being commissioned at present. The new works consists of the following:

ru

se

.

Inlet 6mm screening and de-gritting on all flows, including storm flows. Storm water holding of 3DWF for 2 hours, providing settlement and a baffled outlet for overflow to the Burren Tributary, with held storm water returned for treatment Flow measurement of flow to full treatment and storm overflow. Secondary treatment using aeration and settlement. Tertiary treatment using a sand filtration system Phosphorous reduction using ferric dosing Sludge holding and thickening tank with flow measurement for sludge removed from site. ns en

• • • • •

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

• •

Co

The treatment standards for the new works are: BOD TSS Amm N Total P

10mg/l 10mg/l 5mg/l 1mg/l

95%ile 95%ile 95%ile 95%ile

The old Fennagh WWTW discharged into the Burren Tributary which flows to the Burren River, the confluence with the Burren is about 1.5 km east of the WWTW. The new works will discharge into the Burren River via a new pumping station. The Burren Tributary was considered for discharge however as the 95%ile flow, estimated by the EPA, is 11l/s and the design load for Fennagh is 1,500 pe the dilution in the Burren Tributary was considered to be marginally unacceptable as the BOD in the stream as a result of the works would be about 3.2 mg/l during low flows. Therefore it was decided to pump the final effluent to the Burren River itself as this would allow for future expansion of the works when required.

1 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:15

The 95%ile flow in the River Burren at the discharge point is estimated at about 100 l/s, providing dilution of almost 30:1 and the BOD in the river as a result of the works would be about 0.85mg/l for a discharge standard of 25 mg/l at design loading and would be approximately 0.35mg/l for the consent standard of 10mgBOD/l. The consent standard for the Fennagh WWTW was set to 10:10(BOD:TSS) as there is a water abstraction point about 15km downstream of the works on the Burren River(Sion Cross). The site layout for Fennagh (drawing C2) shows the location of the final effluent pumping station and the storm water overflow, and drawing C1 is a schematic of the WWTW, drawing C3 shows the location of the final effluent discharge point on the River Burren.

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

The treatment works has been operational since Dec 2008 is going through a commissioning period at present.

2 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:15

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:16

Co en t

ns of co For py in rig sp ht ect ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny he ru

ot se .

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:16

se

Co n f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

nt o

se .

ru

he

ot

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:16

se

Co n f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

nt o

se .

ru

he

ot

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:16

se

Co n f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

nt o

se .

ru

he

ot

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:16

Co en t

ns of co For py in rig sp ht ect ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny he ru

ot se .

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:16

se

Co n f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

nt o

se .

ru

he

ot

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:16

se

Co n f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

nt o

se .

ru

he

ot

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:16

Co en t

ns of co For py in rig sp ht ect ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny he ru

ot se .

Biological Wastewater Treatment with the STÄHLERMATIC®-Aerotor Proven Aeration System - Combination of Activated Sludge and Fixed Film nearly 30 years of experience, well-engineered, rugged construction

Pipe-Aerotor (RR) oxygen input at the spillway

rotation angle of opening oxygen supply of the fixed film

intake of atmospheric air forced conduction and compression of the trapped air

wastewater filling the pipe

running in wastewater aeration from release of trapped air

ru

se

.

oxygen transfer at the transition zones air / water

alternative: additional pipe

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

scraper blade

Process Description

The wastewater treatment unit combines the advantages of the activated sludge process with those of fixed film in a unique design. The system works like a conventional activated sludge system with activated biological sludge in the mixed liquor and a return sludge circuit. This process is enhanced by working with higher concentrations of suspended sludge as a consequence of the low sludge volume index and by the additional effect of the fixed film.

Co

ns en

The STM-AEROTOR is designed as a rotor equipped with pipes created by media discs. By rotating the rotor by a motor above water level, surface air is captured by the special design of the fixed film media and consequently the microorganisms in the basin are supplied with oxygen. As soon as a pipe of the rotor emerges above water level during rotation, the mixed liquor inside the pipes flows out. By this it is firstly aerated at the spillway. The pipe will then be filled with atmospheric air. The necessary oxygen for the fixed film dissolves on the wet surfaces of the media discs. During the downward rotation the air is trapped in the pipes and forced into the mixed liquor. Moving downwards to the bottom of the biotank the air is compressed more and more. The compressed air is contacting all inner surface areas of the disc during rotation. The fixed film is supplied with oxygen during the entire rotation in the atmosphere and in the mixed liquor. During rotation parts of the air can escape. The bubbles travelling to the centre of the rotor result in a homogeneous mixing of the biotank. A circular stream in the centre of the rotor increases significantly the detention time of the bubbles so that consequently the oxygen transfer time is much larger compared to a conventional diffuser aeration system. The activated sludge in the mixed liquor is always effectively supplied with oxygen. The STM-AEROTOR is a high-capacity oxygen supply mechanism designed to satisfy high demands while using less power. Zones with different oxygen concentrations are formed in the basin. These zones influence with advantage the processes of nitrification / denitrification and increased biological P-elimination. The system can be flexibly designed and controlled adapted to varying requirements - by appropriately sizing the volume of the biotank - by changing the speed of the rotor (frequency controlled motor) - by adding additional media pipes and scraper blades

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:16

Choosing larger dimensions of the biotank equipped with the same aerotor (expanding the biotank volume) results in a larger treatment volume. Consequently the anoxic environmental zones are increased so that simultaneous denitrification takes place. These anoxic zones are mainly beneath and under the aerotor. At the tank bottom the concentration of the mixed liquor increases too as a result of first sedimentation in consequence of the low sludge volume index created by the fixed film. Here all oxygen is consumted and a anaerobic zone is created so that an increased biological phosphorus elimination (luxury P-uptake) is additionally achieved. To that the sludge in the anaerobic zone becomes septic a scraper and / or additional pipes are to be installed so that the sludge is mixed and get back into the aerated turbulence of the aerotor.

circular stream

aerobic zone

fluctuation zone: aerobic / anoxic

air coming out

anoxic / anaerobic zone

Design

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

The basic construction of the rotor is a central shaft and a steel cage structure which transfers forces directly to the bearings. The central shaft is significantly less stressed.

ns en

Pipe-Aerotor

Co

The pipes are formed by joining discs into cylinders. Several of these pipes are specially arranged to create the rotor. The pipes form hollow chambers which serve both to input oxygen and as fixed film growth surfaces. The discs consist of durable polypropylene. The distance between the discs is 20 mm. Each rotor can be fitted with additional scrapers and pipes.

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:17

Wide Applicability - treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater - partial or basic treatment, advanced treatment with nitrification/denitrification, and increased biological P-elimination - new plants, expansions, and retrofits of existing plants - single home treatment units - containerized and modular plants - large treatment plants in single and compactly designed concrete tanks - separate aerobic sludge stabilisation - treatment of septic and faecal sludges - treatment of liquid manure and other wastewaters from livestock

se

.

Advantages

he

ru

Process Stability

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

The STM-system is very capable and reliable under even the highest demands. By optimally combining activated sludge with fixed film, required effluent concentrations are safely and steadily achieved, both for basic and for advanced treatment.

The Stählermatic®-AEROTOR

Using modular construction, it is possible to adapt the process to the requirements of every application or loading. The simple and ruggedly designed construction requires less maintenance. The selected materials guarantee long service life. Only half the power of a conventional diffused-air aeration system is required.

High Process Stability

Co

ns en

Highest process stability is achieved through a wide spectrum of microorganisms in the mixed liquor and the fixed film. Oxygen supply is always guaranteed even with increased effluent standards or during excessive loadings.

Smaller Footprint and Volume The high efficiency and the compact design reduce the needed footprint to nearly 50% of conventional process with the same efficiency.

Low Noise and Odour-Free Formation of aerosols and emission of odours are minimized due to the special design of the system. The low speed of the rotor requires no additional noise control measures.

Improved Sludge Quality Less production of waste sludge by the fixed film component, significantly lower sludge volume index, and best sludge settling and dewatering characteristics are the main attributes of the STMAEROTOR-System. 125%

112% 100%100%

100%

78%

75% 52% 45% 50% 25% 0% Stählermatic

Activated Sludge

SBR

Total Volume Energy kWh/d

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:17

Details of Proposed Treatment System The Stahlermatic (STM) process is an advanced process incorporating a combination of fixed film and activated sludge growth mechanisms in a single basin. Each of these processes has their own advantages. Historically, fixed film systems such as RBC’s are simple and stable with low maintenance. The activated sludge process is a more flexible process and will produce a higher quality of final effluent. The STM plant combines the advantages of both processes. The system works like a conventional activated sludge system with activated biological sludge in the mixed liquor and with a return sludge circuit to increase the concentration of the suspended sludge. The efficiency of the typical activated sludge system is enhanced by working with higher concentrations of the suspended sludge than usual and by the additional effect of the biofilm. The powerful effects of the STM system results from this significant increase of the total biomass concentration.

he

ru

se

.

The STM-system can be used in the same way and with the same process combinations as a conventional activated sludge system.

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

The immersed STM-contact aerators or “contactors” are attached radially around a large center shaft. The plates and discs in the contactors are formed with a special surface profile. The process uses only a single mechanical drive system. A geared motor above water level rotates a contactor. Through it atmospheric air is dissolved in the mixer liquor to supply the activated sludge sufficiently with oxygen. The biofilm on the contact aerators is supplied with oxygen when the contactors emerge above water level. During the downward rotation the air is trapped in the chambers created by the plates and discs of the contactors, and forced into the water. As it is conducted to the bottom of the biotank the air is compressed more and more. In principle the biofilm is supplied with oxygen during the total rotation of the contactor, in the atmosphere and in the mixed liquor. The trapped air is partially used to reduce the power requirements by buoyancy so that the power consumption of the system is relatively low. In effect, the contactor acts an extremely efficient aerator. The oxygen supply for all microorganisms is ensured by rotating the contactors slowly. As soon as a segment emerges with its chambers above water level during this rotation, the mixed liquor inside the chambers runs out. The segment will then be filled with atmospheric air. The necessary oxygen for the biological wastewater treatment dissolves on the wet surfaces of the fixed biofilm. Because this very large surface area is directly affected by the partial pressure of the air, an immediate saturation of the oxygen concentration is achieved. By diffusion oxygen penetrates into the biofilm due to the concentration gradient. While the segments are submerging again into the mixed liquor the air cannot escape and is trapped in the segments. As the contactor rotates, the air is forced conducted to the bottom of the biotank. In this way the air is compressed more and more. During the downward rotation some of the air can escape and is channelled in the form of middle fine and fine bubbles to the centre of the aerator caused by the shape of the

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:17

segments. Finally the bubbles reach the water surface through the opposite segments. This turbulence combined with the rotation of the wheel effects a homogeneous mixing of the biotank. The activated sludge in the mixed liquor is always sufficiently supplied with oxygen. During the upward rotation of the contact aerator the partially air filled segments provide buoyancy and tremendously reduce the propulsive power required for rotation. Only a few moments before emerging again the rest of the air is released into the water.

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

The fixed film on the surface areas within the segments are supplied with oxygen up to saturation while open to atmosphere at the start of the cycle. The forced conducted air is contacting all inner surface areas of the plates or discs in the segments during rotation. By this all microorganisms of the fixed film are sufficiently supplied with oxygen during rotation in the mixed liquor too.

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:17

Characteristics of the STM Process

ot

he

ru

se

.

Suitable for Population Equivalents of 50 PE to 5,000. ( can go to 25,000PE ) Complete Waste Water Treatment System that needs no chemicals Utilises a very small space. Totally Automatic. Normally no personnel required on site. Combines the process of fixed film contactors and Activated Sludge treatment. Low Cost, saves over 50% of the power requirement on a conventional plant. Low Maintenance (components have 20 year plus life) Automatic Nitrification and de-Nitrification, Automatic Oxygen level control. Simple to Install. Simple and robust construction. Replaces the technology of Rotating Biological Contactors. No odours of any kind. Larger tank operational volume to conventional RBC's Huge area for the growth of active biofilm. Constant mixing without additional equipment. Higher than normal concentration of the suspended sludge biomass. High process stability. Optimal Oxygen transfer Efficiency Can be containerised, mobile Silent operation Better sludge quality giving better dewatering capability Over 500 installations world-wide. Patented and licensed in 66 Countries. to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾

For an Equivalent volume of waste water to be treated : ¾ Compared to the Sequence batch reactor process (SBR) the Stahlermatic consumes 67% less energy and occupies 26% less volume area.

Co

ns en

¾ Compared to a conventional Activated sludge system the Stahlermatic consumes 55% less energy and occupies 48% less volume area. ¾ Compared to the other two processes the Stahlermatic provides: A lower required treatment volume More advanced degradation of carbon elements More advanced nitrification More advanced de-nitrification More advanced biological P elimination Simultaneous stabilisation of the sludge. ¾ The system can handle storm flows and dry weather flows equally well, with automatic DO sensing to speed up or slow down process. ¾ The Stahlermatic can work with or without a final clarifier, (depending on plant size)

To summarise, this system has significant advantages over comparable processes. It has lower investment costs, lower running costs, and a complete absence of the use of any chemicals. It has a very small footprint. e.g. a 3000PE plant is just 1000m2 including inlet screens, gravel traps, the Stahlermatic system and final clarification.

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:17

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:17

Co en t

ns of co For py in rig sp ht ect ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny he ru

ot se .

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:17

Co en t

ns of co For py in rig sp ht ect ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny he ru

ot se .

Section C2 There are no pumping stations in the Fenagh catchment and there are no overflows in the drainage network other than at the new wastewater treatment works. At the treatment works there is a storm overflow discharge, the final effluent is pumped to the primary discharge at Ullard Bridge. The final effluent (3DWF) is tertiary treated to the following standard. BOD TSS Amm N Total P

10mg/l 10mg/l 5mg/l 1mg/l

95%ile 95%ile 95%ile 95%ile

ot

he

ru

se

.

The storm water is treated in the following manner: to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

When flows exceed the capacity of the forward feed pumps, the storm pumps kick in and pump the storm water unto the storm tank. The storm pumps are sited in a sump and the two pumps operate on a duty/standby basis. In the case of one pump tripping out the other pump cuts in.

Co

ns en

All flows are screened (6mm) and de-gritted and then any storm water flow above 3DWF(35m3/hr) is overflowed to the storm water holding tank. This tank has a storage capacity of 2 hours at 3DWF which equates to a storage volume of over 80m3. If the tank fills up then settled, screened and de-gritted storm water is overflowed to the river, via a baffled overflow pipe, this flow is measured and recorded. The held storm water in the tank is returned to the forward feed pumping station and provided with secondary treatment, as inlet flows permit, this is managed by the operator. The treated storm water is over flowed to the Burren Tributary at the boundary of the WWTW site, as after 2 hours holding there would be higher flow conditions in the stream providing sufficient dilution.

1 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:17

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:18

Co en t

ns of co For py in rig sp ht ect ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny he ru

ot se .

SITE SYNOPSIS

SITE NAME: RIVER BARROW AND RIVER NORE SITE CODE: 002162

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

This site consists of the freshwater stretches of the Barrow/Nore River catchments as far upstream as the Slieve Bloom Mountains and it also includes the tidal elements and estuary as far downstream as Creadun Head in Waterford. The site passes through eight counties – Offaly, Kildare, Laois, Carlow, Kilkenny, Tipperary, Wexford and Waterford. Major towns along the edge of the site include Mountmellick, Portarlington, Monasterevin, Stradbally, Athy, Carlow, Leighlinbridge, Graiguenamanagh, New Ross, Inistioge, Thomastown, Callan, Bennettsbridge, Kilkenny and Durrow. The larger of the many tributaries include the Lerr, Fushoge, Mountain, Aughavaud, Owenass, Boherbaun and Stradbally Rivers of the Barrow and the Delour, Dinin, Erkina, Owveg, Munster, Arrigle and King’s Rivers on the Nore. Both rivers rise in the Old Red Sandstone of the Slieve Bloom Mountains before passing through a band of Carboniferous shales and sandstones. The Nore, for a large part of its course, traverses limestone plains and then Old Red Sandstone for a short stretch below Thomastown. Before joining the Barrow it runs over intrusive rocks poor in silica. The upper reaches of the Barrow also runs through limestone. The middle reaches and many of the eastern tributaries, sourced in the Blackstairs Mountains, run through Leinster Granite. The southern end, like the Nore runs over intrusive rocks poor in silica. Waterford Harbour is a deep valley excavated by glacial floodwaters when the sea level was lower than today. The coast shelves quite rapidly along much of the shore.

Co

ns en

The site is a candidate SAC selected for alluvial wet woodlands and petrifying springs, priority habitats on Annex I of the E.U. Habitats Directive. The site is also selected as a candidate SAC for old oak woodlands, floating river vegetation, estuary, tidal mudflats, Salicornia mudflats, Atlantic salt meadows, Mediterranean salt meadows, dry heath and eutrophic tall herbs, all habitats listed on Annex I of the E.U. Habitats Directive. The site is also selected for the following species listed on Annex II of the same directive - Sea Lamprey, River Lamprey, Brook Lamprey, Freshwater Pearl Mussel, Nore Freshwater Pearl Mussel, Crayfish, Twaite Shad, Atlantic Salmon, Otter, Vertigo moulinsiana and the plant Killarney Fern. Good examples of Alluvial Forest are seen at Rathsnagadan, Murphy’s of the River, in Abbeyleix estate and along other shorter stretches of both the tidal and freshwater elements of the site. Typical species seen include Almond Willow (Salix triandra), White Willow (S. alba), Grey Willow (S. cinerea), Crack Willow (S. fragilis), Osier (S. viminalis), with Iris (Iris pseudacorus), Hemlock Water-dropwort (Oenanthe crocata), Angelica (Angelica sylvestris), Thin-spiked Wood-sedge (Carex strigosa), Pendulous Sedge (C. pendula), Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and the Red Data Book species Nettle-leaved Bellflower (Campanula trachelium). Three rare invertebrates have been recorded in this habitat at Murphy’s of the River. These are: Neoascia obliqua (Diptera: Syrphidae), Tetanocera freyi (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) and Dictya umbrarum (Diptera: Sciomyzidae).

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:18

A good example of petrifying springs with tufa formations occurs at Dysart Wood along the Nore. This is a rare habitat in Ireland and one listed with priority status on Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive. These hard water springs are characterised by lime encrustations, often associated with small waterfalls. A rich bryophyte flora is typical of the habitat and two diagnostic species, Cratoneuron commutatum var. commutatum and Eucladium verticillatum, have been recorded.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

The best examples of old Oak woodlands are seen in the ancient Park Hill woodland in the estate at Abbeyleix; at Kyleadohir, on the Delour, Forest Wood House, Kylecorragh and Brownstown Woods on the Nore; and at Cloghristic Wood, Drummond Wood and Borris Demesne on the Barrow, though other patches occur throughout the site. Abbeyleix Woods is a large tract of mixed deciduous woodland which is one of the only remaining true ancient woodlands in Ireland. Historical records show that Park Hill has been continuously wooded since the sixteenth century and has the most complete written record of any woodland in the country. It supports a variety of woodland habitats and an exceptional diversity of species including 22 native trees, 44 bryophytes and 92 lichens. It also contains eight indicator species of ancient woodlands. Park Hill is also the site of two rare plants, Nettle-leaved Bellflower and the moss Leucodon sciuroides. It has a typical bird fauna including Jay, Long-eared Owl and Raven. A rare invertebrate, Mitostoma chrysomelas, occurs in Abbeyleix and only two other sites in the country. Two flies Chrysogaster virescens and Hybomitra muhlfeldi also occur. The rare Myxomycete fungus, Licea minima has been recorded from woodland at Abbeyleix.

Co

ns en

Oak woodland covers parts of the valley side south of Woodstock and is well developed at Brownsford where the Nore takes several sharp bends. The steep valley side is covered by Oak (Quercus spp.), Holly (Ilex aquifolium), Hazel (Corylus avellana) and Birch (Betula pubescens) with some Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Ash (Fraxinus excelsior). All the trees are regenerating through a cover of Bramble (Rubus fruticosus agg.), Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) Wood Rush (Luzula sylvatica) and Broad Buckler-fern (Dryopteris dilatata). On the steeply sloping banks of the River Nore about 5 km west of New Ross, in County Kilkenny, Kylecorragh Woods form a prominent feature in the landscape. This is an excellent example of a relatively undisturbed, relict Oak woodland with a very good tree canopy. The wood is quite damp and there is a rich and varied ground flora. At Brownstown a small, mature Oak-dominant woodland occurs on a steep slope. There is younger woodland to the north and east of it. Regeneration throughout is evident. The understorey is similar to the woods at Brownsford. The ground flora of this woodland is developed on acidic, brown earth type soil and comprises a thick carpet of Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), Heather (Calluna vulgaris), Hard Fern (Blechnum spicant), Cowwheat (Melampyrum spp.) and Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum). Borris Demesne contains a very good example of a semi-natural broad-leaved woodland in very good condition. There is quite a high degree of natural re-generation of Oak and Ash through the woodland. At the northern end of the estate Oak species predominate. Drummond Wood, also on the Barrow, consists of three blocks of deciduous woods situated on steep slopes above the river. The deciduous trees are mostly Oak species. The woods have a well established understorey of Holly (Ilex aquifolium), and the herb layer is

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:18

varied, with Brambles abundant. Whitebeam (Sorbus devoniensis) has also been recorded. Eutrophic tall herb vegetation occurs in association with the various areas of alluvial forest and elsewhere where the flood-plain of the river is intact. Characteristic species of the habitat include Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), Marsh Ragwort (Senecio aquaticus), Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) and Hedge Bindweed (Calystegia sepium). Indian Balsam (Impatiens glandulifera), an introduced and invasive species, is abundant in places. Floating River Vegetation is well represented in the Barrow and in the many tributaries of the site. In the Barrow the species found include Water Starworts (Callitriche spp.), Canadian Pondweed (Elodea canadensis), Bulbous Rush (Juncus bulbosus), Milfoil (Myriophyllum spp.), Potamogeton x nitens, Broad-leaved Pondweed (P. natans), Fennel Pondweed (P. pectinatus), Perfoliated Pondweed (P. perfoliatus) and Crowfoots (Ranunculus spp.). The water quality of the Barrow has improved since the vegetation survey was carried out (EPA, 1996).

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Dry Heath at the site occurs in pockets along the steep valley sides of the rivers especially in the Barrow Valley and along the Barrow tributaries where they occur in the foothills of the Blackstairs Mountains. The dry heath vegetation along the slopes of the river bank consists of Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and Gorse (Ulex europaeus) species with patches of acidic grassland vegetation. Additional typical species include Heath Bedstraw (Galium saxatile), Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), Common Sorrel (Rumex acetosa) and Bent Grass (Agrostis stolonifera). On the steep slopes above New Ross the Red Data Book species Greater Broomrape (Orobanche rapum-genistae) has been recorded. Where rocky outcrops are shown on the maps Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and Wood Rush (Luzula sylvatica) are present. At Ballyhack a small area of dry heath is interspersed with patches of lowland dry grassland. These support a number of Clover species including the legally protected Clustered Clover (Trifolium glomeratum) - a species known from only one other site in Ireland. This grassland community is especially well developed on the west side of the mud-capped walls by the road. On the east of the cliffs a group of rock-dwelling species occur, i.e. English Stonecrop (Sedum anglicum), Sheep's-bit (Jasione montana) and Wild Madder (Rubia peregrina). These rocks also support good lichen and moss assemblages with Ramalina subfarinacea and Hedwigia ciliata. Dry Heath at the site generally grades into wet woodland or wet swamp vegetation lower down the slopes on the river bank. Close to the Blackstairs Mountains, in the foothills associated with the Aughnabrisky, Aughavaud and Mountain Rivers there are small patches of wet heath dominated by Purple Moor-grass (Molinia caerulea) with Heather (Calluna vulgaris), Tormentil (Potentilla erecta), Carnation Sedge (Carex panicea) and Bell Heather (Erica cinerea). Saltmeadows occur at the southern section of the site in old meadows where the embankment has been breached, along the tidal stretches of in-flowing rivers below Stokestown House, in a narrow band on the channel side of Common Reed (Phragmites) beds and in narrow fragmented strips along the open shoreline. In the larger areas of salt meadow, notably at Carrickcloney, Ballinlaw Ferry and Rochestown on the west bank;

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:18

Fisherstown, Alderton and Great Island to Dunbrody on the east bank, the Atlantic and Mediterranean sub types are generally intermixed. At the upper edge of the salt meadow in the narrow ecotonal areas bordering the grasslands where there is significant percolation of salt water, the legally protected species Borrer’s Saltmarsh-grass (Puccinellia fasciculata) and Meadow Barley (Hordeum secalinum) (Flora Protection Order, 1987) are found. The very rare Divided Sedge (Carex divisa) is also found. Sea Rush (Juncus maritimus) is also present. Other plants recorded and associated with salt meadows include Sea Aster (Aster tripolium), Sea Thrift (Armeria maritima), Sea Couch (Elymus pycnanthus), Spear-leaved Orache (Atriplex prostrata), Lesser Sea-spurrey (Spergularia marina), Sea Arrowgrass (Triglochin maritima) and Sea Plantain (Plantago maritima). Salicornia and other annuals colonising mud and sand are found in the creeks of the saltmarshes and at the seaward edges of them. The habitat also occurs in small amounts on some stretches of the shore free of stones.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

The estuary and the other Habitats Directive Annex I habitats within it form a large component of the site. Extensive areas of intertidal flats, comprised of substrates ranging from fine, silty mud to coarse sand with pebbles/stones are present. Good quality intertidal sand and mudflats have developed on a linear shelf on the western side of Waterford Harbour, extending for over 6 km from north to south between Passage East and Creadaun Head, and in places are over 1 km wide. The sediments are mostly firm sands, though grade into muddy sands towards the upper shore. They have a typical macro-invertebrate fauna, characterised by polychaetes and bivalves. Common species include Arenicola marina, Nephtys hombergii, Scoloplos armiger, Lanice conchilega and Cerastoderma edule.

Co

ns en

The western shore of the harbour is generally stony and backed by low cliffs of glacial drift. At Woodstown there is a sandy beach, now much influenced by recreation pressure and erosion. Behind it a lagoonal marsh has been impounded which runs westwards from Gaultiere Lodge along the course of a slow stream. An extensive reedbed occurs here. At the edges is a tall fen dominated by sedges (Carex spp.), Meadowsweet, Willowherb (Epilobium spp.) and rushes (Juncus spp.). Wet woodland also occurs. This area supports populations of typical waterbirds including Mallard, Snipe, Sedge Warbler and Water Rail. The dunes which fringe the strand at Duncannon are dominated by Marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) towards the sea. Other species present include Wild Sage (Salvia verbenaca), a rare Red Data Book species. The rocks around Duncannon ford have a rich flora of seaweeds typical of a moderately exposed shore and the cliffs themselves support a number of coastal species on ledges, including Thrift (Armeria maritima), Rock Samphire (Crithmum maritimum) and Buck's-horn Plantain (Plantago coronopus). Other habitats which occur throughout the site include wet grassland, marsh, reed swamp, improved grassland, arable land, quarries, coniferous plantations, deciduous woodland, scrub and ponds. Seventeen Red Data Book plant species have been recorded within the site, most in the recent past. These are Killarney Fern (Trichomanes speciosum), Divided Sedge (Carex

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:18

divisa), Clustered Clover (Trifolium glomeratum), Basil Thyme (Acinos arvensis), Hemp nettle (Galeopsis angustifolia), Borrer’s Saltmarsh Grass (Puccinellia fasiculata), Meadow Barley (Hordeum secalinum), Opposite-leaved Pondweed (Groenlandia densa), Autumn Crocus (Colchicum autumnale), Wild Sage (Salvia verbenaca), Nettle-leaved Bellflower (Campanula trachelium), Saw-wort (Serratula tinctoria), Bird Cherry (Prunus padus), Blue Fleabane (Erigeron acer), Fly Orchid (Ophrys insectifera), Broomrape (Orobanche hederae) and Greater Broomrape (Orobanche rapum-genistae). Of these the first nine are protected under the Flora Protection Order 1999. Divided Sedge (Carex divisa) was thought to be extinct but has been found in a few locations in the site since 1990. In addition plants which do not have a very wide distribution in the country are found in the site including Thin-spiked Wood-sedge (Carex strigosa), Field Garlic (Allium oleraceum) and Summer Snowflake (Leucojum aestivum). Six rare lichens, indicators of ancient woodland, are found including Lobaria laetevirens and L. pulmonaria. The rare moss Leucodon sciuroides also occurs.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

The site is very important for the presence of a number of EU Habitats Directive Annex II animal species including Freshwater Pearl Mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera and M. m. durrovensis), Freshwater Crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes), Salmon (Salmo salar), Twaite Shad (Alosa fallax fallax), three Lamprey species - Sea (Petromyzon marinus), Brook (Lampetra planeri) and River (Lampetra fluviatilis), the marsh snail Vertigo moulinsiana and Otter (Lutra lutra). This is the only site in the world for the hard water form of the Pearl Mussel M. m. durrovensis and one of only a handful of spawning grounds in the country for Twaite Shad. The freshwater stretches of the River Nore main channel is a designated salmonid river. The Barrow/Nore is mainly a grilse fishery though spring salmon fishing is good in the vicinity of Thomastown and Inistioge on the Nore. The upper stretches of the Barrow and Nore, particularly the Owenass River, are very important for spawning.

Co

ns en

The site supports many other important animal species. Those which are listed in the Irish Red Data Book include Daubenton’s Bat (Myotis daubentoni), Badger (Meles meles), Irish Hare (Lepus timidus hibernicus) and Frog (Rana temporaria). The rare Red Data Book fish species Smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) occurs in estuarine stretches of the site. In addition to the Freshwater Pearl Mussel, the site also supports two other freshwater Mussel species, Anodonta anatina and A. cygnea. The site is of ornithological importance for a number of E.U. Birds Directive Annex I species including Greenland White-fronted Goose, Whooper Swan, Bewick’s Swan, Bartailed Godwit, Peregrine and Kingfisher. Nationally important numbers of Golden Plover and Bar-tailed Godwit are found during the winter. Wintering flocks of migratory birds are seen in Shanahoe Marsh and the Curragh and Goul Marsh, both in Co. Laois and also along the Barrow Estuary in Waterford Harbour. There is also an extensive autumnal roosting site in the reedbeds of the Barrow Estuary used by Swallows before they leave the country. Landuse at the site consists mainly of agricultural activities – many intensive, principally grazing and silage production. Slurry is spread over much of this area. Arable crops are also grown. The spreading of slurry and fertiliser poses a threat to the water quality of the salmonid river and to the populations of Habitats Directive Annex II animal species within the site. Many of the woodlands along the rivers belong to old estates and support

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:18

many non-native species. Little active woodland management occurs. Fishing is a main tourist attraction along stretches of the main rivers and their tributaries and there are a number of Angler Associations, some with a number of beats. Fishing stands and styles have been erected in places. Both commercial and leisure fishing takes place on the rivers. There is net fishing in the estuary and a mussel bed also. Other recreational activities such as boating, golfing and walking, particularly along the Barrow towpath are also popular. There is a golf course on the banks of the Nore at Mount Juliet and GAA pitches on the banks at Inistioge and Thomastown. There are active and disused sand and gravel pits throughout the site. Several industrial developments, which discharge into the river, border the site. New Ross is an important shipping port. Shipping to and from Waterford and Belview ports also passes through the estuary.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

The main threats to the site and current damaging activities include high inputs of nutrients into the river system from agricultural run-off and several sewage plants, overgrazing within the woodland areas, and invasion by non-native species, for example Cherry Laurel and Rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum). The water quality of the site remains vulnerable. Good quality water is necessary to maintain the populations of the Annex II animal species listed above. Good quality is dependent on controlling fertilisation of the grasslands, particularly along the Nore. It also requires that sewage be properly treated before discharge. Drainage activities in the catchment can lead to flash floods which can damage the many Annex II species present. Capital and maintenance dredging within the lower reaches of the system pose a threat to migrating fish species such as lamprey and shad. Land reclamation also poses a threat to the salt meadows and the populations of legally protected species therein.

Co

ns en

Overall, the site is of considerable conservation significance for the occurrence of good examples of habitats and of populations of plant and animal species that are listed on Annexes I and II of the E.U. Habitats Directive respectively. Furthermore it is of high conservation value for the populations of bird species that use it. The occurrence of several Red Data Book plant species including three rare plants in the salt meadows and the population of the hard water form of the Pearl Mussel which is limited to a 10 km stretch of the Nore, add further interest to this site.

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:19

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ns en

Co

se

ru

he

ot .

16.1.2003

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:19

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Water Quality (Dangerous Substances) Regulations, 2001 S.I. No. 12 of 2001

Co

ns en

GUIDANCE MANUAL TO LOCAL AUTHORITIES ON PREPARATION AND SUBMISSION OF MEASURES AND IMPLEMENTATION REPORTS

Environmental Protection Agency

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:19

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ns en

Co

se

ru

he

ot .

An Ghníomhaireacht um Chaomhnú Comhshaoil

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:19

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

MEASURES AND IMPLEMENTATION REPORTS PREAMBLE The Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001, prescribe water quality standards in relation to certain substances in surface waters, e.g., rivers, lakes and tidal waters. The substances include certain pesticides (atrazine, simazine, tributyltin1), solvents (dichloromethane, toluene, xylene), metals (arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc) and certain other compounds (cyanide and fluoride). The Regulations give further effect to the EU Dangerous Substances Directive (76/464/EC) and give effect to certain provisions of the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). This document sets out a general framework for the Dangerous Substances Measures and Implementation reports along with guidance on what the reports should contain. The purpose of preparing this document is to facilitate a consistent approach to implementation of the Regulations and reporting of same.

ot

he

ru

se

.

Reporting obligations set out in the Regulations are attached as Annex A.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

SUBMISSION OF THE MEASURES AND IMPLEMENTATION REPORTS

ns en

Each local authority is required to submit a Measures Report to the EPA by 31 July 2002 in line with Article 10(1) of the Regulations. This report should clearly set out the status of dangerous substances in waters in their functional area; the targets to be achieved; an analysis of potential pressures; and a programme of measures to achieve the standards required in the Regulations. Co

In addition, under Article 10(2), each local authority must submit an Implementation Report to the EPA by 31 July 2004 and every two years thereafter. This report should detail the current water quality and targets; any further information gathered on potential pressures; and the progress made in implementing the proposed measures in each local authority area. It is also important that each local authority should provide information on problems that they may have encountered in the implementation of the Regulations and highlight successes. In particular, local authorities should discuss the relative success of measures applied. Only reports prepared specifically for the implementation of these Regulations will suffice. Other reports, such as those by Catchment Management & Monitoring Schemes or River Basin Management System Projects, will not be considered. However, it is strongly recommended that further information on dangerous substances arising as a result of these projects be considered by local authorities in the implementation of the Regulations and be reported on in local authority Measures/Implementation Reports where relevant.

1

The standard for tributyltin applies in relation to tidal waters only and shall be deemed to be met if the results of monitoring for biological effects indicate no reproductive impairment in gastropods.

Environmental Protection Agency

3 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:19

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

Measures and Implementation Reports prepared for the purpose of the Dangerous Substances Regulations may be submitted with reports required under the Phosphorus Regulations, 1998. The Report should be concise. The main body of the report should be restricted to approximately 20 pages with maps and data attached as Appendices. In addition to a hard copy of the Report, the main body of the report together with any tabular appendices should also be provided in electronic format. GENERAL APPROACH The EPA recommends the use of an environmental management systems approach to implementation of the Regulations. This approach operates on the basic principle of continual improvement, which is at the heart of the Regulations. The common principles underpinning an environmental management system approach are outlined in Figure 1, adapted to the requirements of the Regulations.

ru he ot

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

Review and Fine-Tuning of Programme based on assessment of water quality and results of audit

se

.

Assessment of Water Quality

Auditing System Performance

Co

ns en

LOCAL & NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION REPORTS

THE MEASURES REPORT Setting Targets & Objectives/ Planning for Implementation/ Programme Formulation

Programme Implementation

Figure 1 Generalised Environmental Management Systems Approach Adapted to Requirements of the Regulations On an operational level the environmental management system consists of: • initial review (in this case baseline status of water quality, analysis of pressures on water resources, review of monitoring programmes etc.); • formulation of measures and targets; • formulating an environmental management programme or, in this case, an implementation programme for achieving the targets; • assigning responsibility for achieving targets and implementing actions; • implementing the programme; • auditing the performance of the programme; and • reviewing and fine tuning the programme until the standards are met. The environmental management programme is often described as the engine for continual improvement. However, targets will only be met by keeping the system

Environmental Protection Agency

4 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:19

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

dynamic and subjecting the system to periodic auditing to assess the relative success of measures chosen for meeting the targets. Auditing, in turn, provides information that can be used for reviewing and fine tuning the system so that changes or modifications can be made where necessary. As local authorities are obliged to report every two years to the EPA on the implementation of the Regulations, the EPA recommends that a system audit be conducted prior to preparation of each Implementation Report. Therefore any changes or modifications necessary to meet the standards can be included in the updated Implementation reports.

MAIN HEADINGS FOR MEASURES AND IMPLEMENTATION REPORTS

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

The EPA recommends the following main headings for the Measures and Implementation Reports. The Measures Report should report on Sections 1-3 and the Implementation Reports should report on Sections 1-4. Each local authority is to follow this general layout so that consistent reporting is achieved. This guidance provides details about the type of information that should be submitted in each section of the Report. SECTION 1 - CURRENT WATER QUALITY STATUS AND TARGETS SECTION 2 - IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL PRESSURES SECTION 3 - PROGRAMME FOR IMPLEMENTATION

ns en

SECTION 4 – PROGRESS TO DATE (IMPLEMENTATION REPORT ONLY) Co

Template Tables are provided in Annex C which are to be used for provision of summary information on: • current status of water quality with regard to all of the dangerous substances • standards to be achieved by 2010 • measures, targets and actions to be implemented

Environmental Protection Agency

5 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:19

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

SECTION 1: CURRENT WATER QUALITY STATUS AND TARGETS This section should include current information on dangerous substances in waters in a local authority functional area and standards to be achieved by 2010. Information to be provided should include: • The existing condition of a water body for each parameter specified in the Regulations, where the existing condition is defined as the condition most recently determined by a local authority or the EPA prior to the making of the Regulations. Where such condition has not been so determined, the condition of a water body as first determined by a local authority or the EPA after the making of the Regulations. • Clear identification of the condition of water bodies in relation to the standards specified in Table 1 and 2 of the Schedule under the following headings:  satisfactory – waters that require protection;  unsatisfactory – waters that require improvement to a specified standard. ru

se

.

Clear identification of the standards a local authority is required to achieve by December 31, 2010. Performance will ultimately be measured against the achievement of these standards. to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he



ns en

• Identification of any water bodies where the specified standard shall not apply for such a period (not exceeding five years), subject to the approval of the EPA, due to the water body being so affected by human activity that compliance with the relevant standard within that period is not feasible or would be disproportionately expensive (Article 9(1)). Co

• Identification of any water bodies so permanently affected by naturally occurring conditions or by past human activity that compliance with the relevant standard is not feasible or would be disproportionately expensive, subject to the approval of the EPA (Article 9(2)). •

If Article 9(1) extensions or Article 9(2) exemptions are proposed, the basis for such extensions/exemptions should be elaborated upon. Local authorities should also differentiate between cases where IPC activities are involved and those where they are not involved. This has implications for the decision making process associated with such extensions/exemptions, where they might apply. The decision in relation to whether an Article 9(1) extension or Article 9(2) exemption is appropriate is subject to consideration by the EPA.



A Template Table is provided in Annex C for provision of the above information. An electronic version of this table will also be provided. Further maps/data on the condition of water bodies may be attached as Appendices to the report. The maps/data should also indicate where extensions are proposed under Article 9(1) and where there is a proposal for a water body to be exempted under Article 9(2).

Environmental Protection Agency

6 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:19

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

SECTION 2: IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL PRESSURES This section should include an assessment of the use of each dangerous substance in the local authority area. Information is provided in Annex D on the potential uses of each dangerous substance, to provide assistance in identifying and quantifying potential pollution sources. It is important to note that Annex D is not necessarily exhaustive and that each local authority should identify likely sources of each dangerous substance within its functional area. Information to be provided should include: • A preliminary identification of pressures, which may pose a threat to water quality in relation to the relevant dangerous substances, and therefore require further investigation. An assessment should be made of activities that may potentially be contributing to unsatisfactory levels of dangerous substances in rivers/lakes/tidal waters. This should include a consideration of point and nonpoint source inputs of both rural and urban origin relevant in the particular catchment and/or sub-catchment, such as inputs from: ru

he

ot

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

Co



se

.

wastewater and drinking water treatment works urban stormwater overflows and runoff industrial and other point-source discharges mining activities illegal / legal landfills agricultural run-off discharges from farm yards groundwater – e.g. movement of dangerous substances from soil through groundwater into rivers and lakes afforestation ns en

• • • • • • • •



A catchment-based analysis of causes of unsatisfactory levels of dangerous substances and threats to waters currently considered to be of satisfactory quality. An attempt should be made to identify the primary cause or causes of elevated levels of dangerous substances for each part of river/lake/tidal water affected so that appropriate sub-catchment measures can be identified and included in the Implementation Programme.



Proposed new monitoring locations where considered necessary, to ensure that surface waters at highest risk of pollution from dangerous substances are identified and monitored.

This section should be updated in subsequent implementation reports as further information on dangerous substances arises. SECTION 3: PROGRAMME FOR IMPLEMENTATION In the Measures Report a programme for implementation of the requirements of the Regulations should be drawn up for: Environmental Protection Agency

7 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:19

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

a) the County as a whole, and b) each river / lake / tidal water or catchment / subcatchment These Programmes should be designed to be dynamic and are to be subjected to regular review depending on the relative success of their implementation. As stated above, the EPA recommends an environmental management systems approach to the implementation of the Regulations and the preparation and implementation of these programmes.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

The programmes should identify or seek to identify the particular measures suitable to deal with specific problems in the County and specific rivers/lakes/tidal waters or catchments/sub-catchments within the county. Vague aspirational statements should be avoided (e.g., avoid statements such as ‘enforcement of Water Pollution Acts’ instead state which aspects of the Acts are to be or are being enforced, with numbers of Section notices issued, licences to be reviewed, etc.). A list of general measures grouped under a number of headings is provided in Annex B as a general guide to measures available. This is not presented as an exhaustive list and each local authority will need to consider what specific measures are appropriate for its own situation. For specific measures, targets can be defined for catchments/subcatchments or for the County as a whole. It is recognised that a certain amount of flexibility will be required with regard to the use of various measures over the lifetime of the Regulations. However, it is important, in the early stages of implementation, to think about which specific measures are appropriate for specific problems so that workable and achievable Implementation Programmes can be put in place.

Co

ns en

Programmes should specify measures for both the preservation and improvement of water quality and how the local authority intends to implement these measures both at County level and for individual catchments. This will include the setting of targets for specific measures and a description of the actions required to meet those targets. The programme(s) should also identify what is planned to be achieved at both county and catchment level in: • • • •

the immediate term (by July 31, 2004); the short term (by July 31, 2006); the medium term (by July 31, 2008); and the long term (by July 31, 2010 and beyond).

The dates suggested coincide with those specified for submission of the Implementation Reports (see Annex A). The summary Implementation Programme Tables provided in Annex C are provided as a guide for tracking the implementation of measures at catchment/subcatchment level. An electronic version of these tables will also be provided. They provide for a summary description of measures, targets, actions, timeframes and assigned responsibilities. More detailed descriptions of the various Programmes for Environmental Protection Agency

8 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

Implementation at County / River / Lake / Tidal Water level may be included in the main body of the Report. In the Implementation Reports an update should be given on the status of each measure, in order to track implementation of the measures proposed in the Measures Report. This should include a concise summary of action taken since the previous report and whether the measure has been completed or not. If the measure has not been completed a revised timescale for completion should be proposed, where appropriate. For measures that are ongoing, progress to date should be reported.

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

As implementation of the Regulations will be an iterative process and depend largely on whether water quality is improving or being preserved and possible legislative or policy developments, it is expected that new measures will be proposed over the lifetime of the Regulations. These new measures, with timescales and responsibility assigned, should be clearly identified.

Environmental Protection Agency

9 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

SECTION 4 – PROGRESS TO DATE (IMPLEMENTATION REPORT ONLY) It is important that, in the main body of the report, local authorities highlight successes they have had in implementation of the Regulations, with particular reference to measures that have been effective. In addition, local authorities should outline any problems they have encountered in implementation of the Regulations and suggest possible solutions. Each local authority should also outline its future plans and any new initiatives proposed for implementation of the Regulations. The measures proposed for implementation fall into five general categories (Annex B). This list of measures is not exhaustive but should serve as a useful reference. The layout of this Section in the Implementation Report should follow that presented below.

ru he ot

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

4.2 Consultative and Co-operative Measures a) Progress During Reporting Period b) Problems Encountered c) Future Plans/New Directions

se

.

4.1 Planning Control and Enforcement Measures a) Progress During Reporting Period b) Problems Encountered c) Future Plans/New Directions

Co

ns en

4.3 Monitoring Measures a) Progress During Reporting Period b) Problems Encountered c) Future Plans/New Directions

4.4 Public Education and Advisory Measures a) Progress During Reporting Period b) Problems Encountered c) Future Plans/New Directions 4.5 Other National and Miscellaneous Measures relevant to Dangerous Substances a) Progress During Reporting Period b) Problems Encountered c) Future Plans/New Directions 4.6 Summary and Conclusions a) Progress During Reporting Period b) Problems Encountered c) Future Plans/New Directions

Environmental Protection Agency

10 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

Useful References Water Quality (Dangerous Substances) Regulations, 2001 (S.I. No. 12 of 2001) Stephens, 2001. A Survey of Dangerous Substances in Surface Freshwaters 19992000. EPA, Ireland An Foras Talúntais, 1980. Soil Associations of Ireland and their Land Use Potential. Soil Survey Bulletin No. 36. An Foras Talúntais. Bowden, 1994. A Study of Heavy Metals in the Natural Environment in proposed Mining Areas. EC Stride Environment Subprogramme Measure 1. EPA Regional Water Laboratory, Kilkenny. Bowman, J.J., 2000. River Shannon. 1999. EPA, Ireland.

Lake Water Quality Monitoring 1998 and

he

ru

se

.

Bowman, J.J. and Toner, P.F., 2001. National Lake Water Quality Monitoring Programme. A Discussion Document. EPA, Ireland. to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, 2000. Agri-Environmental Specifications for REPS 2000. Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, 2000. Farm Waste Management Scheme. Good Farming

Co

ns en

Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, 2001. Practice.

Department of the Environment and Local Government, 1997. Sustainable Development, A Strategy for Ireland. Department of the Environment and Local Government, Environmental Protection Agency & Geological Survey of Ireland, 1999. Groundwater Protection Schemes. Department of the Environment and Local Government. Code of Good Practice for the Use of Biosolids in Agriculture. Guidelines for Farmers. Fehily, Timoney and Company. Department of the Environment and Local Government. Code of Good Practice for the Use of Biosolids in Agriculture. Guidelines for Local Authorities. Fehily, Timoney and Company. EPA, 1997. Environmental Quality Objectives and Environmental Quality Standards, The Aquatic Environment, A Discussion Document. EPA, 2000. Ireland’s Environment: A Millennium Report.

Environmental Protection Agency

11 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

EPA, 2001. Parameters of Water Quality: Interpretations and Standards. EPA, 2001. The Quality of Drinking Water in Ireland. EPA, 2002. National River Water Quality Monitoring Programme. Document. EPA, Ireland.

A Discussion

EPA, various. BATNEEC Guidance Notes. Existing Water Quality Management Plans. Groundwater Protection Schemes and Source Protection Areas for County. International Standards Organisation, 1996. ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems - specifications with guidance for use. Local Authority Development Plans. An Foras Forbartha.

se

.

O’Donnell, C., 1980. Organic Micropollutants in Irish Waters.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

O’Donnell, C. 1996. Pesticides in Drinking Waters. EPA, Ireland Teagasc, 1994. Soil Analysis & Fertiliser, Lime, Animal Manure & Trace Element Recommendations. Waste Management Plans and Strategies.

Co

ns en

Waste Management (Use of Sewage Sludge in Agriculture) Regulations, 1998 (S.I. No. 148 of 1998).

Environmental Protection Agency

12 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

ANNEX A: REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Reporting obligations under the Dangerous Substances Regulations Local Authority Reports 31 July 2002 (Measures) 31 July 2004 (Implementation) 31 July 2006 (Implementation) 31 July 2008 (Implementation) 31 July 2010 (Implementation) 31 July 2012 (Implementation)

EPA Reports 30 April 2005 (National Implementation) 30 April 2007 (National Implementation) 30 April 2009 (National Implementation) 30 April 2011 (National Implementation) 30 April 2013 (National Implementation)

• ‘Measures Report’ Local authorities to submit report to EPA by July 31, 2002, setting out measures to be taken to implement the Regulations.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

• ‘Local Authority Implementation Reports’ Local authorities to submit biennial progress reports to the EPA, by 31 July 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 etc.

Co

ns en

• ‘National Implementation Reports’ National reports on the implementation of the Regulations to be published by the EPA within nine months of receipt of local authority reports (i.e. by 30 April 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 etc.) with recommendations where considered necessary.

Environmental Protection Agency

13 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

ANNEX B: MEASURES AVAILABLE FOR IMPLEMENTATION The primary sources for identifying measures available for implementation are: • The Principal Acts (Local Government (Water Pollution) Act, 1977 as amended by the Local Government (Water Pollution) Act, 1990. • Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 • Information arising from work undertaken by the River Basin Management System Projects New measures are likely to emerge over the coming years, for instance, through new legislation or the creation of new initiatives. Each local authority will need to keep abreast of changes and developments that might impact on the implementation of the Regulations.

se ru he ot

Planning, Control and Enforcement Measures Consultative and Co-operative Measures Monitoring Measures Public Education and Advisory Measures Other National and Miscellaneous Measures

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

• • • • •

.

Measures can be considered under various headings. The following are suggested:

Co

ns en

The following is a list of measures that could be considered. This is not presented as an exhaustive list and each local authority will need to consider what specific measures are appropriate for its own situation.

Environmental Protection Agency

14 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

B.1 PLANNING CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT MEASURES Water Quality Management Planning A key planning measure available to local authorities is the power to make a water quality management plan for any waters in its functional area or which adjoin that area. Any review of existing water quality management plans or development of new water quality management plans should take into account the requirements of the Dangerous Substances Regulations, as well as the requirements of the Phosphorus Regulations, 1998, the Water Framework Directive and other relevant pieces of water quality legislation. Other plans that should take into account these pieces of legislation include Groundwater Protection Plans, and waste and sludge management plans. Water Quality Management Plans should be included in the ‘Development Plan’ for the County. Planning and Control Measures

se

.

For point-source discharges within catchments:

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

• Issuing and enforcing licenses under section 4 of the Act to control point source discharges • Review of existing section 4 licences in light of the requirements of the Dangerous Substances Regulations • Issuing and enforcement of licenses under section 16 of the Act to control discharges to sewer that might, in turn, discharge to waters • Review of existing section 16 licences in light of the requirements of the Dangerous Substances Regulations • Upgrading urban wastewater discharges to reduce dangerous substances inputs from WWTPs • Control of discharges from septic tanks and other small-scale sewage treatment systems either through the planning system or through licensing under the Water Pollution Act. • Survey and/or upgrade surface water and foul sewer/drainage systems • Remedy storm water overflows and urban runoff • Farm surveys • Catchment surveys for point source pollution from licensed/unlicensed discharges • Upgrading of landfills • Recycling / safe disposal of wastes • Assess water abstractions • Leakage control • Controls on quarries, sheep dips, peat extraction industry • Prosecution for non-compliance with licences • Prosecutions for other contraventions of the Water Pollution Acts. For non point-source discharges within catchments

Environmental Protection Agency

15 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

• Regulation and control of certain agricultural activities under section 21 of the Act of 1990: i.e., the making of bye-laws • Farm surveys and pesticide use surveys • Review licensed landspreading • Ensure Best Farm Management Practices • Controls on forestry • Prosecutions for contravention of the Water Pollution Acts. General Enforcement Measures

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

• Enforcement of section 3 of the Water Pollution Act (General prohibition on the entry of polluting matter to waters) • Issue and enforcement of Section 10 notices (powers of courts, local authorities and regional boards in relation to the mitigation and remedying of effects of pollution) • Issue and enforcement of Section 12 notices (power to require measures to be taken to prevent water pollution) • Use of Section 13 powers (power to prevent and abate pollution in certain circumstances) • Enforcement of Section 14 (notification of accidental discharges) • Issue of Section 23 notices (power to require information on activities which may cause pollution) • Enforcement of licences issued under sections 4 and 16. Enforcement actions could include: • regular monitoring/sampling • regular site inspections • audits • Prosecutions for contravention of the Water Pollution Acts. B.2 CONSULTATIVE AND COOPERATIVE MEASURES Establishment of Multi-Sectoral Catchment Management Groups Setting up consultative and co-operative structures that involve all stakeholders, such as multi-sectoral catchment management groups, is essential to the successful management of a catchment. This will be particularly important where both point and diffuse inputs are responsible for deterioration of water quality as reversal of the trend may require a range of actions across a number of sectors. The EPA recommends that multi-sectoral catchment management groups be set up to deal with water quality issues arising at a catchment level. Any management group set up should address the requirements of the Dangerous Substances Regulations, as well as the requirements of the Phosphorus Regulations, 1998, the Water Framework Directive and other relevant pieces of water quality legislation. Each local authority should identify key stakeholders both at county and catchment level. Stakeholders can roughly be identified as those who either are contributing to Environmental Protection Agency

16 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

the problem and therefore need to be involved as part of the solution and those that are beneficiaries of improvements in water quality, as well as statutory bodies with responsibilities for protection and improvement of water quality. Stakeholders include: • • • • • • • •

ru

se

.

• •

Central and Regional Fisheries Boards Teagasc Geological Survey of Ireland Industry associations such as IBEC, SFA, ISME and artificial fertiliser groups Agricultural representative organisations such as the IFA and the ICMSA Forestry companies and associations Specific industries/activities identified as being contributors to dangerous substance discharge Tourist boards, fishery organisations, and other sectoral interests with a beneficial interest in water quality improvement Community-based organisations Partnership organisations such as the LEADER groups

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

Other possible measures that may be implemented under this heading include the establishment of: • a public consultation forum • a local authority steering group / implementation committee to implement both the Dangerous Substances Regulations and the Phosphorus Regulations • a working group on point / non-point sources • liaison structures with other local authorities • liaison with the EPA on IPC and waste facilities • liaison with relevant stakeholders • the appointment of a specialist advisor on various relevant topics

Environmental Protection Agency

17 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

B.3 MONITORING MEASURES The Regulations have specific requirements in terms of: i. the establishment of baseline water quality conditions, and ii. monitoring progress with regard to the achievement of necessary improvements in water quality.

se

.

There is limited information presently available on dangerous substances in Irish waters. In relation to rivers, the EPA surveyed eleven of the fourteen substances listed in the Regulations at seventy-four sites in 1999-2000 (Stephens, 2001). It is proposed under the National Rivers Monitoring Programme (EPA, 2002) that the EPA will sample monthly for thirteen of the fourteen dangerous substances at fifteen river locations nationally. (Under the legislation tributyltin is to be monitored in tidal waters only, using gastropods.) The EPA will monitor a further eight sites, covering the main mining locations in the country, specifically for heavy metals. Depending on the outcome, this monitoring programme will be revised and other potential sources of dangerous substances will be examined instead.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

The EPA proposes to conduct an initial survey of the priority substances listed in Annex X of the Water Framework Directive at a core group of high and good quality river sites that are representative of the major ecological types defined for Irish rivers in Annex II of the Directive. An initial screening approach for priority substances is also proposed for less pristine rivers (EPA, 2002). There is some overlap between the list of priority substances in the Water Framework Directive and the substances listed in the Dangerous Substances Regulations (e.g., atrazine, dichloromethane, lead, nickel, simazine and tributyltin). Co

ns en

In relation to lakes, there has been limited monitoring of dangerous substances to date and the EPA does not propose to monitor these substances in its current national lake water quality monitoring programme (Bowman and Toner, 2001). Very limited information is available on metals in the Shannon lakes (Bowman, 2000) and on selected acid lakes in recent years. An assessment is ongoing of potential requirements in this area under the Water Framework Directive. In relation to tidal waters, the Fisheries Research Centre have collected data on concentrations in sediments and/or biota (mainly fish and shellfish flesh) for many of the metals listed in the Dangerous Substances Regulations. In the case of tributyltin, a biological effects monitoring programme, which has been in operation for a number of years, is thought likely to fulfil the requirements of the Regulations. However, data on concentrations in water of the dangerous substances are almost entirely lacking. Other information available on dangerous substances in Irish waters include an An Foras Forbartha report on organic micropollutants in Irish waters (O’Donnell, 1980); an EC Stride study on heavy metals in proposed mining areas in Kilkenny and Tipperary NR (Bowden, 1994); an EPA survey of pesticides in drinking waters in 1994-95 (O’Donnell, 1996); and the annual EPA drinking water reports (e.g., EPA, Environmental Protection Agency

18 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

2001). In addition, local authorities and the Agency may have data arising from the monitoring of licensable activities or special investigations. Many local authorities have well established monitoring programmes in place though these generally do not provide information on dangerous substances. Examination of discharge licences and an assessment of sales of dangerous substances should be among the measures used by local authorities to provide information on likely sources of dangerous substances and therefore to ascertain potential monitoring locations. Local Authorities may utilise the River Basin Management System Projects to identify and catalogue actual or potential discharges of dangerous substances within each River Basin District and then to target individual substances for monitoring and assessment.

se

.

There may be a number of potential sources of information available on dangerous substances in the local authority functional area. For example local authorities may utilise results from monitoring undertaken for the Surface Water Abstraction Regulations, 1989; from monitoring of discharge licences; or from monitoring of EPA licensed IPPC and Waste facilities. Any results available should be presented in the local authority reports.

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

It is recommended that the local authority would monitor a limited number of high risk sites intensively throughout the year (monthly/bi-monthly if possible). These sites do not have to be EPA monitoring stations. Monitoring for the herbicides, atrazine and simizine, need only be undertaken in the spring, summer and autumn periods. Where monitoring results do not indicate significant levels of these substances, different sites may be chosen. The local authority should consult with EPA monitoring staff in Dublin (Dr Ciaran O’Donnell) regarding the selection of monitoring sites as the EPA have undertaken a national monitoring programme for dangerous substances. Where point sources are to be monitored it is recommended that upstream and downstream samples are taken to allow for natural background levels and to exclude the possibility of other pollution sources. Detection limits for analytical methods used, should be adequate to assess compliance with the Regulations. Where monitoring for dangerous substances is undertaken and results are presented in the Implementation Reports - an indication of the sampling frequency should be given beside any median or average values. Total hardness should always be monitored and reported when assessing heavy metal levels. It should be noted that different standards apply for certain substances in the Regulations (i.e., arsenic, chromium, copper, cyanide, fluoride, lead, nickel and zinc) depending on water hardness levels and whether samples are taken in freshwater or tidal water. For this reason different tables should be filled in for each water body type (i.e. separately for rivers, lakes and tidal waters as presented in Annex C, Table 1), and water hardness levels should be reported for samples taken for these substances in freshwaters. ‘Monitoring’, in relation to the implementation of the Regulations, should be considered in the broader context of monitoring progress towards the achievement of

Environmental Protection Agency

19 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

the targets in the Regulations. considered include:

Specific monitoring measures that should be

• integration of monitoring of dangerous substances by the local authorities, EPA, River Basin Management System Projects, Marine Institute etc. to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort • hazard identification from existing industrial, municipal and agricultural activities • development of specific catchment/sub-catchment monitoring programmes where necessary • investigate causes of surface water/ groundwater pollution • use of geographic information systems for storage and interrogation of data on a catchment basis • review of field sampling programmes and quality control/quality assurance procedures • development of site inspection/auditing programmes for activities identified as high-risk in relation to dangerous substances risk potential • monitoring of point / non-point pollution sources • upgrading of council facilities / equipment ot

he

ru

se

.

• undertake specific research projects.

ns en

Public Education Campaigns Provision of Technical Advice and Assistance Publicity campaigns such as use of TV, radio, newspapers and other media Schools education programmes Promotion of Catchment Planning through public signs, leaflets etc. Development of sectoral education programmes Appointment of environmental education officer Co

• • • • • • •

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

B.4 PUBLIC EDUCATION & ADVISORY MEASURES

B.5 OTHER NATIONAL & MISCELLANEOUS MEASURES • Section 29 (funding for research, surveys or investigations in relation to water pollution) • REPS • Farm Waste Management Scheme • Targeted use of fines imposed by Courts and awarded to prosecuting local authority • Measures by local authorities to maximise local sources of funding to be directed at Catchment Management (e.g. from local business, commercial and tourism interests etc.) • Secure finance from Government • Recruit staff

Environmental Protection Agency

20 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

ANNEX C - TEMPLATE TABLES Table 1: Summary of Current Status of River/Lake/Tidal Water Quality in Functional Area and Standards to be Achieved Local Authority Name River/Lake/ Tidal Water Code

Monitoring Station Code

Station Location Name

Grid Reference

Dangerous Substance

Baseline Condition (µg/l)

Water Hardness Is Baseline (mg/l CaCO3) Quality (where Satisfactory? applicable) Yes/No

f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

River/Lake/Tidal Water Name

Report Year

Current Condition (µg/l)

Water Hardness Standard to be (mg/l CaCO3) Achieved by (where 2010 applicable) (µg/l)

Environmental Protection Agency

Co n

se

nt o

Table 1 (continued)

Has Is an Article If Yes, What is Is an Article Where Quality is If there is an identifiable Standard 9(1) the proposed 9(2) Unsatisfactory What is source, please enter Been Extension compliance Exemption the Principal Source of details Achieved? Proposed? date? Proposed? Pollution?

21 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

The purpose of the following Tables is firstly to summarise the standards to be achieved before the statutory deadline and at shorter terms within that deadline and secondly to link the standards with the measures to be implemented, the specific targets set for those measures together with actions required to meet those targets, associated timeframes and assigned responsibilities. They are provided as a guide for tracking the implementation of measures at catchment/sub-catchment level. The table should be completed separately for measures to be implemented at a county level, and for measures to be implemented in each river, lake and tidal water or catchment/subcatchment. Examples are given as a guide. Table 2.1: County Implementation Programme Measures

Targets

Actions

Timeframe

Responsible for Implementation

Progress to Date

Corrective Actions

ot

he

ru

se

.

Standard to be achieved

Review and enforcement of all section 4 licences in light of Regulations

Reduce dangerous substances inputs from licensed premises

Determine dangerous substance loads from licensed premises, assimilative capacity of receiving waters and determine whether changes are required to licences Prosecution for noncompliance with licences Establish dangerous substances loads from WWTPs

31/7/2003

SEE, Environment

All Licences reviewed: 40 Section 4’s

Y

Ongoing

SEE, Environment

10 prosecutions taken since 2001

Ongoing

1/6/2005

SEE, Environment

Establish priority list of WWTP to be upgraded

1/12/2003

SEE, Sanitary Services

Monitoring ongoing but dangerous substance loads to be established Ongoing

Co n

se

nt o

To improve unsatisfactory water quality and to maintain satisfactory water quality in County X

f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

NAME OF COUNTY

Wastewater treatment plants

Environmental Protection Agency

Reduce dangerous substance inputs from WWTPs

Action completed within timeframe? (Y/N)

Appoint additional staff

N

If not, state revised timeframe

1/6/2006

N/A

22 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

Table 2.2: Implementation Programme Summary Table For Each River / Lake / Tidal Water Standard

Measures

Targets

Actions

Timeframe

Responsible for Implementation

Progress to Date

Corrective Action

Action Completed within timeframe? (Y/N)

1/6/2003

SEE, Environment

Water quality reviewed

Y

If not, state revised timeframe

Reduce dangerous substances inputs to river

se he

ru

Review water quality data to determine where farm surveys required.

Carry out 100 farm surveys in hot spot areas of catchment. Issue and enforce section 3, 10, 12 and 13 notices

1/6/2002

SEE, Environment

50 farm surveys complete

N/A

Ongoing

SEE, Environment

Notices issued: 10 Section 3 6 Section 10’s 2 Section 12’s 1 Section 13

Ongoing

Co n

se

nt o

Enforce Water Pollution Act

Assess farm management to reduce dangerous substances inputs to river

ot

Farm surveys

f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

To improve water quality at stations on river X

.

NAME OF RIVER / LAKE / TIDAL WATER

Environmental Protection Agency

23 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Co n

se

nt o

f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

Environmental Protection Agency

24 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

ANNEX D: Guide to Potential Sources of Dangerous Substances listed in the Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001. Dangerous substance Atrazine Simazine

Background Information

Potential Sources

Atrazine belongs to the triazine class of herbicides. Simazine belongs to the triazine class of herbicides.

• It is used for control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in corn, orchards, turf grass sod, forestry, grasslands, grass crops and roses. • It is used for control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in corn, orchards, turf grass sod, forestry, grasslands, grass crops and roses. It may also be used as an algaecide in ponds. • It is used as a fungicide and molluscicide. • Antifouling agent for boats to discourage growth of marine organisms. • Used for manufacture of other pesticides. • Used to combat freshwater snails. • Preservative in industrial applications e.g. as a wood and textile preservative and disinfectant. • Used for prevention of slimes in industrial recirculating water systems. • Stabilizer in PVC resin – plastic manufacturing. • Paper and pulp mills. • Cooling towers. • Breweries. • Leather processing facilities. • Used as a process chemical in the pharmaceutical sector, in the production of paints and adhesives, and as a solvent for paint removers. • Used as a cleaning fluid and as a degreasing agent. • Automobile exhaust. • Consumer product paints. • Paint thinners. • Fingernail polish. • Lacquers. • Adhesives. • Solvent in fine chemicals industry. • Xylene is a constituent of gasoline and this results in a wide distribution of very large amounts. • The isomer mixture is used as a solvent for alkyl resins, coatings and lacquers. • o-xylene is mainly (95% globally) used for synthesis of phthalic acid anyhdride. • p-xylene is consumed (66% globally) for synthesis of dimethylterephthalate and 33% globally for terephthalic acid. • m-xylene is used for the synthesis of isophthalic acid and m-toluic acid. • All three isomers are intermediates for vitamins, dyes, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, flavouring agents and other fine chemicals. • Many industrial uses, most notably as a fuel additive and as a solvent for numerous materials, e.g., in the printing, rubber, and leather industries. Used in photographic industry • Along with other solvents, xylene is also used as a cleaning agent, a paint thinner, and in varnishes. • Xylene is used as a material in the chemical, plastics, and synthetic fibre industries and as an ingredient in the coating of fabrics and papers. • Aromatic hydrocarbons used by rubber and insecticide industries, chemical, pharmaceutical and explosive manufacturers.

Tributlytin (TBT) is an organotin. TBT by itself is unstable and will break down in the environment unless it is combined with an element such as oxygen. One of the most common TBT compounds is bis(tributyltin) oxide, or TBTO.

Dichloromethane

Dichloromethane is a volatile organic carbon.

Toluene

Toluene is a volatile organic carbon. It is a petroleum component.

Xylenes

Xylene is a volatile organic carbon and it is a petroleum component. It is a colourless, flammable liquid with a sweet odour. There are three forms of xylene in which the methyl groups vary on the benzene ring: metaxylene, ortho-xylene, and paraxylene (m-, o-, and p-xylene). These different forms are referred to as isomers. The term total xylenes refers to all three isomers of xylene. Mixed xylene is a mixture of the three isomers and usually also contains 6-15 percent ethylbenzene. Xylene is also known as xylol or dimethylbenzene. Xylene is primarily a synthetic chemical. Chemical industries produce xylene from petroleum. Xylene also occurs naturally in petroleum

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Tributyltin

Environmental Protection Agency

25 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

Metal

Nickel

Metal

.

Lead

se

Metal

ru

Copper

he

Metal

ot

Chromium

Widely used in wood preservation. Glass and semi-conductor industries. Fungicide in timber processing. Natural dissolution of minerals and ores. Base metal (tin, bauxite) extraction. Smelting/refining of lead, lead-scrape, zinc, copper. Steel manufacture dusts/sludges from off-gas purification. Tanning and depilation of hides. Dusts from flues. Paint manufacture (arsenic may be used as a pigment). Biocide manufacture, formulation, marketing or use. Adhesive manufacturing (particularly for metals). Manufacture/maintenance of zerographic machines. Textile industry, oil cloths, calico printing and dyeing. Electroplating industry. Tanning and textile plants. Paint and dyeing plants. Natural dissolution of minerals and ores. Metallic products. Refractories. To form alloys with iron, nickel, or cobalt. Final composition of stainless steels. Used for high-speed metal-cutting tools. Widely used as body trim on automobiles and other vehicles. Mining waste. Electroplating waste. Algicide. • Natural dissolution of minerals and ores. • Photographic processes. • Treatment and finishing of metals. • Paint, ink manufacturing. • Timber and hide preservation. • Production/use of pigments, ceramics manufacture, textile dyeing and printing. • Copper wire used in electronic transmission. • Mining waste. • Electroplating waste. • Discarded batteries. • Cable coverings. • Ammunition. • Trace components in copper and zinc concentrates, coal, oil. • Stabilisers. • Semi-finished products. • Solders. • Glass and ceramics. • Others including fishing industry. • Natural dissolution of ores. • Electroplating waste • Natural dissolution of minerals • Nickel is used chiefly in making alloys. • A protective and ornamental coating for metals • Nickel steel is used in automobile parts such as axles, crankshafts, gears, valves, and rods; in machine parts; and in armor plate. • Some of the most important nickel-containing alloys are German • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

Arsenic

and coal tar and is formed during forest fires. Metal

Environmental Protection Agency

26 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:20

Dangerous Substances Regulations, 2001 - EPA Guidance on Report Preparation

silver, Invar, Monel metal, Nichrome, and Permalloy. Also a key component of nickel-cadmium batteries. Mining waste Natural dissolution of minerals Principally used as a protective coating, or galvanizer, for iron and steel, as an ingredient of various alloys. • As plates for dry electric cells and for die castings. • Zinc oxide is used as a paint pigment, a filler in rubber tyres and is employed in medicine as an antiseptic ointment. • Zinc chloride is used as a wood preservative and as a soldering fluid. • Zinc sulfide is useful in applications involving electroluminescence, photoconductivity, and semiconductivity and has other electronic uses. It is employed as a phosphor for the screens of television tubes and in fluorescent coatings. • Industrial effluents principally from electroplating processes and electric components manufacture • Heat-treatment of metals and finishing operations. • Cyanide pesticides used as fumigants. • Coal-gas purification, steel industries where ferri/cyanide containing wastes are produced. • Chemical synthesis, photography and pigment manufacture are other areas in which ionic cyanides and ferri/ferrocyanides are used. • Organic cyanides may take the form of chemical intermediaries in the synthesis of antioxidants, pharmaceuticals, dyes and surface-active agents. • The plastics, surface coatings and adhesive industries may all involve the use of organic cyanides. • Arises from fluoridation of public water supplies and industrial discharges. • Municipal sewage. • Occurs naturally in quite rare instances. • The chlorofluorocarbons were used as dispersing agents in aerosol sprays and as refrigerants but have been largely replaced due to the restrictions of the Montreal Protocol. • Teflon, a fluorine plastic is used to make such products as motor gaskets and dashboard accessories in the automobile industry. It is also used as a coating on the inner surface of frying pans and other kitchen utensils. • Perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride used in semi-conductor industry. • Hydrogen fluoride is used as an etchant in glass industry and semiconductor industries. • Liquid fluorinated hydrocarbons derived from petroleum are useful as highly stable lubricating oils. • Fluoride wastes are by-products of phosphate fertilizer production. • • • •

Metal

Cyanide

Cyanide is a carbon-nitrogen chemical unit that combines with many organic and inorganic compounds.

Fluoride

Halogen

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Zinc

Environmental Protection Agency

27 EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

Water Quality (Dangerous Substances) Regulations, 2001 S.I. No. 12 of 2001

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Dangerous Substances Implementation Report 2006

1

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction

2.0 Current Water Quality and Targets 2.1 Main Rivers in County Carlow County Council 2.2 Water Quality Standards 2.3Current Water Quality Status

se ru he ot

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

3.1 Wastewater Treatment Plant 3.2 Industrial Discharges 3.3 Agricultural Activities 3.4 Urban Storm Water Run-off and Overflows 3.5 Powerstown Landfill Facility

.

3.0 Identification of Potential Pressures

4.0 Programme for Implementation

Co

ns en

4.1 Monitoring Programme & Catchment Management 4.2 Wastewater Treatment Plants 4.3 Industrial Discharges 4.4 Consultative and Co-Operative Measures 4.5 Public Education and Advisory Measures

2

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

1.0

Introduction

Dangerous Substances have the potential to cause the most harm to aquatic life due to their persistence, toxicity or bioaccumulation. Many human activities, and some natural processes, release chemicals into rivers and the sea.

Industrial plants and sewage

treatment works are the biggest source of the most harmful or dangerous substances, which include certain metals and pesticides. The aim of the EU Dangerous Substances Directive (76/464/EEC and Daughter Directives) is to improve water quality through the elimination and/or reduction of dangerous substances discharged to the aquatic environment.

ru

se

.

The Water Quality (Dangerous Substances) Regulations, 2001, prescribe water quality

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

standards in relation to certain substances in surface waters, e.g., rivers, lakes and tidal waters. The substances include certain pesticides (atrazine, simazine, tributylin), solvents (dichlormethane, toluene, xylene), metals (arsenic, chromium, copper,lead, nickel,zinc) and certain other compounds (cyanide and fluoride). The Regulations give further effect to the EU Dangerous Substances Directive (76/464/EC) and give effect to certain

Co

ns en

provisions of the EU Water Framework Directive (200/60/EC).

The Regulations specify quality standards for the country’s rivers and lakes that must be achieved by 31st of December 2010. Carlow County Council is the local authority assigned statutory responsibility to implement the Regulations in County Carlow and is required to submit a Measures Report to the EPA in line with Article 10(1) of the Regulations.

This measures report is based on the ‘Guidance Manual to Local Authorities on Preparation and submission of Measures and Implementation Reports’ issued by the EPA. It will also be based on the experience gained from the implementation of the actions specified in the Phosphorous Measures Report and the fundamental principles of an environmental management systems approach.

3

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

2.0 Current Water Quality and Targets 2.1 Main rivers in County Carlow There are two main river Catchment systems in County Carlow, the River Barrow and the River Slaney. The western portion of the county is drained by the Barrow and its tributaries while the Slaney and its tributaries drain the eastern portion. The main rivers and their tributaries are shown in Tables 2.1 and 2.2 with the relevant EPA Hydrometric Codes provided (EPA, 2001).

Aghalona Barrow Burren Lerr Mountain Pollmounty

14AO2 14BO1 14B05 14LO1 14MO1 14PO3

se

River Code to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

Slaney Catchment - Hydrometric Area 12

River Clody Clonmore Stream Derreen Derry Douglas Slaney

Co

ns en

Table 2.2

ot

he

River

.

Barrow Catchment – Hydrometric Area 14 ru

Table 2.1

River Code 12CO3 12CO5 12DO1 12DO2 12DO3 12SO2

The Slaney has been designated a salmonid river under the European Communities (Quality of Salmonid Waters) Regulations (S.I. No. 293 of 1988). Designated waters are required to meet the quality standards set out in the Regulations. In Carlow sampling is carried out by the EPA on a monthly basis which complies with the sampling requirements set out in the salmonid regulations.

4

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

2.2 Water Quality Standards The target substances and applicable standards to be achieved by 2010 as specified in the Regulations are presented in the tables below. Table 2.3 Substance Pesticides Atrazine Simazine Tributyltin Solvents Dichloromethane Tolulene Xylenes

Standard ug/l 1.0 1.0 0.001 ** 10.0 10.0 10.0

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Note** The standard for Tributyltin shall apply in relation to tidal waters only and shall be deemed to be met if the results of biological monitoring for biological effects indicate no reproductive impairment in gastropods.

Table 2.4

Co

ns en

Substance

Standard Freshwaters

(ug/l)

Hardness of water measured in mg/lCaCO3 100 25 30 30 10 50 100 500 10

Note** The value for metals are for total concentration (dissolved and colloidal/ss). In the case of zinc the standard is 8ug/l for water hardness 10mg/lCaCO3 and 50ug/l for water hardness between 10mg/l and 100mg/l CaCO3. 5

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

2.3 Current Water Quality Status All the main river channels in the county are subject to routine quality monitoring, which is carried out by the EPA, on behalf of Carlow County Council. The current monitoring programme was established to monitor general water quality and was not designed to target the substances listed in the Dangerous Substances Regulations.

It must be

emphasized that poor water quality, as measured by biological and/or chemical assessment, cannot be taken to indicate the presence of Dangerous substances.

In the past the Council has conducted monitoring in the rivers, which included analyses for some of the target substances including copper, nickel, chromium and lead. The .

purpose of the monitoring was to assess the overall water quality in terms of suitability he

ru

se

for abstraction for use as a potable water supply. The monitoring has not identified any to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

problem with metal levels however, the detection limits were based on the limits set in the EC (Quality of Water intended for the Abstraction of Drinking Water) Regulations and Directive 78/659/EC, which were higher than the standards set in the Dangerous Substances Regulations. The data is therefore unsuitable for use in evaluating water

ns en

quality status in the context of the Regulation requirements.

Co

The EPA were commissioned by Carlow County Council, together with other local authorities in the South East Region, to carry out sampling of river waters and analysis for the presence of Dangerous Substances in these samples in 2004. The results of this survey are contained within a Report to the Local Authorities for the South East Region on Dangerous Substances in Surface Waters dated 19th Nov. 04. The survey focused on sites where pollution from the selected substances was most likely i.e. on watercourses downstream of major towns and in areas where arable farming was predominant. The survey included three sampling sites in County Carlow: • • •

River Barrow – d/s Carlow. River Slaney – Rathvilly. River Burren – Carlow Abstraction point.

6

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

The results of this sampling, which were carried out on 22nd September 2004, found that all samples complied with the specified parameters of the Dangerous Substances Regulations where tested. No substances were present in any environmentally significant concentration. Details of Dangerous substances monitoring are shown in Table 2.5. Full details of monitoring carried out are also given in Appendix A. The surface water potable water supply sources in the County are subject to routine quality monitoring as required by EC (Drinking Water) Regulations 2000.

The

monitoring carried out on these sources in Carlow have not identified any significant

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

problems with Dangerous substances in surface water supply sources.

7

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

3.0 Identification of potential pressures The main pressures due to dangerous substances on the general water quality in the county are located at or near the major population centres within the county. This is due to the concentration of households, industries, waste disposal facilities, construction sites etc located in these areas.

Dangerous substances pose a major threat to general water quality however there is limited knowledge of the occurrence of these substances in the county. Dangerous substances can enter the aquatic environment from both point and non-point (diffuse) sources. Point sources are potentially of most concern in relation to acute accidents while

ot

he

ru

se

.

diffuse sources e.g. leaching and run-off can have a significant accumulative effect.

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

Carlow County Council has conducted a review of all activities in the County, which had the potential to use any of the Dangerous substances identified in the regulations. The review included the following activities: 3.1 Wastewater Treatment Plants ns en

The Council’s Wastewater Treatment Plants can be identified as a pressure source in Co

terms of general water quality. The influent to these treatment works and the associated effluent from the plants may potentially contain some of the target substances and therefore enter and contaminate the receiving aquatic environment.

The current

monitoring programme at the WWTP does not include the specified Dangerous Substances. (the effluent from these treatment works are tested in accordance with the requirements of the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive.)

Samples of the effluent

from the main wastewater treatment plants in the county were due to be analysed for the presence of dangerous substances in 2005 however this has not taken place as yet. A programme to conduct the required analysis is being prepared with implementation planned by the end of 2006.

8

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

3.2 Industrial discharges Discharges by industry either directly to waters or indirectly through the sewer network have the potential to cause pollution of watercourses and in particular to affect the levels of dangerous substances in the watercourses. In order to control pollution from such discharges, any industry whose effluent has the potential to cause pollution is licensed and monitored in accordance with the provisions of the Water Pollution Act.

Unregulated drainage from industries to sewer collection systems can effect treatment processes in downstream plants resulting in reduced operational efficiency or in the worst case scenario, failure of the plant treatment processes resulting in discharge of untreated

ru

se

.

industrial and domestic sewage.

ot

he

IPC Licensed facilities in the county are controlled and regulated by the EPA. The to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

Licences specify the monitoring and reporting requirements for the licensed facility, some of which include the specified Dangerous Substances. The EPA is responsible for licensing, auditing and compliance monitoring of IPC licensed industries. The IPC licensed industries are required to provide monitoring data to the EPA.

Co

ns en

The Council also investigates incidents of water pollution. The investigation records are a potential source of information on incidents where spills or incidents may have resulted in the discharge of Dangerous Substances to surface waters.

3.3 Agricultural Activity Agriculture is the main land use and industry within both catchments especially the Barrow. Agricultural point and diffuse loads are therefore another major threat to general water quality in the region. Agricultural practices are very intensive in the northern region of the county leading to increased pollution levels especially in the Barrow catchment. Whilst phosphorous and nitrate levels are of particular concern in the county, agricultural run-off may also result in other pollutants entering water bodies including pesticides and BOD and bacterial loadings. The main threat in relation to dangerous

9

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

substances is the usage of herbicides and pesticides in the region. Accidental releases of oils and other chemicals can also occur and need to be investigated. The application of pig slurries to land poses another threat to both catchments as copper is a very important feed additive in the pig industry. A requirement for Nutrient Management Planning is included in all intensive agriculture planning permissions.

3.4 Urban stormwater overflows and runoff Untreated urban runoff from the major population centres such as Carlow town can have a significant affect on the water quality in the catchments. This runoff enters the water courses through gullies etc following periods of heavy rain and can potentially contain high levels of metals, hydrocarbons, organic pollutants etc. There is currently no register

he ot

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

quality of effluent from such systems.

ru

se

.

of outfalls or overflows from urban areas in the county and no monitoring data for the

3.5 Powerstown Landfill Facility

The Waste License for Powerstown Landfill facility requires that monitoring be carried ns en

out throughout the lifecycle of the landfill, from operational phase through to the Co

aftercare phase. Carlow County Council undertake monitoring with the EPA carrying out annual audits. The Waste License issued by the EPA permits the Council to discharge treated landfill leachate to the Barrow subject to quality and flow restrictions. However this route is not utilized. Leachate is collected in a lagoon on-site and transported for treatment in the Mortarstown Treatment Plant. There is therefore no impact from landfill discharges on the Barrow.

10

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

4.0 Programme of measures of implementation Refer to table 4.1 for implementation programme summaries. In the programme, the timescale column is defined by the EPA in their report “Guidance Manual to Local Authorities on Preparation and Submission of Measures and Implementation report”. Immediate term by July 2004 Short term by July 2006 Medium term by July 2008 Long term by July 2010

4.1 Monitoring programme & Catchment Management

he

ru

se

.

Water samples for measuring the concentrations of Dangerous Substances within rivers to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

in Carlow were taken at three sites during 2004 with all sites being sampled on one day only. All results for these parameters were within the limits specified within the regulations. The limited data available indicates that the presence of the specified substances is not a cause for concern. It should be noted that whilst the samples taken were tested for the parameters specified in the Dangerous Substances Regulations, the ns en

samples were analysed for the presence of a total of 84 parameters – no substance was Co

found to be present in any environmentally significant concentration for any of the samples. The samples were not tested for Atrazine, simazine, tributyltin and cyanide.

The river catchments of Co. Carlow are part of the South Eastern River Basin District (SERBD) area. The SERBD project has been set up to satisfy the requirements of the Water Framework Directive and the need to have a catchment based national strategy to the implementation to the Water Framework Directive. The objective is to prepare a programme of measures designed to maintain and /or achieve at least good water quality for all waters, which includes assistance in complying with the Water Quality (Dangerous Substances) Regulations 2001.

11

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:21

The Characterization Report for the SERBD project has been completed. The purpose of this report was to collect and analyse all existing datasets to provide a baseline report of the Water quality within the SERBD project area. This will facilitate the development of recommendations for monitoring programmes and the design of measures which will be required to ensure compliance with the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. Such monitoring must cover both surface and groundwater and must be operational by 22nd December 2006. The lack of data in relation to dangerous substances will be addressed by additional data collection and monitoring for the first river basin management plan.

In addition to the work of the SERBD project, in 2003 a National Dangerous .

Substances Expert Group was established, by the DoEHLG, to assist with developing he

ru

se

lists of dangerous substances relevant to water quality in an Irish context. Having to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

reviewed available datasets the Expert Group has put forward a list of pollutants that are potentially relevant in Ireland. These substances will have particular relevance to the implementation of the Dangerous Substances and Water framework Directives.

A National Substances Screening Monitoring Programme was started in 2005. The ns en

programme will run until October 2006 and includes monitoring over 200 dangerous Co

substances identified. The programme will serve to feed into the setting of national E.Q.S. for waters.

Carlow County Council, on behalf of the combined river basin districts, utilized 2 main facilities to carry out the analysis for priority action substances (41 no.), candidate relevant pollutants (161 no.) and candidate general components (24 no.) The first phase of this programme investigated evidence of substances at specific locations in the vicinity of likely potential sources of pollutants.

This provided a general overview of the

presence or absence of substances. In the second phase, further target sites were be selected to isolate the causes of individual substances identified by the initial investigations.

12

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

As much of the potential usage of chemicals in concentrated in major urban centres, sampling in the vicinity of the major population centres was undertaken during the first phase. This included the sampling of the River Barrow at two locations - upstream of Carlow Town and upstream of St Mullins. Results from the sampling will not be available until November 2006.

4.2 Wastewater Treatment Works Whilst the effluent from Wastewater treatment works has been identified as a potential source of dangerous substances to river water systems, there is no data available to confirm if these substances are present. In order to investigate this, it is proposed that samples of the effluent from the major wastewater treatment works in the County be

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

analysed, on a once off basis, for the presence of these substances.

A number of the plants in Carlow County require upgrading to cater for new development in urban and village centres in the county and also to comply with the requirements of the relevant EU directives .

o Mortarstown – upgraded to provide nutrient removal Co

ns en

o Tinnahinch – now connected to the new WWTP at Graiguenamanagh. o Raheendoran – WWTP installed in 3005

Improvement works to be carried out in 2006 include the following plants : o Leighlinbridge o Muinebheag o Ballon o Myshall Improvements are also planned for Palatine, Rathvilly, Hacketsown and documents for the appointment of Consultants have been prepared for the WWTP at Tullow, Fenagh and Rathoe.

13

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

4.3 Industrial Discharges Carlow County Council will continue on an ongoing basis to license industrial discharges to waters and sewers in accordance with the provisions of the Water Pollution Act. Where any of the Dangerous Substances identified in the Regulations are present in the effluent, the requirements of the Regulations will be considered in setting the discharge limits. A review of the application process for licenses will be carried out with specific reference to the Dangerous substances regulations.

Since January 2004, Carlow County Council has issued 65 new/revised Section 4 licenses (discharge to waters) and 14 new/revised Section 16 licenses (discharge to sewers) under

.

the Water Pollution Act.

ot

he

ru

se

4.4 Consultative and Cooperative Measures to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

There are many different stakeholders who have an impact on the quality of waters. Setting up consultative and co-operative structures that involve all stakeholders is essential to the successful management of the implementation programme for the Water Framework Directive and other EU regulations including the Dangerous Substances Regulations. The SERBD project has provided a suitable forum for bringing these Co

ns en

stakeholders together – these stakeholders include Teagasc, Irish farmers Association, Coillte, IBEC, Teagasc, Duchas, neighbouring local authorities , Barrow Catchment Group. 4.5 Public Education and Advisory Measures An important element of the programme is raising public awareness of the importance of prevention of emissions to the aquatic environment. This involves the development of an education programme targeted at the sectors both directly and indirectly involved in the usage and emission of target substances.

Carlow Co Council has appointed an

environmental awareness officer whose role includes the development and delivery of this programme.

14

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

The SERBD project has created a project website which is aimed at providing information to the general public on water quality issues in the region.

Carlow Co Co participates in the Rural Environmental Protection Scheme (REPS) lectures organized by Teagasc and deliver lectures/talks on an ongoing basis to the farming community on topics in relation to Water Quality issues and measures which they can take to protect water quality. The REPS scheme makes particular reference to the use by farmers of pesticides and fertilizers near rivers/streams etc – such substances

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

are included in the lists of substances specified in the Dangerous Substances Regulations.

15

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ns en

Co

se

ru

he

ot .

Appendix A

16

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

Local Government (Water Pollution) Act, 1977 (Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus) Regulations, 1998

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

Implementation Report 2006

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

Introduction The Local Government (Water Pollution) Act, 1977 (Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus) Regulations 1998 provide for specified improvements in water quality conditions in rivers and lakes based on molybdate-reactive phosphate levels (MRP) or the biological Q rating of the river water. Each local authority is required to submit an implementation report to the Environmental Protection Agency in line with Article 4(3) of the Regulations. This report details the progress in

Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

implementing the Regulations in County Carlow to date (2006).

1

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

Table of Contents 1.0

Water Quality in County Carlow___________________________________________4

2.0

Implementation of Phosphorus Measures __________________________________10

3.0

Implementation Programme Progress _____________________________________27

3.1 Planning Control and Enforcement Measures _______________________________27 3.2 Water Quality Management Plans_________________________________________27 3.3 Groundwater Protection Plans ____________________________________________27

ot

he

ru

se

.

3.4 Point Sources __________________________________________________________27 3.4.1 Section 4 & 16 Licences _______________________________________________27 3.4.2 Urban Wastewater Discharges Treatment Plants ____________________________27 3.4.3 Septic Tanks ________________________________________________________27 3.4.4 Agricultural Point-Sources _____________________________________________28 to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

3.5 Diffuse Sources_________________________________________________________28 3.5.1. Agriculture_________________________________________________________28 3.6 Monitoring Measures ___________________________________________________29 3.7 Public Education and Advisory Measures___________________________________30

Co

ns en

3.8 Financial & Other Measures _____________________________________________31

2

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ns en

Co

se

ru

he

ot .

SECTION 1

WATER QUALITY

IN

COUNTY CARLOW

3

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

1.0

Water Quality in County Carlow

In order to assess compliance with the requirements of the Phosphorus Regulations and for the purposes of monitoring improvements or deteriorations in the river water quality, the regulations permit local authorities to use either the biological quality (Q) rating or the median concentration for molybdate-reactive phosphate (MRP).

For the MRP values to be used, the regulations specify a minimum number of samples required when calculating the median MRP. (a minimum of 10 samples must be taken at intervals of four weeks or longer in any twelve consecutive month period - where there are insufficient samples taken in a 12 month period, the period may be extended to a

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

period up to 24 months during which at least 15 samples were taken).

This minimum number of samples has not been taken in Carlow in 2004/2005 for the majority of stations and so the Biological or Q rating for the rivers have been used as the primary basis for measuring improvement or deterioration in the water quality standard.

Carlow County Council commissions the Regional Water laboratory in Kilkenny to carry Co

ns en

out the sampling and testing of river water quality in County Carlow. The laboratory prepares a yearly report on the physico/chemical and microbiological testing which is carried out during the year. For the purposes of this report, the “River Water Quality in County Carlow, 2005” report is used.

The Q values for each of the monitoring stations are assessed on a three yearly basis, with the country being divided into a number of hydrometric areas. Hydrometric areas 12 (River Slaney) and area 14 (River Barrow) include County Carlow. Biological surveys of each area are carried out every 3 years. For the purposes of this report, the biological data used is from the survey of Hydrometric area 14 carried out in 2003 and the survey of Hydrometric area 12 carried out in 2004.

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

Biological surveys are usually undertaken in the summer-autumn period (JuneSeptember) when flows are likely to be relatively low and water temperatures highest. Surveys during this period are therefore likely to coincide with the worst conditions to be expected in rivers affected by waste inputs.

The Q value for a river is based on a biological assessment of the water quality. The biological classification of water quality is carried out by examining the different types of macroinvertebrates (crustaceans, insects, worms, mollusks, leeches etc) that live in a river. Some species are sensitive and some are tolerant to pollution and a system for classifying water quality depending on the different numbers of the various macroinvertebrate species has been developed. Depending on the diversity of species .

found and their numbers, the river is classified on a scale of Q1 to Q5 with 5 the cleanest

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

water and 1 the most polluted.

Biotic Quality Index (Q Value)

Biological Quality Status

Q5, Q4-5, Q4

Unpolluted

Q3-4

Slightly Polluted

Seriously Polluted

Co

Q2, Q1-2, Q1

Moderately Polluted

ns en

Q3, Q2-3

5

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

Table 1.1 – A synopsis of River Water Quality in Carlow in 2005 Change from 2004 Overall Quality No significant change Nitrates are high but appear to have stabilised in observed. recent years. The Aghalona has also been subject to intermittent agricultural discharges. Improvements have been Overall water quality in the Barrow is fair with observed over the past four a background of slight/moderate pollution from years downstream of the diffuse agricultural sources and sewage Carlow Sugar Factory and discharges from the various towns. downstream of the Carlow Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant. . Burren While nitrates are still The Burren flows through a high tillage area in elevated, levels appear to N. Carlow – Nitrates are high , but recent data have improved and indicate that levels have stabilised. There is stabilised since 1999. evidence of enrichment at the middle and lower sections, with increased signs of eutrophication in recent years. River Clody No significant change Generally satisfactory observed. River Derreen No significant change The Derreen is shows elevated nitrates but observed. otherwise quality is satisfactory. River Derry No significant change Quality is generally satisfactory. –however observed. quality can be affected by run-off during rain. River Douglas No significant change Elevated nitrates in the lower reaches. observed. Otherwise satisfactory. Lerr There are indications of a Nitrates are high due to intensive tillage in levelling off in nitrate South Kildare – recent data indicates that nitrate levels since 1998. levels are levelling off. Biological data indicates borderline conditions. Overall quality is mediocre. Mountain No significant change Generally satisfactory. observed. Poulmounty No significant change Mainly satisfactory – but slight loss of quality observed. downstream of fish farm at times. Clonmore Stream No significant change Generally satisfactory. (Tributary of the observed. Derreen/Slaney) Slaney No significant change Overall the Slaney is reasonably satisfactory observed. Co

ns en

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

se

.

River Aghalona (Tributary of the Burren/Barrow) Barrow

6

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

Table 1.2 gives the overall trend in River Water Quality in County Carlow since the baseline year 1998. These results are graphed in Fig. 1.1. It is clear from this graph that the overall trend in river water quality is that it is improving on an ongoing basis.

Table 1.2 Overall trend in Water Quality in County Carlow Percentage samples in each category Year Unpolluted Moderately Polluted

.

38.4% 19.4% 19.4% 10.0% 18.5% 9.8% 10.2% 8.8%

se

61.6% 80.6% 76.4% 86.7% 81.5% 90.2% 89.9% 91.2%

0.0% 0.0% 4.2% 3.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0% 0%

to f c Fo op r i yr ns ig pe ht ct ow ion ne pu r r rp eq os ui es re o d nl fo y. ra ny

ot

he

ru

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Seriously Polluted

Figure 1.1 Overall trend in Water Quality in County Carlow Overall Trend of River Water Quality in County Carlow 100.0% 90.0%

ns en

80.0%

Co

70.0% 60.0%

Unpolluted

50.0%

Moderately Polluted

40.0%

Seriously Polluted

30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% 1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Table 1.3 gives the details of the current river water quality standards in County Carlow compared with the quality standards to be achieved by 2007. The Q values for the monitored stations are summarized in Figure 1.2.

7

EPA Export 26-07-2013:11:36:22

Fig. 1.2

Co. Carlow Q-value summary Co Carlow River Q-values and Targets 60%

40% 2004-2005 Target 2007

30% 20% 10% 0% Q4-5

Q4

Q3-4

Q3

Q2-3 Q

Suggest Documents