Author: Katrina Gray
2 downloads 0 Views 2MB Size



MEMBERS AND MEMBERSHIP or ^udent Members™ ° f ^ be either ?

Institute sha11 be Honorary Membere, Fellows, Ordinary Members

fdina7- Med from time to time by the Oouncil and/or provided in the Bye-laws, (fl) Students of Metallurgy; or (6) pupils or assistants of persons qualified for ordinary membership, whether such persons are actually members of the Institute or not. Student Members shall not be eligible for election on the Council, nor shall thev be entitled to Roll 7 “ eaVnf s o f f he Institute, or to nominate candidates for ordinary membership. shiD shali be hv^the tW° ,cla?8e8’ aud a8 beroinafter provided, election to memberroverleaf! marked "A n tv, applications for membership shall be in writing in the form and such inoU cfr ’ t h ?therform as may from time to time be authorized by the Council, Institute! ppllcatlon mu8t be by the applicant and not less than three members of the pai(Lem^erShlP 8ha11 DOt begiD UDtil the entrance fee and flrst annual subscription have been the Oouncirinrpa n n li^ i i0^ri,lemberahipt ?! 0rdinary or Student Members shall be submitted to shall Ibe e x h i b i L n n ° t t ? aPProved applicants shall be placed on a list which Meciinc t t ¿ h f n I ® rary °f tbe Instltute for at least fifteen days immediately after the Council of Local Sections of °the approTed; 0 °P‘e8 ° f s“«* lists shall be supplied to the Secretaries may Domtjme rij time be^rescribed 'by^h^Couimi™6111 8*&Dd &Dy otber marmer t0 members as maih^m wbriv?il°v r t “ «' oandidate whose name is so exhibited or notified to members shall be Shibited Secretary within twenty-one days of the date when the list shall first be so havt'heo?U0bSe9vh*v °n the applications for membership of persons whose names shall eltlt be™ 80 exblblted ?haH be further considered, and the Council may, in their absolute discretion, »Vi™ ] applicants, and may refuse any application although previously approved without L °d 4° r SUC^ r.e fusal- Non-election shall not necessarily prejudice the candidate for election concerned in any future application for election.

SUBSCRIPTIONS .. Kuie 9-—Unless and until otherwise determined by the Council and/or provided in the Bye-laws i^ lT n e ia n n 1011 r ^ r 0rdl° ary Member shall be £3 3s. per annum, aud of each Student Member an Entraime Fee* of i f S ™ PSy Bntrance Pee of £2 2s- eacb and Student Members «v„?Ulf S«s nd(° r r8®ulatfPn.9 “ »F be made by the Council from time to time for the transference of Student Members from that status to that of Ordinary Members, including the fixing of an entrance and/ or t h a y e i ^ o f n y 8such

° ' " * &BU“ “ the ° ° Uncil “ ay from time to time Proscribe,

by Student Members 'D flling 8acb 8um’ 4ake into consideration the prior payment of entrance fees Subscriptions shall be payable on election and subsequently in advance on July 1st in each year l°aws W18C “ determined from time to time by the Council and/or provided in the Bye-

DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF MEMBERS Rule 12.—Every member shall be bound : (d) in flu e n c e of the I m ita te !8 ^ ° bjeCt8’ PUrp°Be8' intere8t8' aDd (6) To observe the provisions of the Memorandum of Association of the Institute, the Articles and the Bye-laws. » (c) To pay at all times, and in the manner prescribed, such entrance fees on election such fees on transference from one class of membership to another, and such annual sub­ scriptions as shall for the time being be prescribed. (d) To pay and make good to the Institute any loss or damage to the property of the Institute caused by his wilful act or default. « v®“!?,1.3-“ ? l eI I , Me?Jber,’.in S11 bi,8 professional relations, shall be guided by the highest principles of honour, and uphold the dignity of his profession and the reputation of the Institute.



(New Series)


G. SHAW SCOTT, M.Sc. Se c r e t a r y

The rig h t o f P u b lic a tio n a n d o f T r a n s la tio n is R eserved

The Institute of Metals is not responsible either for the statements made or for the opinions expressed in the following pages


[Entered at Stationers' Hall


P. le i ¡is


Ageew ,



W . E . A l k in s , D .S c.

Professor J . H. A n d r e w , D.Sc. W . E . B allard. Professor C. 0 . B a n n i s t e r , M.Eng., A.R.S.M. Colonel N. T. B e l a i e w , C.B. B. B l u m e n t h a l , Dr.-Ing. Captain B. B r a n d t . J. C. C h a s t o n , B .S c ., A.R.S.M. R. B. D e e l e y , B.Sc., A.R.S.M. J. W. D o n a l d s o n , D.Sc. W. E n g e l , Dr.-phil. U. R. E v a n s , M.A., D.Sc. S. F i e l d , A.R.C.S. R. G e n d e r s , M.B.E., D.Met. Frhr. v. G ö l e r , Dr.-Ing. R o o s e v e l t G r i f f i t h s , M .S c. G. A. H a n k i n s , D.Sc., A.R.C.S. M. H a n s e n , Dr.-phil. E. S. H e d g e s , D.Sc., Ph.D. H. W. G. H i g n e t t , B.Sc.Eng. C. E. H o m e r , B.Sc., Ph.D. A. W. H o t h e r s a l l , M.Sc.Tech. E. R. H o w e l l . W. H u m e - R o t h e r Y , M.A., Ph.D. Z. J a s i e w i c z , M.S. F . J o h n s o n , D .S c. Professor W. M is A n g Y I , Dr.-techn. W. A. C. N e w m a n , B.Sc., A.R.S.M., A.R.C.S. J. E. N e w s o n , M.Met. E. ÖHMAN. H. W. L . P h i l l i p s , B.A. Ing. R. P o s p i s i l . A. R. P o w e l l . A. G. R o b i e t t e , B .S c. P h o e b e M. C. R o u t h , B.Sc. F. S a l t . K. S c h m i d t , Dr. sei. nat. D. N. S h o y k h e t , Chem.Eng. D. G. S o p w i t h , B.Sc.Tech. Professor J . F. S p e n c e r , D.Sc., Ph.D. D. S t o c k d a l e , M.A., Ph.D. H. S h t t o n , M.Sc. J. S. G. T h o m a s , D.Sc. J. H. W a t s o n , M.C., B.Sc., Ph.D., A.R.S.M. J. W e e r t s , Dr.-Ing. S. W e r n i o k , Ph.D., M.Sc. S. V. W i l l i a m s , B.Sc. Capt. A. I. W y n n e - W i l l i a m s , M.C., R.A. M. Z v e g i n t z o v , B.A., B.Sc.

S y m b ols a n d A b b r e v ia t io n s U s e d i n T e x t . A. Angstrom units. km.2 abs. absolute. kv. a.c. alternating current(s). kva. amp. ampère(s). kw. amp.-hr . ampère-hour(s). kw.-hr. A.W.G. American wire-gauge. lb. Bé. Baumé. L.-F. B. & S. Brown & Sharpe (gauge). m. B.H.P. brake horse-power. m.2 B.O.T. Board of Trade. m.3 B.th.u. British thermal units. m.amp. B.T.U. Board of Trade unit. max. B.W.G. Birmingham wire-gauge. mg. C. centigrade. mm. cal. calorie(s). mm.2 c.c. cubic centimetre(s). mm.3 centigramme(s). m.m.f. egc.g.s. centimetre-gramme-second. m/a cm. centimetre(s). m.v. cm.2 square centimetre(s). N. cm.3 cubic centimetre(s). N.T.P. coeff. coefficient(s). const. constant(s). oz. c.p. candle-power. P.C.E. C.T.U. centigrade thermal units. p.d. cwt. hundredweight(s). P-P-m. d density. R. d.c. direct current(s). r.p.m. decigramme( s ). dg. sp. gr. diam. diameter(s). sq. dm. decimetre(s). V. dm.2 square decimetre(s). va. dm.3 cubic decimetre(s). w. e.m.f. electromotive force(s) w.-hr. F. Fahrenheit. w.p.c. O ft. foot; feet. f t.2 square foot. f t.3 cubic foot. r° ft.-lb. foot-pound(s). Vgall. gallon(s). w grm. gramme(s). n / H.-F. high-frequency. // H-ion. hydrogen ion. H.P. horse-power. < H.P.-hr. horse-power hour(s). hr. hour. > hrs. hours. in. inch; inches. < in.2 square inch. in.3 cubic inch. in.-lb. < inch-pound(s). I.S.W.G. Imperial standard wire-gauge. K. absolute temperature (scale). K.C.U. kilogramme-degree-centigrade =/= heat unit ( = 3-97 B.th.u.). e kilogramme(s). kg= kg.m. kilogramme-metre(s). km. kilometre(s).

square kilometre. kilovolt(s). kilovolt-ampére(s). kilowatt(s). kilowatt-hour(s). pound(s). low-frequency. metre(s). square metre(s). cubic metre(s). milliampere(s). maximum. milligramme(s). millimetre(s). square millimetre(s). cubic millimetre(s). magnetomotive force(s). millimicron. miUivolt(s). normal. normal tem perature and pres­ sure. ounce(s). pyrometric cone equivalent. potential difference. parts per million. Reaumur. revolutions per minute. specific gravity. square. volt(s). volt-ampére(s). watt(s). watt-hour(s). watts per candle. degree(s) (arc or temperature). per cent, wave-length. micron. 1 millionth micron = 0-1 A. ohm. minute of the arc. second of the arc. A < B denotes th a t A is less than B. A > B denotes th a t A is greater than B. negative of < ; A < B de­ notes th a t A is not less than B. combination of < and = ; A < B denotes th a t A is equal to or less than B. is not equal to. identically equal to. approximately (or essentially) equal to.


Properties oi Metals, 1, 41, 89, 137, 197, 273, 333, 365, 413, 453, 497, 553, 655. Properties of Alloys, 7, 50, 94, 145, 212, 279, 336, 370, 417, 461, 503, 568, 670. Structure (Metallography ; Macrography ; Crystal Structure), 14, 56. 99, 156, 220, 284, 342, 378, 423, 467, 511, 585, 682. Corrosion, 17, 58, 102,158, 226, 291, 345, 381, 427, 470, 514, 595, 688, Protection (other than Electrodeposition), 20, 61, 103, 163, 231, 296, 348, 385, 430, 472, 519, 599, 695. Electrodeposition, 21, 62, 105, 165, 235, 298, 349, 387, 432, 473, 524, 605, 700. Electrometallurgy and Electrochemistry (other than Electrodeposi­ tion), 22, 64, 169, 238, 302, 351, 388, 435, 475, 528, 608, 702. Refining, 23, 106, 241, 388, 435, 475, 609, 704. Analysis, 23, 64, 106, 169, 241, 303, 352, 388, 435, 475, 528, 610, 705. Laboratory Apparatus, Instruments, &c„ 26, 68, 108, 172, 245, 305, 354, 391, 437, 479, 531, 616, 712. Physical and Mechanical Testing, Inspection and Radiology, 27, 68, 109, 173, 246, 305, 354, 392, 438, 479, 532, 618, 713. Temperature Measurement and Control, 29, 69, 175, 249, 306, 357, 393, 440, 481, 533, 619, 716. Foundry Practice and Appliances, 29, 70,112, 176, 250, 307, 357, 393, 440, 481, 534, 621, 716. Secondary Metals : Scrap, Residues, &c., 72, 114, 179, 252, 395, 441, 482, 536, 626, 718. Furnaces and Fuels, 30, 72, 114, 179, 252, 308, 358, 395, 442, 482, 536, 626, 718. Refractories and Furnace Materials, 31, 73, 115, 180, 255, 309, 359, 395, 443, 483, 537, 628, 720. Heat-Treatment, 31, 73, 116, 180, 256, 309, 396, 445, 538, 629, 723. Working, 31, 74, 116, 181, 257, 309, 360, 396, 445, 483, 538, 629, 723. Cleaning and Finishing, 32, 75, 118, 182, 259, 311, 360, 397, 446, 484, 539, 633, 726. Joining, 32, 75, 119, 183, 260, 312, 362, 397, 447, 485, 539, 634, 726. Industrial Uses and Applications, 34, 78, 123, 185, 261, 314, 401, 448, 486, 541, 638, 731. Miscellaneous, 37, 80,127, 189, 265, 317, 405, 452, 488, 543, 646, 739. Bibliography, 37, 81, 127, 189, 265, 318, 406, 489, 544, 647. Book Reviews, 40, 87, 132, 192, 271, 323, 411, 492, 550, 651, 740. PAGE

I n d e x .................................................................................................... 743

CORRIGENDA 23, 24, 50, 51, 66, 79, 97, 138, 143, 148, 181, 197, 216, 223, 225, 253, 266, 283, 333,

line 10. „ 25. „ 8.* „ 9.* „ 20. „ 26. „ 30. „ 8.* „ 14. „ 13. 2. „ 25.* „ 29. „ 1. „ 18.* „ 12.* „ 22. „ 15. „ 17.* „ 16.* 336, 2.

350, „ 24. 365, „ 3. „ 4. ft

378, 385, 415, 469, 516, 562, 575, 587, 595,

ft ft

9f ft ft ft


13. 8. 28.* 23.


16.* 19.* 8.* 7.* 21.* 23. 16.* 14.* 9.



ft ft ft ft

614, 646, 687, 695, 698,

2. 5*

ft ft ft ft

703, ft 8.* 708, f t 18.* 712, ft 35. 721, *» 26.* 732, f t 24.*

For “ 826-827 ” read “ 825-827.” For “ Met. Abs., 1934,1, 605 ” read “ Met. Abs., 1934,1, 606. For “ Aluminium-Zinc ” read “ Aluminium-Tin.” For “ L. R. van West ” read “ L. R. van W ert.” For “ Kam cham a” read “ Kameyama.” For “ 2, 427^448 ” read “ 2, 4 2 2 ^4 8 .” F o r “ J. T. Wise ” read “ J. T. Eash.” For “ Mercury ” read “ Magnésium.” For “ Rebinder ” read “ Rehbinder.” For “ H. Hoffmann ” read “ P. Hoffmann.” For “ 1935, 11, 10-13 ” read “ 1935, 10, 10-13.” For “ Met. Abs., 1934,1, 288 ” read “ Met. Abs., 1934, 1, 285.’ For “ Tamura ” read “ Tamaru.” For “ Brunovkiy ” read “ Brunovskiy.” Far “ 193-220 ” read “ 195-220.” For “ C. H. Barker ” read “ G. H. Barker.” For “ C. Guia-Lollini ” read “ C. Giua-Lollini.” For “ Tamura ” read “ Tamaru.” For “ F. Troube ” read “ F. Trombe.” For “ 740-742 ” read “ 660-664.” After “ Yamaguchi ” add “ and Kôzô Nakam ura; for “ BîdZ. I.P.C .R. T o kyo ” read “ Rikwagaku-Kenkyü-jo Iho (Bull. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res.).” For “ Electrodepositors’ ” read “ Electroplaters’.” For “ 99-99% ” read “ 99-85%.” After “ as anodes” add “ For the production of métal of a purity exceeding 99-99%, the principle of 3 superimposed layers is utilized in electrolyzing a bath of aluminium and sodium fluorides and barium chloride.” For “ K ot6 ” read “ K ato.” For “ Metallic Cementation. III.” read “ Metallic Cementa­ tion. IV.” For “ 173, 1-3 ” read “ 173, 1-31.” For “ 1159-1160 ” read “ 1158-1166.” For “ Valinski” read “ Valensi.” For “Met. Abs., this vol., p. 293 ” read “ Met. Abs., this vol., p. 273.” After “ Bull. B.N .F .M .R .A ., 1935, (80)” add “ [In French.]” For “ Arthur E. Bonsu ” read “ Arthur E. Bousu.” For “ O. I. Ver ” read “ O. I. Vehr.” For “ Vuidrin ” read “ Vidzina.” For “ M. J. Klinov ” read “ I. J. Klinov.” For “ 1935, 3, ( ), 5, 6, 7, 9 ” read “ 1934, 3, (3), 5, 6, 7, 9.” For “ G. R. Cooper ” read “ E. R. Cooper.” For “ G. Goldman ” read “ S. Goldman.” After “ Metallic Cementation ” add “ IV.—Metallic Cementa­ tion by means of Tin Powder.” For “ Cold-Spraying with Aluminium ” read “ Cold-Spraying of Aluminium Shells.” For “ U. R. Thomas ” read “ U. B. Thomas.” For “ F ederov” read “ Federova.” For “ G. C. Chandler ” read “ G. C. Chandlee.” For “ this vol., p. 608 ” read “ this vol., p. 628.” For “ M. H u g ” read “ A.-M. Hug.” * From bottom of page.



(G E N E R A L A N D N O N -F E R R O U S )

V o lu m e 2



P art 1

I.— PROPERTIES OF METALS •¡•Service Characteristics of the Light Metals and Their Alloys. (Amer. Soc. Test. M at., 1934, pp. 33).—P repared by Sub-Committee V II of Com­ m ittee B-7 on L ight Metals and Alloys of th e A.S.T.M. in conjunction w ith the American Foundrym en’s Association. The following subjects are dis­ cussed : ( 1) metallurgical characteristics—compositions and forms available, applicability to fabricating processes (including m ethods of casting of cast alloys), types of heat-treatm en t possible, welding; (2) industrial requirem ents of the aircraft, autom otive, general structural, architectural, railw ay equip­ m ent, and household appliance industries; (3) surface protection—painting, oxide coatings, electroplating. In tab u lar form are given : (1) tra d e desig­ nations, (2) nominal compositions, (3) typical mechanical properties of cast and of w rought alloys of alum inium and of magnesium, (4) compositions of ingot aluminium, (5) physical constants of alum inium and magnesium, (6)* physical properties of magnesium alloys, (7) foundry characteristics of aluminium and magnesium casting alloys, and (8) fabricating characteristics of w rought alum inium alloys. A bibliography is included. [A ote by Abstractor : I t is impossible to do more th a n indicate th e contents of this valuable up-to-date sum m ary of knowledge of light alloys in use in A m erica; especially as th e booklet is itself in th e n atu re of an ab stract.]—R . B. D. A Simple Means for Distinguishing the Various Qualities of Aluminium. A. von Zeerleder (A lum inium , 1934, 17, 88-90).—Two tests are made, one a scratch test w ith an Aldrey needle (Brinell hardness 70-80) and th e o th er a chemical test in which a drop of 20% caustic soda solution is allowed to rem ain on the polished surface for 10 minutes. In th e scratch test pure alum inium and its alloys w ith small quantities of other metals, e.g. Aluman and Anticorodal, are marked by the needle, whereas th e harder alloys such as D uralum in are u n ­ affected. The soda te st reveals th e presence of copper in the alloys by th e pro­ duction of a black spot. F or distinguishing^ hard-worked from annealed aluminium, scratch tests m ay be m ade w ith hard and w ith annealed Aldrey needles. Examples of the use of th e tests are shown in photographs.—A. R. P. |0 n the Effect of Increasing the Purity on the Properties and Working of Aluminium. H. Rohrig (A lum inium , 1934, 17, 7 9-84; an d (translation) Light Metals Research, 1934, 3, 233-242).—R ecent w ork on th e properties of 5 grades of alum inium varying in p u rity from 99-39 to 99-995% is reviewed and the results are tabulated. W ith increasing p u rity th e surface of castings becomes sm oother and brighter and th e crystal structure gradually becomes less complex until finally a purely large-grained polygonal structure is obtained when the im purities are less th a n 0 -01% ; th e purest m etal has a Brinell hardness of 13-9 w ith an electrical conductivity of 38-1 m ./ohm . m m .2. The resistance to corrosion by a m ixture of nitric and sulphuric acids decreases rapidly w ith increasing im purities when th e m etal is in the hard-rolled state, b u t there is relatively little difference after annealing a t 500° C. and quenching. A 2% copper alloy made w ith pure alum inium after quenching from 590° C. shows a pure polygonal grain structure, b u t a similar alloy made w ith alum in­ ium containing 0 -2% iron after th e same heat-treatm en t shows numerous * Denotes a paper describing the results of original research, f Denotes a first-class critical review.


Metallurgical Abstracts

V ol. 2

irregularly distributed islets, a te rn a ry iron-copper-alum inium constituent, and the grain boundaries are very irregular.—A. R . P. ♦Study of the Cooling of Metals [Aluminium] by Air. P . V ernotte and E . Blouin (Aérotechnique (Suppt. to Aéronautique), 1934, 12, 25-26).—A brief, illustrated account of m ethods used to stu d y th e h eat exchange betw een a block of alum inium and currents of cold a ir passed a t various air speeds through a passage cu t down th e axis of th e block. Curves showing th e variation of th e coeff. of th erm al exchange w ith air speed are given for holes of circular and trefoil sections.—J . C. C. fThe Thermal Properties of Aluminium and Their Applications. A. de B iran (Light Metals Rev., 1934, 1, (3), 38-49).—T ranslated from Rev. A lu ­ m inium , 1933, 10, 2263-2278; 1934, 11, 2311-2332. See M et. Abs., 1934, 1, 161, 225.—R. B. D. The Light-Reflecting Properties of Aluminium and Its Alloys as Affected by Surface Treatment. Hase (A lum inium , 1934, 17, 20-25).—The regular and diffuse reflections of lig h t a t an angle of incidence of 45° C. from surfaces of alum inium , P an tal, and P olital which have been tre a te d in various ways, e.g. highly polished, lacquered, E loxal-treated, pickled, and scratchbrushed, are shown graphically and briefly discussed.—A. R . P. *The Hall and Allied Effects in Cast Bismuth Plates as Affected by the Rate of Cooling. L. H ow ard Petersen (Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 1933, 43, 185190).—The therm om agnetic and galvano-m agnetic effects in bism uth plates are influenced by th e ra te of solidification (structure) of th e allov. W hen th e mould of liquid bism uth was cooled in a freezing m ixture a t —Î0° C., th e expansion on solidification was rapid enough to eject portions of m etal.—R . G. *The Magnetic Moment of the Nucleus of Cæsium. D. A. Jackson (Proc. Roy. Soc., 1934, [A], 147, 500-513).—The nuclear m agnetic m om ent of cæsium is found, from spectroscopic evidence, to be 2-75/1838 m agneton to w ithin 5% .—J . S. G. T. *The Exact Measurement of the Specific Heats of Metals at High Tempera­ tures. XVII.— Calorimetrical Retardation Phenomena in the Case of Cerium and Chromium. E . M. Jaeger an d E . R osenbohm (Proc. K . Alcad. Wet. Amsterdam, 1934, 37, 489-497).— [In English.] Values of th e m ean specific h e a t of cerium between 290° an d 400° C. an d betw een 450° an d 550° C. are found to depend on th e prelim inary th erm al tre a tm e n t of th e m etal an d its subsequent cooling. I t is possible th a t a real tran sitio n tem p eratu re exists between 360 and 370° C. This conclusion is confirmed by X -ray analysis a t ordinary tem peratures. The phenom enon is associated w ith th e occur­ rence of so-called one-phase transitions s’ as already shown to occur in beryllium an d zirconium. A similar type of tran sitio n is also shown by chrom ium an d revealed by m easurem ent of th e m ean specific h e a t of th e m etal w ithin various tem perature ranges between 400° an d 1066° C. J . T. * The Refining of Metals by Sublimation in a High Vacuum: Chromium Aluminium, Silicon, Beryllium. W. K roll (Metallwirtschaft, 1934,13, 725-731,’ 789). These m etals can be distilled in a high-frequency vacuum furnace. Good separation from im purities can be obtained readily w ith alum inium . Beryllium can readily be distilled free from all im purities o ther th a n alum inium and magnesium, but even so th e p roduct is always b rittle.—v. G. ♦Effect of Cold-Rolling on the Indentation Hardness of Copper. Jo h n G. T ho-Pscm (J. R es. N at. B ur. Stand., 1934, 13, 745-756 ; Research P aver No. 742). specimens of tough-pitch electrolytic copper, commercial oxygen-free copper, and single crystals of copper of different orientations were subjected to severe cold-rolling to determ ine th e effect on th e properties, particu larly on th e hardness. In all cases th e in dentation hardness increased to a m axim um value which was m aintained during subsequent reduction u n til th e hardness determ inations became unreliable owing to th e thinness of th e specimens.


7 .— Properties of Metals


No irregularities were encountered except in the case of very tln n specimens. The results were confirmed by determ inations of tensile strength of some of the specimens «and by the application of Meyer’s analysis to some of the d ata. 1 he effect of severe cold-rolling on th e indentation hardness of copper was not m aterially affected by the initial hardness of th e specimen, th e presence or absence of 0 -4% oxygen, th e change from polycrystallm e to single-crystal specimens, or the orientation of th e single crystals w ith respect to th e plane of cl formation S G ^Preparation of Pure Gallium. Jam es I. Hoffman (J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., 1934 13 665-672 ; Research Paper No. 734).—A method is described tor the preparation of pure gallium. The principal operations consist in (1) preparing a hydrochloric acid solution of th e m etal and extracting th e gallium, molyb­ denum, gold, iron, and thallium , together w ith small am ounts of other elements ; (21 precipitating antim ony, arsenic, bism uth, cadmium, copper, germanium, gold mercury, silver, and tin, and most of th e lead, molybdenum, and rhenium, w ith hydrogen sulphide in an acid solution of th e ether e x tr a c t; (3) p recipitat­ ing iron and thallium w ith sodium hydroxide and filtering ; (4) depositing the gallium electrolytically from th e alkaline filtra te ; and (5) ehm m ating th e re­ maining im purities by fractional crystallization of th e m etal. Indium and lead are th e most persistent im purities, b u t th e last traces can be removed by fractional crystallization. Gallium a t least 99-999% pure, containing only very faint traces of iron, lead, and calcium, and having a melting point of 29-780 ± 0-005° C., was obtained.—S. G. ,, Po *Freezing Point of Gallium. W m. F. Roeser and Jam es I. Hoffman (J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., 1934,13, 673-676 ; Research Paper No. 735).—The tem pera­ ture of equilibrium between solid and liquid gallium was found to be 29-780 ± 0-005° C Four determ inations on 2 different lots of m etal (99-999 ^ Pu^e ) a “ yielded the same result. Difficulties ascribed to th e undercooling and low therm al conductivity of th e gallium prevented a satisfactory determ ination from ordinary heating and cooling curves. The tem perature of equilibrium between the liquid and solid phases of th e m etal was obtained by measuring the tem perature of an intim ate m ixture of th e solid and th e liquid. I t was found th a t the presence of th e oxide did not affect th e freezing tem perature, indicating th a t the oxide is no t appreciably soluble in th e m etal.—-b. G. *The Anodic Passivation of Gold. W illiam Jam es S h u tt and A rth u r W alton (Trans. Faraday Soc., 1934, 30, 914-926).—From oscillograms of potential variations a t an anodically polarized gold electrode th e m axim um limiting current density (c0) for th e anodic dissolution of gold and th e tim e of p as­ sivation (T ) have been measured in chloride, brom ide, and sulphate solutions a t 25° C. and in A-hydrochloric acid a t 15°-65° C. The coulombs required to passivate the electrode are given by th e expression (c — c0)T = A , where c is th e applied current density. In halide solutions c0 and A are approxi­ m ately proportional to th e halogen ion concentration, b u t in sulphate solutions, if the concentration of th e electrolyte is k ept constant by vigorous agitation, K corresponds approxim ately w ith th e am ount of electricity required to produce a unimolecular oxide film on th e gold surface. A theoretical con­ sideration of the results leads to th e conclusion th a t anodic passivation takes place finally by the form ation of a film of gold peroxide continuous w ith th e lattice structure of the m etal.—A. R . P. *The Anodic Passivation of Gold in Chloride Solutions. G. Armstrong a n a J . A. V. B utler (Trans. Faraday Soc., 1934, 30, 1173-1177).—In unstirred chloride solutions th e tim es of passivation of gold electrodes are approxi­ m ately proportional to th e concentration of chloride ion and are alm ost unaffected by replacing hydrochloric acid w ith potassium chloride. F o r tim es above 10 seconds (c — c0)T = K (cf. preceding a b stra ct); K is regarded as th e am ount of electrolysis required to produce a diffusion layer through


Metallurgical A bstracts

V ol. 2

which the diffusion of chloride ions to th e electrode takes place a t th e co n stan t ra te c0. The thickness of th e diffusion layer (8) in u nstirred and stirred solu­ tions is 1-5 — 4 x 10 2 cm. a n d 4 x 1O' 4 cm., respectively. W hen o th er factors rem ain constant K is proportional, an d c0 inversely proportional, to 8.—A. R . P. *The Optical Constants of Polished and Sputtered Molybdenum Surfaces. R . D. Summers (./. Opt. Soc. Amer., 1934, 24, 261-263).— The com puted reflectivity of sputtered molybdenum varied w ith th e conditions of p rep ara­ tion and was considerably less th a n for th e massive m etal. The results on the massive m etal were n o t appreciably affected by polishing u n d er kero­ sene or while exposed to air.—R . G. *The Magnetic Transformation Point of Heavily Cold-Worked Nickel. H. Quinney (J. Inst. Metals, 1934, 55, 229-240 ; discussion, 240-245).—The Curie point of a rath er low-grade sample of commercial nickel was found to be 330° C., i.e. much lower th an th e accepted value for pure nickel. A fter severe torsional overstrain the Curie point on heating was raised to 365° C. b u t retu rn ed to th e original value on cooling. The raising of th e p oint was observed to be less on subsequent heatings, and entirely disappeared after a full anneal. In the discussion C. J . Smithells referred to th e results obtained by R ansley and him ­ self on 99-9% nickel (J. Inst. Metals, 1932, 49, 287) an d suggested th a t the effects observed by Q. were probably caused by im purities w hich w ould increase th e lattice distortion. O ther speakers endorsed th is suggestion. In reply, Q. stated th a t the nickel contained carbon 0-062, silicon 0-027, copper 0-08, iron 0-18, magnesium 0 08, manganese 0-30, sulphur 0-012, and nickel 99-016% ; he agreed th a t the effects of these im purities would probably account for m any of the observed results.—A. R . P. *The Exact Measurement of the Specific Heats of Solid Metals at High Temperatures. XV.— A Redetermination of the Specific Heats of Palladium. F. M. Jaeg er an d W. A. V eenstra (Proc. K . Alcad. Wet. Amsterdam, 193lj 37, 280-283).— [In English.] A redeterm ination of th e specific h eats of palladium showed th a t th e m axim a previously found in th e c — t an d C — t curves were due to experim ental error. The cp — t curve proves to be nearly a straig h t fine, although a slight increase in th e slope above 1125° C. is evident. No indication of a n allotropic change is observed. The specific h e a t cp is given b y : cp = 0-058378 + 0-120548 x 1 0 ^ + 0-258 x and th e atom ic h e a t by Cp = 6-2288 + 0-12862 x 10 H + 0-27528 X lO“7«2. The value 3 R cal. is exceeded for Cp a t — 150° C. a n d for Cv a t — 120° C. S. G. *The Action of an External Electrical Field on Hydrogen-Charged Metals [Palladium]. T. F ranzini (A tti R . Accad. Lincei (Roma), 1934, 19, 584588; C. Abs., 1934, 28, 7098).—A palladium wire, electrolytically charo-ed w ith hydrogen in a sodium hydroxide solution, was exposed to th e fielcf of a proton rectifying transform er a t 25 kv. The resistance of th e wire was m easured w ith a W heatstone bridge. A positive poten tial of 15,000 v. under a vacuum (10 4 mm.) caused a very sm all loss of hydrogen, and a flow of current of less th a n 0-1 milliamp. A negative potential of th e same m ag­ nitude, however, discharged ab o u t | of th e adsorbed gas in 15 m inutes a n d gave a current of 10-12 milliam p., because th e protons were to rn aw ay from th e palladium wire, and w ithdraw n by th e high vacuum . S. G. *The Catalysis by Palladium of the Union of Hydrogen and Oxygen. A New Phenomenon of Contact Catalysis. D. L. C hapm an an d G. G reeorv IPm r Roy. Soc., 1934, [A], 147, 68-75).—The m echanism of th e catalysis of th e union of hydrogen an d oxygen by palladium is m ainly one of altern ate oxidation of m etal an d reduction of th e oxide. A dsorbed hydrogen does n o t react appreciably w ith oxygen a t room tem perature. B y suitable tre a t m ent palladium can be rendered tem porarily in e rt as a c a ta ly st of th e reaction betw een hydrogen and oxygen This tem porary inertness is a ttrib u ta b le to a com pact layer of adsorbed hydrogen.—J . S. G. T.


I .— Properties of Metals

*The Exact Measurement of the Specific Heats of Solid Substances at Higher Temperatures. XVI.—The Specific Heats of Metallic Thorium and of Thorium Dioxide Between 20° and 1400° C. F . M. Jaeger and W. A. V eenstra (Proc. K . ATcad. Wet. Amsterdam, 1934, 37, 327-332).— [In English.] The mean specific heat of thorium has been measured between room tem perature and 1200° C. The atomic h eat increases continuously from 8-235 a t 300° C. to 11-785 a t 1200° C —S. G. ♦Resistivity of Zinc Crystals. W . J. Poppy (Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., 1932, 39, 217; C. Abs., 1934, 28, 6602).—In an a ttem p t to settle th e discrepancy betw-een the resistivity m easurem ents of Bridgm an on th e one hand and of Tyndall and Hoyem (J. Inst. Metals, 1931, 47, 645) on th e other, single zinc crystals of 1 cm .2 cross-section and 10 cm. long were grown and measured. The results agree w ith those of Tyndall and Hoyem. Present indications are th a t certain anomalous crystals (i.e. n o t tru ly single) have abnorm ally low resistivities and show great sensitivity to slight strain.—S. G. ♦Influence of a Grain Boundary on the Deformation of a Single Crystal of Zinc. R ichard F . Miller (Metals Technology, 1934, (Oct.), A .I.M .M .E . Tech. Publ. No. 576, 1- 9).—From tensile experim ents a t 180° C. on single-crystal rods of zinc term inated by a transverse grain boundary adjoining^ poly­ crystalline m etal it is shown th a t th e influence of th e grain boundary is con­ fined to glide planes which it directly intersects and. is composed of two distinct parts. In the first p a rt, th e glide layers are held motionless and the maximum extent of this influence is th e distance p , such th a t d = p /[ta n l(a + a')] + j)/[ta n (90° — a)], where d is th e original diam eter of th e rod, a is the original angle of th e basal planes to th e axis of th e rod, and a ' is their final angle thereto. In th e second p art, th e glide layers have passed through a flexure and slid over one another to a small extent b u t n o t sufficient to form a uniform b an d ; th e maxim um ex ten t of th e influence of th e grain boundary is q, where q = d cos a ' . cos (a — a')/sin a. Hence th e grainboundary influence varies regularly w ith th e size of th e boundary, th e am ount of deformation, and the ductility of th e crystal.—A. R . P. ♦Influence of Chemically- and Mechanically-Formed Notches on Fatigue of Metals. Dunlap J . McAdam, Jr., and R obert W. Clyne (J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., 1934,13, 527-572 ; Research Paper No. 725).—An introductory section discusses the im portance of stress concentration due to notches, as a cause of failure in service. Resistance of a notched specimen to fatigue and to im pact m ay depend on entirely different properties. The influence of notches on fatigue is considered in th e present paper. In section I I th e effect of chemicallyformed notches is considered, atten tio n being confined to th e influence of p itt­ ing caused by stressless corrosion. Relationship between tensile strength and the % decrease in the fatigue lim it of steels and alum inium alloys is illustrated by composite curves, each of which is presumed to represent th is relationship for a notch of fairly constant effective sharpness. The 3-dimensional relation­ ship between corrosion tim e, % damage, and th e tensile strength is illustrated and discussed. The general object of section I I I is to determ ine w hether com­ posite curves of sim ilar form m ay be obtained by a study of experim ental d a ta obtained by a num ber of investigators w ith mechanically-formed notches. The fact th a t such graphs have been obtained, each representing th e influence of one form of notch on one k in d of m etal, confirms th e conclusion th a t a stressless corrosion graph of this type represents th e influence of a notch of fairly con­ stan t effective sharpness/ Reasons are discussed for th e deviation of individual results from the ideal composite curve for a mechanically formed notch. In section IV is considered th e relationship between notch sensitivity (as measured by % damage) and other properties of metals. The properties considered are : hysteresis, ductility, and w ork-hardening capacity. Evidence is presented th a t scatter of individual results in a composite graph of th e type used is due


Metallurgical Abstracts

Vol. 2

largely to differences in tensile w ork-hardening capacity. Evidence is also presented th a t notch sensitivity, while depending som ewhat on elastic hysteresis, depends largely on w ork-hardening capacity. The influence of notches in dim inishing th e advantage of superior stren g th is d ealt w ith in section V. A bibliography of 33 selected references is appended.— S. G. *Elasticity. A rth u r Cecil V ivian (Inst. Civil Eng. Selected Eng. Papers, 1934, (150), 1-32).—An extension of H ooke’s law to enable more ex act use to be m ade of m aterials for constructional purposes is proposed. E lasticity is taken to be th a t property which determ ines th a t a m aterial will completely or partially resume its original shape when th e applied force is rem oved, and H ooke’s law is w ritte n :

stress = { ( J - + l )

— l | • / , where S


elastic strain, S m ultim ate elastic tensile strain , J a form facto r denoting elastic character, and f u ltim ate tensile stress. W hen J = 2, th is reduces to H ooke’s law. Exam ples of the application of th e m ethod are given.—J . C. *Elastic Failure of Thick Cylinders. H arris B ooth (Inst. Civil Eng. Selected Eng. Papers, 1934, (138), 1—40).—The conditionsof failure are exam ined for thick cylinders subjected to in ternal pressure, to rad ial tem perature gradient, and (for cylinders closed a t one end) to b o th in tern al an d external pressures. I t is shown th a t no stresses are induced in a th ick cylinder subjected to a uniform longitudinal tem perature gradient.—J . C. C. *On Hardening Phenomena in Pressed Metal Bodies. W . Trzebiatow ski (Z. physikal. Chem., 1934, [B], 24, 75-86).—Bodies m ade by pressing very finelydivided gold and copper powders a t pressures up to 30,000 atm . show consider­ able hardening effects, characterized by a broadening of th e interference lines in th e rontgenogram and a high degree of dispersion ; no tru e te x tu re is, how­ ever, produced. The hardness values obtained are m uch higher th a n those observed on either m etal after severe working ; th is is a ttrib u te d to th e very fine crystal structure of th e pressed bodies. The fall in hardness w hich occurs on annealing is produced by recovery and recrystallization phenom ena.—K. S. ♦On the Problem of the Electrical Conductivity of Synthetic Metal Bodies. W . Trzebiatow ski (Z. physikal. Chem., 1934, [B], 24, 87-97).— Compared w ith massive m etals, pressed bodies made from m etal powders show peculiar anomalies in th e electrical conductivity. F or pressed bodies of gold and copper th e tem perature coeff. of resistance is positive up to 100° C., negative between 100° and 300° C., and positive again a t higher tem peratures ; this behaviour is a ttrib u ted to gas films and to recrystallization phenomena, which have been confirmed by dilatom etric m easurem ents.— K . S. ♦Researches on the Thermal Conductivity of Metals (Wire or Tape) at High Temperatures. M. Conard (Aérotechnique (Suppt. to Aéronautique), 1934, 12, 26-27).—A m ethod is briefly described an d illu strated in which th e wire is m ounted in an evacuated tu b e between 2 tap es so th a t it can be heated by a current passed either through it or th rough th e supporting tap es alone. — J . C. C. A Classical Model of a Ferromagnetic Material and Its Subsequent Quantiza­ tion in the Region of Low Temperatures. G. H eller an d H . A. K ram ers (Proc. K . Akad. Wet. Amsterdam, 1934, 37, 378-385).— [In G erman.] The classical model of a ferrom agnetic m aterial is defined ; only when conceived in term s of a space lattice does th e model indicate th e occurrence of ferro­ m agnetic saturation. Q uantization of th e model produces th e formulae of Bloch an d Muller exactly.—J . S. G. T. ♦Drift of Magnetic Permeability at Low Inductions after Magnetization Raym ond L. Sanford (J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., 1934, 13, 371-376; Research Paper No. 714).—The magnetic perm eability of ferrom agnetic m aterials a t low values of induction depends on th e tim e which elapses between dem agnetization an d testing. The change m ay be of th e order of 10 or 12%. I n order to


I I . — Properties of Alloys


obtain consistent and reproducible results in testing a t low inductions, a period of from 18 to 24 brs. should elapse after dem agnetization before th e test is ______________ made.—S. G . I I — PROPERTIES o f a l l o y s *fnrrelation of Equilibrium Conditions in Binary Aluminium Alloys. W. L. Fink and H. R. Freche (Metals Technology, 1934, (Oct.), A .I.M .M .E . Tech. Publ No. 580 1-14).—The results obtained previously for th e equilibria a t the alum inium end of binary systems of th a t m etal w ith other m etals of hig purity have been analyzed m athem atically, and th e solid solubility and hvnereutectic liquidus curves are shown to be in agreement w ith those deduced K m the therm odynam ic equation log, s ' = - L I R T + C. where x ‘A s th e mol. fraction of alloying elem ent, L th e molal h eat of solution, R th e g constant, T th e absolute tem perature, and C th e integration constant. The systems w ith magnesium and w ith magnesium silicide, however, do not obev this rule. A straight line is obtained by joimng th e points obtained bv plotting th e logarithm of th e eutectic lowering against th e logarithm ot the atom ic-% of solute in solution a t th e eutectic tem perature, th e point for manganese being the only one no t near this line. The reciprocal of the slope of th e solubility line for all binary systems is a linear function of the logarithm of the concentration of th e solute, and therefore th e slope of the solid solubility curve for any binary alum inium system can be determined from any point on it by means of th e expression . 1_ T log x ' _________ T ________ —A. R. P. S ~ 0-0003T — 1 + 0-417 — 0-000125T ♦Effect of Quenching Strains on Lattice Parameter and Hardness Values of High-Purity Aluminium-Copper Alloys A rth u r Phillips and R M Brick (Metals Technology, 1934, (Sept.), A .I.M .M .E . Tech. Publ. No. 563 1-19) Copper-alum inium alloys made from very pure m etals m ay show an abnorm ­ ally large lattice param eter when quenched from th e solid solution range due to strain resulting from quenching stresses. The param eter is greate the more severe the quench, th e greater th e diam eter of th e specimen up to 0-5 in., and th e higher th e copper content of th e solid solution, lh e m axi­ mum a«e-hardening capacity a t 20° C. is shown by drastically quenched alloys w ith 5-4% copper; during ageing there is first a slight decrease m the lattice param eter, b u t th e constant value ultim ately obtained is sufficiently high to indicate th a t partial precipitation is th e cause of th e observed hard ing The initial decrease in param eter is attrib u te d to gradual relief of stres . W hen the quenching is only ju st sufficient to retain th e m etastable solid solution w ithout producing severe quenching strains th e alloys do n o t exhibit any hardening after 30 days a t 20° C., which suggests th a t th e presence of these strains is essential for hardening to occur a t room t e m p e r a t u r e P r e ­ cipitation of CuAl2 a t 275°-325° C. is more rapid th e greater th e quenching strain and th e greater th e degree of su persaturation; when th e a llo y sa re acrain quenched after precipitation is complete th e param eter of th e residual solution is greater th a n th a t of pure alum inium , b u t when th ey are air-cooled or quenched in boiling w ater a norm al reaction curve is obtained. R eheating a t th e precipitation tem perature followed by a drastic quench again p ro ­ duces a distended lattice, which cannot, therefore, be due to strain induced by th e precipitation process. M aximum hardness after ageing a t 275 300° C. is obtained when precipitation is practically complete. A. K. . ♦Ternary Diagram of the Aluminium-Copper-Silicon System. K anji M atsu­ yam a (Kinzoku no K enkyu, 1934, 11, (10), 4 6 1 -4 9 0 ).-[In Japanese.] The diagram s of th e binary system s alum im um -copper, copper-silicon, and


Metallurgical Abstracts

V o l.


alum inium-silicon have been carefully redeterm ined by means of therm al analysis, electrical resistance determ inations, and microscopic exam ination. The alum inium -copper-silicon system was th en investigated from m elt to room tem perature, and th e tern ary diagram of th e whole system was con­ structed.'—S. G. *The Influence of Pickling on the Fatigue-Strength of Duralumin. H . Sutton and W. J . Taylor (J. Inst. Metals, 1934, 55, 149-158; discussion, 158-164).— The effect on the fatigue lim it of D uralum in in W ohler-type fatigue tests of th e following pickling treatm ents has been determ ined : (A) 2 | m inutes in 10% caustic soda solution a t 60°-70° C., rinse, 1 m inute in 10% nitric acid containing 10% of sulphuric acid ; ( II) 2 m inutes in a solution containing 10% each of nitric and hydrofluoric acids ; (C) 3 m inutes in a 4 : 1 m ixture of 10% sulphuric and hydrofluoric acids, rinse, 1 m inute in 50% nitric acid. The percentage decreases in th e fatigue lim its observed were (A) 31%, (B) 15%, (C) 6% ; im ­ mersion in boiling w ater after th e pickling tre a tm e n t reduced these decreases t° (A ) 10% and (G) 3-8%. T reatm ent (A) produces a rough serrated surface, and treatm en t (C) reveals th e m acrostructure of th e alloy and is, therefore, suitable for the exam ination of the alloy for defects in m anufacture. Removal of the pickled surface layer by m achining completely elim inates th e effects of pickling on th e fatigue iim it, indicating, as suggested by 1). Hanson and by 1. 6r. Slater in the discussion, th a t pickling produces a weakening of th e surface layer either by gas adsorption or by setting up internal stresses, or th a t intercrystallm e penetration of th e pickle occurs and induces corrosion-fatigue (suggested by E. Seligman). E . Wood sta ted th a t for commercial work a m ixture of sodium fluoride and sulphuric acid was preferable to hydrofluoric acid for pickling light alloys.—A. R . P. ♦Studies on the Decomposition of Supersaturated [Solid Solutions] in Light Metal Alloys. E . Schmid and G. Siebel (Metallwirtschaft, 1934, 13, 765-768). — Ih e decomposition of quenched alloys of magnesium w ith zinc and alum i­ nium a t 218° C., and of alum inium w ith magnesium a t 218° and 155° C. has been followed by X -rays. The precipitation takes place th e more rapidly the greater the degree of supersaturation of th e solid solution and more slowly w ith single crystals th a n w ith polycrystalline aggregates. In zinc-magnesium alloys and in single crystals of alum inium alloys th e composition of th e solid solution decreases steadily from th e beginning to th e end of th e reaction. In polycrystalline alum inium -m agnesium and m agnésium -alum inium alloys th e initial and final concentrations are close together. The changes in th e mechani­ cal properties follow closely th e progress of precipitation.—v. G. Electrometallurgical Research and Its Relation to the Grand Coulee Power Development (Some Facts on the Ultra-Light Structural Alloys of Magnesium and Alummium). A. E. D rucker (State Coll. Washington, Met. lies B ur Information Circ. No. 8, 1934, 6 pp.).— S. G. SUumin-Gamma J D ornauf (A lu m in iu m , 1934, 17, 26-31).—See also Met. Abs., 1934,1,414. Silum m -y is th e eutectic silicon-alum inium alloy con­ taining sm all additions of magnesium and manganese and modified by th e usual sodium treatm en t ju st prior to pouring. A fter quenching from ju st below the solidus the alloy can be hardened by an ageing treatm en t. Sand-castings have n m n9(n CSV 8? " 100; a yield-point of 18-25 kg./mm.*, a tensile strength l if kg-/mm and an elongation of 4r-0-5% ; th e corresponding values for chin-castm gsare 85-110 20-28, 26-32, and 1-5-0-5, and for die-caftings 110130, , 30 37, and 1-1-5. The alloy finds extensive use in the m anufacture of housings for aero- and autom obile engines and sim ilar intricate castings where lightness, strength, and a high yield-point are desirable.—A R P -^fjl echani cal Properties of Copper-Rich Alloys Due to the GrainRefinement by the^entectic Reaction. Ju -n Asato (Kinzoku no K en h m , ’ U > (8). 3 6 5 - 3 7 6 ) H > Japanese.] The mechanical properties such as


I I . — Properties of Alloys


Brinell hardness, tensile strength, elongation, yield-point, and lim it of proportionality of some copper-rich alloys were determ ined to show how these properties are modified by grain-refinement caused by peritectic reaction^. ♦Crystal Densities of Industrial Brasses from X-Ray Data. E . A. Owen and Llewelyn Pickup (.7. Inst. Metals, 1934, 55, 215-222; discussion, 223-228).— The density of homogeneous alloys of copper and zinc in th e a, a + 0 , and 0 regions have been calculated from the lattice param eter as measured by X-rays, and the results obtained are shown to be superior to those obtained by weighing in air and w ater, since th ey are unaffected by porosity, cold-work, and grainsize, as well as by heat-treatm ent in th e case of pure a- or pure 0-alloys. i he density of a-alloys is not a linear function of th e composition, b u t th a t ot 0- and th a t of (a + 0)-alloys can be tak en as linear to a high degree of accuracy; a t the phase boundaries, however, discontinuities in this relation occur, th e values obtained are tabulated and th e effect of quenching tem perature on the density of duplex alloys is shown graphically.—A. R. P. *Gold-Chromium Resistance Alloys. Jam es L. Thomas (J. Res. N at. isvr. Stand., 1934, 13, 681-688; Research Paper No. 737).—The addition of from 1-6 to 2-4% or more of chromium to gold produces alloys having very small tem perature coeff. of electrical resistance. In particular, 2-1% chromium in gold gives an alloy whose resistance has been m ade independent of tem perature, to a few parts in 10 million, over a t least th e interval 20°-30° C. These alloys are also exceptionally stable in resistance. They have, however, a therm o­ electric power against copper which is 3 or 4 tim es as large as th a t of Mangamn. The preparation and heat-treatm ent of some of these alloys are described.^ ♦Age-Hardening of Lead Alloys. H. H ariba (Sumitomo-Densen Iho, 1934, 1, (2), 49-57; C. Abs., 1934, 28, 7229).—Lead-calcium alloys containing 0 -02% calcium undergo age-hardening; th e maxim um hardening effect is a t 0-1% calcium. The rate of change in hardness and in electrical resistance of lead containing calcium on ageing varies according to the calcium co n te n t; the volume of lead containing calcium contracts a little on age-hardening. In lead containing antim ony expansion is shown.—S. G. Bearing Metals in Use on the Railways of the U.S.A. [Satco Metal]. lAr,J W itte (Organ Fortschr. Eisenbahnwesens, 1934, 89, 400-402).— See Met. Abs., 1934, 1, 416.—P. M. C. R. T ♦Solubility of Carbon in Iron-Manganese-Silicon Alloys. C. H. lie rty , jr ., and M. B. R oyer (U .S. Bur. M ines, Rept. Invest. No. 3230, 1934, 22 pp.).— Ih e solubility of carbon in iron-m anganese alloys up to 75% manganese, in iro n silicon alloys up to 50% silicon, and in iron-m anganesc-silicon alloys w ith a 4—10 : 1 manganese-silieon ratio has been determ ined a t 1300 -1700 L., an a the results are shown in tables and graphs. Manganese, having a carbidestabilizing action, increases th e solubility of carbon, whereas silicon, having a graphitizing action, has the opposite effect, only 0 -1% carbon being retained in solution in th e 50 : 50 silicon-iron alloy. A 3-page table is given showing th e carbon solubility a t 1300°, 1500°, and 1700° C. in alloys contaim ng 0-80 /0 manganese and 0-20% silicon in 5% steps. The bearing of th e results on th e composition and use of these alloys as steel deoxidizers is discussed. A. R. P. ♦On Anomalous Properties of New Magnetic Materials [Copper-NickelIron Alloys]. M artin K ersten (W iss. Veroff. Siem ens-Konzem, 1934, 13, (3), 1- 9 ).—The m agnetic properties of 45 : 55 nickel-iron alloys w ith additions ol 0 , 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% copper have been determ ined after annealing, in th e form of 3 mm. wires, a t 900° C. for 2 hrs., slowly cooling, and rolling to strips 0-08 mm. th ick w ithout fu rth er annealing. W ithout addition of copper th e alloys give a norm al m agnetization curve and a rem anence of about 50% of th e s a tu ra ­ tion m agnetization, whereas th e 9% copper alloy gives a linear m agnetization


Metallurgical Abstracts

V ol. 2

curve and a rem anence of only 6% , which, however, is increased alm ost to 100% if the alloy is subjected to a tensile stress of about 60 k g./m m .2 in th e direction of the magnetizing field. Analysis of th e magnetic stresses in these alloys indicates th a t the stress rises sharply w ith increasing copper c o n te n t; anneal­ ing tests indicate th a t this increase in stress is due to precipitations sim ilar to those which occur in precipitation-hardening. Very high rem anence values approaching closely to th e saturation m agnetization can he obtained in the 12 and 15% copper alloys by annealing th e hard-rolled strip a t 600° C. A. P. *Torsional Moduli Variations of Spring Materials with Temperature [Konell Joseph W. Ludewig (Trans. Amer. Soc. Metals, 1934, 22, 833-860).—The behaviour of springs a t elevated tem peratures involves knowledge of th e values of the modulus of rigidity and proportional lim its of m aterials a t such tem peratures. A sum m ary of previous work on th e variation of th e modulus of rigidity w ith tem perature, and on th e behaviour of springs a t elevated tem peratures is given. The torsional moduli of a num ber of m aterials are plotted against tem perature, and in accordance w ith th e procedure outlined in the paper the following results were o b ta in e d : (1) M aterials m aintaining highest absolute value of th e modulus of rig id ity up to 450° P. (232° C ) are high-speed steel, stainless (cutlery) steel, and Konel. (2) M aterial m aintain­ ing highest absolute value of th e modulus of rigidity up to 985° P . (529° C.) is high-speed steel. (3) M aterial showing lowest absolute value of th e modulus ot rig id ity a t all tem peratures is carbon spring steel. (4) The rem aining m aterial tested was Silcrome steel. A discussion of th e factors found in sp rin t formulae and behaviour under tem perature variations is included. S. G. Applications of Silicon. J . W. Donaldson (Metallurgia, i •+ 1- J ' • uses siliphh as a n alloying m etal are considered an a its applications in steels, cast irons, corrosion-resisting alloys, and nonferrous alloys are discussed. The non-ferrous alloys referred to are th e silicon-alum im um alloys of th e D uralum in, R .R . alloys, A lpax (Silumin) W L hyPoeutf otlc alum inium -silicon alloy ty p e s ; th e copper-silicon alloys’ both silicon-bronzes and silicon-brasses, and nickel-silicon alloys. J . W . D. Recent Development in Main and Connecting-Rod Bearings. Stanwood w ! ¡sparrow (Soc. Automotive Eng. Preprint, 1934, Ju n e, 7 p p .; and (summary) Autom otive In a . 1 9 3 4 , 70 7 7 2 -7 7 3 ).-E v id en ce is given which indicates a t hexing and faulty bonding are n o t th e prim ary causes of cracking in m am and connecting-rod bearings of autom obile engines, b u t th a t cracking is produced by a tangential force between th e journal an d th e bearing a t spots where the oil-film is inadequate to prevent m etal to m etal contact. A minimum thickness of 0 03 in. of B ab b itt m etal is recommended, and undercu mg has been found to extend th e life of th e bearing since it prevents the cracks from spreading and perm itting the B ab b itt m etal to escape. C opperlead bearings (lead 45, nickel 2, copper 53% ) crush as readily as B ab b itt metals, and m etal to m etal contact produces a lead film which has sufficient lubricating prevent seizing; failure of copper-lead bearings occurs by disinte­ gration of parts where it is difficult to m aintain an oil-film or when an unsuitable discussed

A R p Catl° n ° f bearings and th e effects of “ d i r t ” are briefly

i The Improvement of White Bearing Metals for Severe Service : Some General Considerations. D. J . M acnaughtan (J. In st. Metals, 1934, 55, 33-47).— developm ent in the internal combustion engine is imposing increasingly severe conditions on bearings. Consideration is given to th e theoretical functions of an ideal w hite m etal, and th e m anner in which th e stresses produced in service tend to cause failure by cracking. Since th e norm al action of th e stresses is compressive special atten tio n is given to th e tension stresses which are shown to lower the fatigue range of th e m etal an d to open up incipient cracks. Based on this analysis the mechanism of crack form ation is discussed. The following


I I . — Properties of Alloys


directions in which im provem ent in service behaviour may be secured are considered : (1) diminishing th e intensity of the stresses in th e m etal by modi­ fications in (a) certain features in design; (b) th e m aterial used for the lin e r; (2 ) increasing the fatigue-resisting properties of th e white bearing metal, in respect to which results obtained in prelim inary investigations of th e fatigue properties of high tin-antim ony-copper alloys w ith and w ithout addition of a further elem ent are given.—D. J . M. *The Behaviour of White Bearing Metals when Subjected to Various Deforma­ tion Tests. Introduction. -------(J. Inst. Metals, 1934, 55, 49-50).—The scope of the investigation and compositions of th e m aterials used are given. The results of the research are described in 3 parts ; for abstracts see below.-—S. G. *The Behaviour of White Bearing Metals when Subjected to Various Deforma­ tion Tests. Part I.—Indentation Tests. A. S. Kenneford and H ugh O’Neill (J. Inst. Metals, 1934, 55, 51-69).—The effect of viscous flow, ageing, and pro­ longed heating on th e resistance to indentation of tin- and lead-base bearing metals has been investigated. Flow tests w ith a 120° steel cone a t 19° and 96° C. show th a t B abbitt m etal containing 1% cadmium or 2% nickel, or a lead-alkali bearing m etal, give b etter indentation results th a n a plain B ab b itt alloy. The hardness of th e different metallographic constituents of bearing metals and th eir softening on heating to 100° C. were measured by scratch and micro-indentation tests. The m atrices lose 40-45% , and th e cuboids 20% of th eir hardness, b u t th e cuboids in a B ab b itt rem ain somewhat harder th a n those in a lead-base alloy. Two new simple tests are suggested. In th e first a lubricated 60° conical casting of th e alloy is flattened under 100 kg. load for 30 seconds, and the Mallock hardness num ber determined. By increasing the duration of loading a flow index m ay be measured on lines similar to “ H ar­ greaves’ analysis.” Then, by compressing u n til cracks appear on th e extruded edge, th e ductility of th e specimen and its cracking stress m ay be measured. A t room tem peratures th e lead-base alloys show relatively low ductility, and this agrees w ith th eir low work-hardening capacity as determ ined by specially conducted ball tests and repeated im pact tests w ith th e scleroscope. The second m ethod employs an in strum ent sim ilar to th e H erbert pendulum , and measures the damping effect. I t m ay no t only be used to give rapid indications of hardness a t different tem peratures, b u t is also sensitive to th e effect of dif­ ferent lubricants.—A. S. K . *An X-Ray Examination of the Phases in Babbitt Metal, and of the AgeHardening of Cast Lead-Alkali Alloy. G. S. F am h am (J. Inst. Metals, 1934, 55, 69-70).—Appendix to a paper by K enneford and O’Neill (see preceding abstract). An alloy of th e composition SnSb after annealing for 1 week has a structure of th e NaCl type w ith a = 4-099 A. The presence of this compound in B abb itt m etal has been confirmed by X -ray tests. The needle constituent of B abb itt m etal has been isolated by liquation and its composition proved to be CuSn or th e -/¡-phase of th e copper-tin system . X -ray exam ination of a sodium -calcium -lead bearing alloy in th e newly cast and in th e aged condition shows th a t the cast alloy consists of two phases, one of which changes w ith age­ ing w hilst the other does n o t; th e la tte r is face-centred cubic w ith a = 4-889 A., an d is probably CaPb3. The former is a supersaturated solution of sodium in lead which deposits a sodium-rich phase (possibly N a2P b 8) on ageing.—A. R . P. *The Behaviour of White Bearing Metals when Subjected to Various Deforma­ tion Tests. Part II.—Tensile Tests. R . A rrow sm ith (J . Inst. Metals, 1934, 55, 71-76).—The tensile properties of w hite m etal specimens, prepared by gravity die-casting and w ithout any machining, have been determ ined a t room tem p era­ ture on a Hounsfield “ Tensom eter.” Various casting conditions were examined for each alloy. B ab b itt m etal w ith additions of cadm ium gave th e highest values of lim it of proportionality and u ltim ate stress. The greatest d u ctility was obtained from an alloy containing 89% of tin .—R. A.


Metallurgical Abstracts

V ol. 2

Ï Behaviour of W hite Bearing Metals when Subjected to Various Deforma„ P art HI-—Pounding Tests. H . Greenwood (,J . Inst. Metals, 1934, oo, i /-» / A modified form of th e Stanton im pact tester suitable for th e te s t­ ing oi white m etals by pounding a t different tem peratures is described. R e­ sults on cylindrical specimens are given, and th e u nsuitability of th is type of test-piece is shown. The use of bearing-shaped specimens w ith a cylindrical indenter is described. R esults are recorded for 8 different w hite-m etal bearing a cast under various conditions, an d tested a t 18°, , an o O. A B ab b itt m etal w ith an addition of cadmium gave th e greatest resistance to pounding.—H . G. „ Jom t Discussion [on the Im provement of W hite Bearing Metals for Severe • j 1C?1‘ , (•/. Inst- Metals, 1934, 55,88-113). See 6 preceding ab stracts.— A . J . M urphy and J . Cartland expressed th e opinion th a t failure of bearings was irequently due to stresses set up by th e different contraction of th e lining and ell on cooling and not prim arily to the form ation of a b rittle tin -iro n compound ^ C-]U^ 0n . m two m etals‘ K Chadwick stated th a t, when a bearing is rm rW 1? ’ u ? ls ln a cold-worked condition in which th e ra te of creep weÎe viven ' v" 1 Wh°n th e m etal WaS Cast ’ fiSUres and curves r n thlS hehavl0ur- He had found th a t addition of cadmium ? prevents cracking during cold-rolling by suppressing th e the S u r e Of b ^ ° j T • crackinS commenced. H . Sutton considered th a t addition of t r i dUo t0 fatigue-cracking and stated th a t resneef all° ys imPr°ves th e ir behaviour in this cadmium W l, n'S Sai

Suggest Documents