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Faculty of Resource Science and Technology Estimation Of Timber Volume And Carbon Sequestration Potential Of Second Generation Acacia Mangium And Aca...
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Faculty of Resource Science and Technology

Estimation Of Timber Volume And Carbon Sequestration Potential Of Second Generation Acacia Mangium And Acacia Hybrid Plantations

Nur Syazni Binti Adam

Master of Science (Forest Science) 2015

Estimation Of Timber Volume And Carbon Sequestration Potential Of Second Generation Acacia Mangium And Acacia Hybrid Plantations

NUR SYAZNI BINTI ADAM

A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (Forest Science)

Faculty of Resource Science and Technology UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK 2015

DECLARATION No portion of the work referred to this dissertation has been submitted in support of an application for another degree or qualification of this or any other university or institution of higher learning.

______________________ (NUR SYAZNI BINTI ADAM) Department of Plant Science and Environmental Ecology Faculty of Resource Science and Technology Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillah praise to our Merciful Allah SWT for giving me the strength and with my faith upon Him I am able to complete my study entitled ‘Estimation of Timber Volume and Carbon Sequestration Potential of Second Generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid Plantations’. Without His blessings I would never come to this stage. My sincere appreciation extended to the Daiken Plantation Sdn Bhd. especially Mr Katsumata for their permissions allowing us to collect samples and for their cooperation along the study. The person that I would like to thank the most is my supervisor Prof Dr Ismail B Jusoh for his advice and guidance to me in this study. A great lecturer, supervisor and without his help it would be impossible to finish what I had started from the beginning, a great partner and it will be my pleasure looking forward to work with him in the future. I really appreciate all the ideas and suggestions that were given and praying that our hardship and challenges in this study will not be a constraint to work better in future.

I also want to take this opportunity to thank my lovely parents Adam Yusoff and Naini Sebli for their prayers and support for me. Not to forget my understanding husband Mohammad Yusoff Shahrudin for his patience and encourages that he gave whenever I am feeling stress and depressed. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to all my family members and siblings Adi Shahmizar, Nur Syazana and Nur Syazlin for their help throughout this research. I dedicate this as a gift to my daughter Durratul Iman for she motivated me to complete this study. Finally I would like to thank all the staffs of Resource Science and Technology faculty especially Mohd Rizan Abdullah, Salim Arip and Lamri Salam for their cooperation and teamwork during sampling. May Allah bless you all. Amin.

Estimation of timber volume and carbon sequestration potential of second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid plantations

Nur Syazni Adam ABSTRACT The existing Acacia mangium plantations will increasingly play an important role not only for wood production but also in storing and sequestering atmospheric carbon. There are allometric equations estimating biomass and carbon stocks for Acacia mangium, however they were obtained from small trials or experimental plots and very few have been developed for plantations in Sarawak. The purpose of this study was to quantify the aboveground biomass as well as carbon stored and sequestered by two planting variants namely second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid aged approximately 10 years old. This study also determined the growth rate and yield of these variants. A total of 35 second generation Acacia mangium and 36 Acacia hybrid trees were harvested from a plantation owned by Daiken Sarawak Sdn. Bhd. Fresh weight of leaves, twigs, branches and stems were weighed in the field immediately after tree felling to obtain their green weight. Samples of leaves, twigs, branches and disks were acquired, weighed and packed in a container for laboratory analyses. Growth performance was determined based on five plots of 30 x 30 m established at random in 10-year-old stands of both variants. Diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees within the 30 x 30 m plots were measured. Single-entry and double-entry volume equations and tables for second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid were developed. Allometric relationships between tree DBH and aboveground biomass of leaves, branches and twigs, stems and total tree were also developed and subsequently used to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration. Results showed that second generation Acacia mangium recorded higher mean annual volume

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increment than Acacia hybrid at 39.1 and 28.2 m3/ha/yr, respectively. Power function was found to the best fit for single entry volume estimation using DBH as the independent variable with R2 ranged from 0.88 to 0.95. Double entry volume estimation using DBH as primary and merchantable height as secondary variable showed that the best fit equation was in linear form (R2 = 0.96 – 0.98). The best-fit equation for total aboveground biomass were of power function form with DBH as independent variables with R2 values ranged between 0.94 and 0.96. It is recommended that models for estimating tree volume and total aboveground biomass are based on DBH due to its simplicity and consistency. Diameter at breast height is easy to measure accurately in the field and is the most common parameter recorded in forest inventories. Total aboveground biomass of second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid were 178.86 M g/ha and 113.32 M g/ha., respectively. This study indicates that second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid had sequestered respectively, 30.83 M g/ha and 19.53 M g/ha of atmospheric carbon annually. This study has shown that Acacia mangium plantation played its role as carbon sink and thus forest plantations capable of not only benefits the economy but also mitigating carbon emissions.

Keywords: Acacia mangium plantation, allometric equations, aboveground biomass, carbon sequestration, tree volume

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Anggaran isipadu kayu dan potensi sekuestrasi karbon ladang hutan generasi kedua Acacia mangium dan Acacia hybrid Nur Syazni Adam ABSTRAK Ladang Acacia mangium yang ada sekarang akan memainkan peranan penting bukan sahaja dalam menghasilkan kayu tetapi juga sebagai penstoran dan sekuestrasi karbon dari atmosfera. Terdapat rumus-rumus alometri yang telah dibentuk untuk menganggar biojisim dan karbon tersimpan bagi Acacia mangium, walau bagaimanapun rumus-rumus ini diterbitkan dari plot-plot percubaan dan eksperimetal yang kecil dan sedikit sahaja dibentuk untuk menganggar biojisim dan karbon tersimpan dari ladang Acacia mangium Sarawak. Tujuan kajian ini ialah untuk menentukan biojisim atas tanah dan juga karbon yang telah tersimpan dan disekuester oleh dua varian pokok iaitu generasi kedua Acacia mangium dan hibrid Acacia yang berumur kira-kira 10 tahun. Kajian ini juga bertujuan untuk menentukan kadar pertumbuhan dan hasil bagi kedua-dua varian baru tersebut. Sebanyak 35 batang pokok generasi kedua Acacia mangium dan 36 batang hibrid Acacia telah ditebang dari ladang hutan yang dimiliki oleh Daiken Sarawak Sdn. Bhd. Berat daun, ranting dan dahan serta batang pokok ditimbang sejurus sahaja pokok ditumbangkan untuk memperoleh berat basah. Sampel-sampel daun, ranting, dahan dan ceper kayu ditimbang sebelum dimasukkan ke dalam bekas dan seterusnya dibawa ke makmal untuk analisis. Prestasi pertumbuhan kedua-dua varian ditentukan berdasarkan lima plot bersaiz 30 x 30 m yang telah dibentuk secara rawak dalam dirian pokok yang berumur 10 tahun. Diameter pada paras dada (DBH) bagi semua pokok di dalam plot 30 x 30 m tersebut diukur. Rumus-rumus isipadu catatan tunggal dan catatan bergu dihasilkan beserta dengan jadualjadual isipadu bagi generasi kedua Acacia mangium dan hybrid Acacia. Rumus alometri yang menghubungkan antara DBH dan biojisim atas tanah bagi daun, ranting, dahan dan

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batang serta jumlah keseluruhan biojisim pokok dibentuk seterusnya digunakan untuk menganggar karbon tersimpan dan disekuestrasi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan generasi kedua Acacia mangium mencatat pertambahan min isipadu tahunan lebih tinggi dari hibrid Acacia masing-masing pada 39.1 and 28.2 m3/ha/tahun. Rumus catatan tunggal yang paling sesuai untuk penganggaran isipadu menggunakan DBH sebagai pemboleh ubah tak bersandar adalah dalam bentuk fungsi kuasa di mana julat R2 antara 0.88 hingga 0.95. Penganggaran isipadu menggunakan rumus catatan bergu yang menggunakan DBH sebagai pemboleh ubah primer dan ketinggian sebagai pemboleh ubah sekunder menunjukkan persamaan yang paling sesuai adalah dalam bentuk linear (R2 = 0.96 – 0.98). Rumus yang paling sesuai untuk menganggar jumlah biojisim atas tanah adalah dalam bentuk fungsi kuasa menggunakan DBH sebagai pemboleh ubah tak bersandar dengan nilai R2 dalam lingkungan 0.94 ke 0.96. Penganggaran isipadu dan biojisim pokok menggunakan DBH sahaja dicadangkan kerana ia mudah dan konsisten. Diameter pada paras dada mudah untuk diukur secara tepat di lapangan dan ianya merupakan parameter lazim direkodkan dalam inventori hutan. Jumlah biojisim atas tanah bagi Acacia mangium generasi kedua dan hybrid Acacia masing-masingnya 178.86 M g/ha dan 113.32 M g/ha. Kajian ini menunjukkan generasi kedua Acacia mangium dan hibrid Acacia telah mensekuester karbon dari atmosfera masing-masing sebanyak 30.83 M g/ha and 19.53 M g/ha setahun. Kajian ini telah membuktikan bahawa ladang Acacia mangium telah memainkan peranannya sebagai kawasan tadahan karbon dan ini bererti ladang hutan bukan sahaja memberi manfaat kepada ekonomi tetapi juga sebagai mitigasi pengeluaran karbon. Kata kunci: Ladang hutan Acacia mangium, rumus alometri, biojisim atas tanah, sekuestrasi karbon, isipadu pokok

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1

General Background The amount of carbon in the atmosphere is increasing day by day. Gas emissions

from vehicles, industrial activities, deforestation are some of the factors contributing to the increasing carbon in the atmosphere. This may lead to climate change and global warming phenomena. Several mitigation measures and alternatives have been initiated and many initiatives were done to find the best way to keep the atmosphere carbon in balance (Aboal et al., 2005; Brown, 1997; Kraenzel et al., 2003; Laclau, 2003; Losi et al., 2003; Segura & Kanninen, 2005).

Trees are known to have the ability to absorb the carbon dioxide (CO2) through the natural process of photosynthesis with the presence of the light and water then store them as carbon in plant parts such as in their leaves, branches, barks, stem and roots. Biomass options are known to be the most promising and environmentally acceptable alternative to reduce CO2 level of the major alternatives (Hall & House, 1994). However, the amount and the rate of carbon stored in plant biomass are different between species. It is necessary to have reliable estimation to predict the amount of carbon sequestered especially to report Afforestation/Reforestation Clean Development Mechanism (AR-CDM) and included under the Kyoto Protocols without bias.

Large scale forests plantations can produce large numbers of desired tree species at rapid growth under uniform management practices. In Malaysia, Acacia mangium is the major species used in the establishment of planted forest. Acacia mangium comes from the family of Leguminous-Fabaceae planted primarily for timber wood and firewood purposes. 1

In addition, forest plantations can play an important role in ecosystem rehabilitation. The role which fast grown plantations may play in carbon sequestration should also not be overlooked. The role of forest plantations in mitigating greenhouse gasses accumulation requires the evaluation of carbon stocks in planted forests. Two improved planting materials have been recently introduced in Sarawak and these are second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid. The two new variants are known to have better growth and more resistance to pest and diseases in which they had obtained the desired traits from the parental species (Ismail et al., 2014).

The characteristics that they have are quite promising and beneficial in contributing to mitigation issues of abundance of greenhouse gases through carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Plantations using fast growing species in many countries ensure sustainable supply of tree products helps in reducing timbers demand from natural forests. Planted forest is also one of the alternatives discussed to reduce excess carbon in the surroundings. Land use and forestry also have the potential to lessen the emissions through the protection of existing carbon reservoir. Since trees can store large amount of carbon in their biomass, there is also a considerable potential for Acacia mangium species if the wood is used for building products in which it constitutes an additional carbon sink value. Estimation of carbon sink or sequestration relies on biomass content and growth data.

Biomass content can be measured by either direct method or indirect method. Direct method consists of tree felling cut them into sections to later weigh their fresh weight and oven dry the representative samples that will be taken to the laboratory. The carbon absorbed in plants can be measured by carbon estimation using diameter at breast size (DBH) and height. The data can be used to calculate the stem volume and develop 2

allometric regression biomass equation to predict the aboveground biomass. Based on previous research, developed biomass estimation equations differ significantly between forest types so, the allometric equation must be selected properly for a target site. Although several studies have been conducted on biomass of Malaysian plantation species but little is known about carbon storage and sequestration. Derived equations from other species and sites may not accurately reflect biomass for second generation A. mangium and Acacia hybrid planted in Sarawak. Moreover, biomass and carbon content values vary with age, tree species, site condition, growth rate and silvicultural treatments applied in the stand (Brown, 1997; Alexandrov, 2007; Heriansyah et al., 2007) as a result it is recommended that species and site specific equations be developed and used whenever possible (Banaticla et al., 2005). This study emphasized on the estimation of aboveground carbon storage and sequestration potential of second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid planted in Sarawak.

Carbon sequestration and storage depends on tree growth and mortality, thus growth and yield of both new planting materials were also taken into consideration. These include mean annual increment in terms of DBH and volume of the variants. This study was carried out in collaboration with a plantation company; Daiken Plantation Sdn. Bhd. Growth data such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and height were obtained from the company is permanent sample (PSP). From the data, mean annual increment (MAI) and growth rate of the second generation of Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid were able to be estimated. Along with the study, volume estimation equations for the variants were developed. Volume estimation equations developed were used to construct volume table for the company’s plantation. Aboveground biomass allometric equations were also developed. 3

1.2

Problem Statement Establishing one million ha of forest plantations in Sarawak (PERKASA, 2004) can

be a wise strategy to attain national goal on sustainable development of timber industry and at the same time reduce the greenhouse gasses emissions. However, data and quantification of carbon sequestration by forest plantations are lacking. Although the estimation of Acacia mangium biomass has been reported, however the data are not only obsolete, they were obtained from small trial or experimental plots in which the environment and conditions are different from that of commercial plantations. Besides, studies on two new variants namely second-generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid regarding their growth, yield and biomass are very limited and how much carbon dioxide can be removed from the atmosphere by them is not known. Thus study attempt to develop equations for the estimation of tree volume and aboveground biomass in second-generation A. mangium and Acacia hybrid approximately 10 years after planting. Data on biomass obtained will be used to quantify how much carbon can be sequestered by A. mangium plantations. This study attempt to answer questions like; what is the mean annual increment of wood volume in a commercial plantation? How much carbon dioxide can be removed from the atmosphere by plantation forests? How much carbon is being stored in our plantations? What form of model equations is the most appropriate for volume and aboveground biomass estimation? How much carbon stored and sequestered in second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid?

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1.3

Objectives The main aim of this study are to estimates carbon storage and sequestration of

second-generation A. mangium and Acacia hybrid approximately 10 years after planting. In order to achieve this the growth performance aboveground biomass of the trees must be determined first.Thus this study was carried out to achieve the following specific objectives. 1. To determine the growth rate and yield of second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid, 2. To develop regression equations to estimate the stem volume of second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid 3. To develop allometric regression equation to predict aboveground biomass of second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid 4. To estimate carbon stored and sequestered in second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1

General Background

2.1.1 Acacia mangium Acacia mangium is one of the species from the family of Legumious-Fabaceae. Acacia derived from a Greek name, akis, meaning sharp point, is in reference to the thorn of the plant (Wagner et al. 1999). This species is native tree in Queensland, Australia, Molluccan Islands, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea then is widened to latudinal and longitudinal range in which it was introduced to Costa Rica, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Malaysia as well as the Philippines (Sanchez, 2006).

Acacia mangium is a tree to up to 30 m tall with straight bole to over half the total tree height and sometimes fluted at the base. It has rough and furrowed bark, either grey or brown in color (Sánchez, 2006). The branchlets, phyllodes and petioles are glabrous or slightly scurfy. Phyllodes 5 to 10 cm broad, 2 to 4 times as long as broad, dark green, chartaceous when dry and having 3 to 4 longitudinal main nerves which join on the dorsal margin at the base of the phyllode, secondary nerves fine and inconspicuous. The loose spike type of flowers in 10 cm long is solitary or paired in the upper axils. The flowers are pentamerous and the calyx is 0.6 to 0.8 mm long, with short obtuse lobes while the corolla is twice as long as the calyx. Pods of Acacia mangium are linear, glabrous, 3-5 mm broad, 7.5cm long when green, woody, coiled and brackish-brown when mature, depressed between the seeds. Seeds are lustrous, black, ellipsoid, ovate or oblong, 3.5 to 2.5 mm, the orangish funicle forming a fleshy aril beneath the seed (Duke, 1983). In general, Acacia mangium occurred at altitudes less than 100 m with discontinuous distribution on rainforest margins. It can be found in rainforest margins from 6

the central Queensland coast (Townsville) to the Cape York Peninsula. Populations are more extensive in the southern lowlands of New Guinea and are associated with monsoon vine forests and open savannah woodland (Figure 1).

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