External Male Reproductive Organs

External Male Reproductive Organs  Scrotum  Loose sac of skin that extends outside the body  Contains the testes  Ensures testes are kept at 98.6...
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External Male Reproductive Organs  Scrotum  Loose sac of skin that extends outside the body  Contains the testes  Ensures testes are kept at 98.6˚F  Testes  Male sex glands that produce sperm and manufacture testosterone  Epididymis is located on the back side of each testis and allows for maturation of sperm  Penis  Tube-like organ that functions in both sexual reproduction and elimination of urine

 Sponge-like tissue of the penis fill with blood, causing

it to become erect  When erect, semen can be ejaculated  300 to 500 million sperm per ejaculation

 Circumcision of the foreskin is performed for religious

and cultural reasons  Some doctors believed it was necessary to limit infection, but not necessary anymore

Internal Male Reproductive Organs  Vas deferens  Connects each epididymis with the urethra  Main carrier of sperm  Sperm can remain here for several months  Semen is formed through this 16-18” long tube  Urethra  6-8” duct that extends from urinary bladder, through prostate and to the tip of the penis  Carries urine and semen out of the body

 Seminal Vesicles  Contribute the most secretions to the semen (around 60%)  Located on either side of the prostate  Allow sperm to be mobile and nourished  Prostate Glands  Just below the bladder  Helps neutralize acids found in urethra and vagina  Cowper’s Glands  Below prostate gland  Secretes a clear mucus that helps carry and protect sperm

Concerns of Male Reproductive System  Nocturnal Emissions  Buildup of semen pressure  Ejaculations while sleeping  Perfectly normal  Hernia  Internal organ pushes through the wall of muscle  Inguinal hernia 

Strained abdominal muscles that allow part of the intestine to push through the ab wall into the scrotum

 Sterility and STDs  Inability to produce offspring  Overheating, exposure to certain chemicals, problems with internal sex organs  Gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes  Cancer  Testicular and Prostate  Testicular more between 14 and 40  Can occur from undescended testes  First sign usually a lump or enlargement of testis

 Prostate Cancer  After lung, most popular cancer in men  Frequent or difficult urination  Pain when urinating  Blood in urine  Lingering pain in back, hips, or pelvis  Usually in older males

Male Reproductive Health  Regular medical exams  Proper care  Personal hygiene  Monthly self-exam of testicles  Gently roll testis between thumb and fingers  Check for swelling or lumps

External Female Reproductive Organs  Vulva  Collective name for mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vaginal opening and clitoris  Mons pubis  Rounded mound of fatty tissue on front of pubic bone  Labia  Labia majora   

Fatty outer folds on either side of the vaginal opening Outer borders of vulva Provide moisture and lubrication

 Labia Minora  Between labia majora  Contain oil glands and blood vessels and sensitive nerve endings  Vaginal Opening  Between labia minora  Sometimes blocked by the hymen  Clitoris  Between the mons pubis  Many nerve endings, becomes filled with blood during sexual arousal

Internal Female Reproductive Organs  Vagina  Muscle-lined tube that extends from uterus to outside the body  Leads to the cervix  Uterus  Hollow, muscular organ that holds fertilized ovum during pregnancy  Shaped like an upside-down pear

 Fallopian Tubes  Each side of the uterus that connect to the region of ovaries  Lined with cilia that gather released ovum  Ovaries  Two female sex glands which produce mature ova and female hormones  Ovulation is the releasing of one mature ovum each month

Menstruation  Typical cycle is 28 days long  Uterus prepares for a possible pregnancy; build up of

blood vessels and other tissues in endometrium  No pregnancy, uterus contracts and sheds the uterine lining  Starts between ages 10 to 15 usually and ends around 50

Female Reproductive Health Care  Good hygiene  Proper changing of sanitary pads and tampons  Premenstrual Syndrome  Week or two before their period  Anxiety, depression, irritability, bloating, mood swings, fatigue  Dysmenorrhea  Severe menstrual cramps

 Amenorrhea  Lack of menstruation by age 16  Stopping in someone who previously menstruated and is not pregnant  Inferitilty  Inability to become pregnant  Blocking of one or more fallopian tubes  Not ovulating  Endometriosis  STDs (gonorrhea and chlamydia)

 Vaginitis  Inflammation of vaginal tissue  Discharge, burning, itching  Yeast infections  Vaginosis  Trichomoniasis  Cancer  Breast Cancer 

One of most common in females

 Cervical Cancer  Pap Test

 Ovarian Cancer  25,000 American females a year  16,000 die  Difficult to check  Abdominal pressure, bloating, discomfort, nausea, indigestion, gas, frequent urination, constipation, diarrhea  Abnormal bleeding, unusual fatigue unexplained weight gain, shortness of breath

Female Reproductive Health  Bathing regularly  Washing external organs  Regular professional and self-examinations are key  Pelvic Exam  Yearly pelvic exams after sexually active or 21  Breast Self-Exam  Every month  Right after a menstrual period  After 40, regular mammogram

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