EVALUATION OF THE UNTRAINED TEACHERS DIPLOMA IN BASIC EDUCATION VISUAL ARTS PROGRAMME IN SELECTED COLLEGES OF EDUCATION

EVALUATION OF THE UNTRAINED TEACHERS’ DIPLOMA IN BASIC EDUCATION VISUAL ARTS PROGRAMME IN SELECTED COLLEGES OF EDUCATION By Frimpong Allan Kay (Dip. ...
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EVALUATION OF THE UNTRAINED TEACHERS’ DIPLOMA IN BASIC EDUCATION VISUAL ARTS PROGRAMME IN SELECTED COLLEGES OF EDUCATION

By Frimpong Allan Kay (Dip. Art Education, B.Ed Art Education)

A Thesis submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF ARTS IN ART EDUCATION

Faculty of Art, College of Art and Social Sciences

November, 2010

© 2010 Department of General Art Studies

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this submission is my own work towards the M.A degree and that to the best of my knowledge, it contains no material previously published by another person nor material which has been accepted for the award of any other degree of the University except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text.

FRIMPONG ALLAN KAY ………………………….. Student’s Name & ID

……………………… Signature

……………... Date

……………………… Signature

……………... Date

……………………… Signature

……………... Date

DR. S.K. AMENUKE ………………………….. Supervisor’s Name

Certified by: DR. JOE ADU-AGYEM ………………………….. Head of Department’s Name

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ABSTRACT

The thesis is about evaluation of Visual Arts Programme of the Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education programme in selected Colleges of Education in Ghana. The study was carried out in four selected colleges from four phases. St. John Bosco from the three Northern Region Colleges was selected from Phase 1. St. Joseph’s College of Education from Ashanti/Brong Ahafo Colleges was selected from Phase 2. Seventh Day Adventist from Central, Eastern, and Western Region Colleges was selected from Phase 3. Accra College of Education from Greater Accra and Volta Region Colleges were selected from Phase 4. The study was to evaluate the programme and to examine problems and to propose interventions. The method of research used in collecting data were questionnaire, interview and the existing literature on the topic. The sources of the policies discussed were taken from the documents of the Untrained Teachers’ Diploma in Basic Education programme. In all students and tutors were involved in the study. It is hoped that the recommendations given if effectively adhered to by Educational policy makers and the government, teachers would be well trained and basic pupils would be equipped with the right type of skills needed for their build-up towards their academic performance.

November, 2010

F.A.K iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The study brought the researcher into contact or with several people. Among them are Lecturers, Friends, Teacher Education Officials and well wishers without whose support, encouragement and advice this script would not have materialized. I am grateful to Dr. S.K. Amenuke, my supervisor and Dr. Joe Adu-Agyem Head of Department, General Art Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology – Kumasi. Sources of the policies discussed in the thesis were taken from the Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education document of Ghana Education Service. F.A.K-

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content

Page

Declaration

ii

Abstract

iii

Acknowledgements

iv

Table of Contents

v

List of Tables

viii

List of Figures

xii

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1

1.1 Overview 1.2 Background to the Study

1

1.3 Ghana Map showing location the Colleges of Education for the UTDBE

4

1.4 Statement of the Problem

5

1.5 Objectives

6

1.6 Research Questions

6

1.7 Delimitation

6

1.8 Limitation

7

1.9 Definition of Terms

7

2.0 Importance of the Study

8

2.1 Organization of the Rest of the Text

9

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

10

2.1 Overview

10

2.2 What is Evaluation?

10

2.3 Process of Evaluation

14

2.4 Outcome Evaluation

14

2.5. Impact Evaluation

15 v

2.6 Purpose of Evaluation

16

2.6.1 Feedback

16

2.6.2 Control

16

2.6.3. Research

17

2.6.4 Intervention

17

2.6.5 Power

18

2.7 Types of Evaluation

18

2.7.1 Formative Evaluation

18

2.7.2 Summative Evaluation

20

2.7.3 Process Evaluation

21

2.7.4. Product Evaluation

21

2.7.5. Usability Evaluation

21

2.8 Policy Issues about U.T.D.B.E Constitutional Mandate

21

2. 9 Education for All and Poverty Alleviation

22

3.0 Equity and Issues

24

3.1 Roles and Responsibilities

24

3.2 Teacher Education Division

25

3.3 Teacher Training Colleges

25

3.4 Regional Directors

26

3.5 District Directorate

27

3.6 District Co-ordinators

28

3.7 District Field Support Cadres

28

3.8 Mentors/Headteachers

29

3.9. Infrastructure

31

3.9.1 Art Studio

31

3.9.2 Teaching and Learning Material

32

3.9.3 Qualification of Tutors

32

3.9.4 Qualities of a Good Art Teacher

32

3.9.5 Structure of the Programme

34

3.9.6 Programme Content

35

3.9.7 Core Foundation Courses

35

3.9.8 Course Foundation Courses

35 vi

3.9.9 Education and Professional Studies Courses

36

4.0 Practical Activities

36

4.1 General Studies Courses

37

4.2 Courses and Credit Allocations

37

4.3 Nature of Visual Arts Programme

42

4.4 Qualification for the Programme

45

4.5 Qualification of Applicants

46

4.6 Registration

47

4.7 Payment of Fees

47

4.8 Banking of Fees

47

4.9 Source of Funding

48

4.9.1 Mode of Assessment

48

4.9.2 Internal Assessment

49

4.9.3 External Assessment

49

4.9.4 Weighting of the Two Assessments

50

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY

51

3.1 Overview

51

3.2 Research Design

51

3.2.1 Qualitative Research

51

3.2.2. Library Research

52

3.3 Population for the Study

52

3.4 Sampling Design and Sample

52

3.5 Data Collection Instruments

53

3.5.1 Questionnaire

53

3.5.2 Interview

54

3.5.3. Data Collection Procedure

54

3.5.4 Data Analysis Plan

55

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CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

56

CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

88

5.1 Summary

88

5.2 Conclusions

88

5.3 Recommendations

91

5.4 REFERENCES

93

5.5 APPENDICES

94

viii

LIST OF TABLES St. John Bosco College of Education - Navrongo U/E Table

Page

4.1 Age Group

56

4.2 Occupation of respondents before enrollment

57

4.3 Number of Years in the Teaching Service

57

4.4 Class Taught

58

4.5 Interview before Enrollment

58

4.6 Availability of Art Materials for Practicals

59

4.7 Retention of Material Learnt

60

4.8 Availability of Adequate Furniture

61

4.9 Availability of Art Studio

61

4.10 Where Art Practicals are Organised

62

4.11 Credit Hours for Art in a Week

62

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LIST OF TABLES St. Joseph’s College of Education – Bechem B/A Table

Page

4.1 Age Group

64

4.2 Occupation of respondents before enrollment

64

4.3 Number of Years in the Teaching Service

65

4.4 Class Taught

66

4.5 Interview before Enrollment

66

4.6 Availability of Art Materials for Practicals

67

4.7 Retention of Material Learnt

68

4.8 Availability of Adequate Furniture

68

4.9 Availability of Art Studio

69

4.10 Where Art Practicals are Organised

69

4.11 Credit Hours for Art in a Week

70

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LIST OF TABLES Seventh Day Adventist College of Education – Koforidua- E/R Table

Page

4.1 Age Group

71

4.2 Occupation of respondents before Enrollment

71

4.3 Number of Years in the Teaching Service

72

4.4 Class Taught

73

4.5 Interview before Enrollment

73

4.6 Availability of Art Materials for Practicals

74

4.7 Retention of Material Learnt

75

4.8 Availability of Adequate Furniture

75

4.9 Availability of Art Studio

76

4.10 Where Art Practicals are Organised

76

4.11 Credit Hours for Art in a Week

77

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LIST OF TABLES Accra College of Education – Accra – Greater Accra Table

Page

4.1 Age Group

78

4.2 Occupation of respondents before Enrollment

79

4.3 Number of Years in the Teaching Service

79

4.4 Class Taught

80

4.5 Interview before Enrollment

80

4.6 Availability of Art Materials for Practicals

81

4.7 Retention of Material Learnt

82

4.8 Availability of Adequate Furniture

82

4.9 Availability of Art Studio

83

4.10 Where Art Practicals are Organised

83

4.11 Credit Hours for Art in a Week

84

4.2.1 Academic Qualification for Tutors

85

4.2.2 Years Taught in Training College

85

4.2.3 Availability of Materials for Practical Work (Visual Art)

86

4.2.4 How does this affect learning?

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LIST OF FIGURE Figure

Page

1.1 Ghana Map showing location of the Colleges of Education for the Untrained Teachers’ Diploma in Basic Education programme.

xiii

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview Chapter one discusses the following topics: Background to the Study, statement of the problem, research questions, objectives, delimitation, definition of terms, importance of the study, organization of the rest of the text.

1.2 Background to the Study Students’ Handbook for the UTDBE programme (2003) indicates that there are about 24, 000 untrained teachers working in Ghana’s Basic school system. To substantially reduce this number of untrained teachers, it was intended that between 2004 and 2006, the Government of Ghana will provide the enabling environment for Ministry of Education Youth and Sports (MoE.Y.S), and Ghana Education Service (G.E.S) to enroll about 90% of eligible candidates in the Untrained Teacher Training Diploma in a Basic Education (U.T.D.B.E) programme. The training programme is aimed at providing the serving untrained, teachers with accessible professional Teacher Education, which will lead the trainee to a qualified teacher status. Special emphasis has been placed on the: •

Improvement of classroom teaching



Quality of children’s learning



Improved qualitative professional practice



Production of well trained and qualified Basic education teachers that will inspire learners to realize their potential.

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Production of teachers who have a clear grasp of intended outcome of their teaching activities, and are skilled in monitoring, diagnosing and providing appropriate equal opportunities to all pupils.



Devising, evaluating and implementing solutions to identify problems.

The following also account for the implementation of the programme: •

Short fall of teacher supply in the country. There were more classrooms without teachers, most especially in the deprived areas and so there was the need to train teachers to be posted to these areas.



There were a lot of untrained teachers who were employed by Ghana Education Service as “pupil teachers” to teach at the Basic schools level.



Again the quality of teachers needed to be stepped up. Even though some teachers are qualified to teach, they needed some sort of in-service training in order to be abreast with current teaching methods.



There was the need to train the untrained teachers most of whom serve in the isolated rural and underserved districts in the country. Most trainees had dropped out from school and were employed by G.E.S

as kindergarten attendants in deprived areas. Most of these trainees could not even read or express themselves freely in the English language. These trainees only concerned themselves with recitation of poems in the classrooms. This is the kind of trainee to be trained to take up teaching at the basic education level. In the researchers view, government should have run short courses for the trainees and after examination admit them in the existing Training Colleges. It is

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only when the foundation of the children is strong that their future education would be guaranteed. Once the foundation is weak there is the possibility that weak graduates would eventually be produced at higher levels of education.

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Fig 1.1 Colleges of Education for the UTDBE Programme

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1.4 Statement of the Problem The exodus of trained teachers outside the country for greener pastures between 1970 and 1980 created a lot of teaching vacancies in most Ghanaian schools. Most classrooms were empty without qualified trained teachers. This problem prompted Ministry of Education Youth and Sports in collaboration with Ghana Education Service to recruit untrained teachers to fill up the vacancies created by the exodus of trained teachers. Even though the intervention of untrained teachers helped to fill vacancies in the classrooms, standards at the Basic level of education started declining. There was therefore the need by the government to upgrade the untrained teachers on the field to cope up with the new Basic Education Programme. The programme took off in phases. Phase I involved colleges in the three Northern regions together with Abetifi College of Education. Phase II involved colleges in Brong Ahafo and Ashanti Regions. Phase III catered for Colleges in Central, Eastern and Western Regions. The last Phase is made up of colleges in Greater Accra and Volta Regions. In a nutshell, the development of the national system of training the 24,000 untrained teachers is an important step in the improvement of quality education. Considering the level of the trainees and their background coupled with inadequate period of study in the Visual Arts, the programme needs to be reviewed.

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1.5 Objectives The study was embarked upon to 1. identify and describe the problems with the Visual Arts component of the Untrained Teachers Diploma in the Basic Education programme 2. examine problems and propose interventions

1.6 Research Questions 1. What is the average age of U.T.D.B.E trainee? (Table 1) 2. What was the applicant’s previous occupation? (Table 2) 3. How many years has the trainee been in the service? (Table 3) 4. Which classes were taught by the trainee? (Table 4) 5. Was the trainee interviewed before enrollment? (Table 5) 6. Are Art materials available for practical work of the trainees? (Table 6) 7. Is the trainee able to retain what is learnt? (Table 7) 8. Is furniture adequate? (Table 8) 9. Is there Art Studio at the College? (Table 9) 10. Where are Art practical lessons organized? (Table 10) 11. What is the number of credits hours carried by the trainee in a week? (Table 11)

1.7 Delimitation The study covers selected colleges. One college was selected from each of the four Phases.

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St. John Bosco’s College of Education – Navrongo was selected from the Phase I colleges.



St. Joseph’s College of Education was also selected from Phase II colleges.



Seventh Day Adventist College of Education was also selected from the Phase III colleges.



Accra College of Education was also selected from the Phase IV.

1.8 Limitation The programme is run within specified periods some of which are outside the period of this research.

1.9 Definition of Terms  Induction of Trainees: This is the type of training where the trainees are given an insight into the programme and also to collect their learning materials.  Cluster Based Training: Cluster based training creates an opportunity for the trainees to meet their own colleagues to share ideas. Usually the trainees themselves choose or decide where to organize their meetings.  Circuit Based Tutorial: Is where an opportunity created for the trainees to meet their field tutors, ie circuit supervisors for tutorials and also to discuss learning problems.  Residential Face To Face Training: This is the type of training where trainees meet at the Teachers Training Colleges Campuses to share

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experiences, ideas, learn from one another. Usually the tutors at the colleges handle the residential face to face meetings.

Abbreviations M.O.Y.S

Ministry of Education Youth and Sports

G.E.S

Ghana Educations Service

U.T.D.B.E

Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education

T.E.D

Teacher Education Division

T.T.C.s

Teacher Training Colleges

E.F.A

Education For All

C.B.O

Community –Based Organization

N.G.O

Non-Governmental Organization

F.B.O.s

Faith – Based Organizations

2.0 Importance of the Study The study is aimed at ensuring quality education both on the part of the trainee and the recipient at the Basic Education level. The study also reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education Visual Arts Programme in selected colleges of Education which when solved will improve teaching and learning at the Basic Education level throughout the country.

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2.1 Organization of the Rest of the Text Chapter two deals with review of the related literature to set out the theoretical and empirical considerations of the study. Chapter three deals with the methodology Chapter four comprises, Presentation and Discussion of findings. Chapter five deals with Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations. References have been arranged at the end of the thesis according to the alphabetical order of the surnames of the authors journals, magazines, internet.

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CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Overview This chapter presents the theoretical and empirical basis of the study. 2.2

What is Evaluation?

Evaluation deals with the appraisal of value or the estimation of worth of a thing, process or programme in order to reach a meaningful decision about that thing, process or programme. It is also a form of ascertaining the worth of an endeavour in terms of a set objectives (Ogunniyi 1984).

2.2.1 Evaluation •

is the means used to determine the worth or value of a training programme.



is the process to improve a training process or to decide whether or not to continue it.



is the process of delineating, collecting, and providing information useful for judging training decision alternatives.

Evaluation involves making judgments about the correctness of the strategy (including means adopted) and particularly about the outcomes or specific benefits that the strategy delivers. “Worth” is more than just monetary worth. Rather, it answers the questions of “Is training achieving the results that it was set up to achieve,”? “Are the actual results worth having?”, and “Were the results achieved by the most cost effective methods?” (Newby, 1992 chp.3).

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Again, the term evaluation is used to describe studies of ongoing or completed aid initiatives that are systematic and objective as possible. Evaluation may cover the design of the initiative, its implementation and the results that are achieved. The purpose is to clarify the relevance of the initiative and the extent, to which goals have achieved, and the cost-effectiveness, longterm effects and sustainability of the initiative. An evaluation can cover one or more projects, programmes, plans of action, strategies or policies. In order to ensure that they are as objectives as possible, evaluations are carried out by independent experts who have no vested interest in the results. They are thorough, and are based on the systematic collection and presentation of information. The results must be made available to the general public, among other things in order to provide opportunities to verify the facts and the validity of the evaluation. These requirements are based on many years of experience of evaluation by multilateral and bilateral bodies, and are laid down in quality standards, such as the DAC Evaluation Quality Standards (see http://www.oecd.org accessed in 2010). As defined by the American Evaluation Association, evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses as of programmes, polices, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness. Evaluation is the systematic collection and analysis of data needed to make decisions, a process in which most well-run programmes engage from the outset.

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Evaluation seeks to pinpoint the services needed, for example, finding out what knowledge, skills, attitudes, or behaviours a programme should address. It also seeks to establish programme objectives and deciding the particular evidence (such as the specific knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour) that will demonstrate that the objectives have been met. A key to successful evaluation is a set of clear, measurable, and realistic programme objectives. If objectives are unrealistically optimistic or are not measurable, the programme may not be able to demonstrate that it has been successful even if it has done a good job. It seeks to develop or select from among alternative programme approaches for example, trying different curricula or polices and determining which ones best achieve the goals. It also seeks to track programme objectives for example, setting up a system that shows who gets services; how much service is delivered, how participants rate the services they receive; and which approaches are most readily adopted by staff. Through these types of activities, those who provide or administer services determine what to offer and how well they are offering those services. In addition, evaluation in education can identify programme effects, helping staff and others to find out whether their programmes have an impact on participants’ knowledge or attitudes. The different dimensions of evaluation have formal names: process, outcome, and

impact

evaluation.

DAC

Evaluation

(see http://www.oecd.org accessed in 2010).

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Quality

Standards

Rossi and Freeman (1993) p.56 define evaluation as “systematic application of social research procedures for assessing the conceptualization, design, implementation, and utility of programmes.” There are many other similar definitions and explanations of “what evaluation is” in the literature. Our view is that, although each definition, and in fact, each evaluation is slightly different, there are several different steps that are usually followed in any evaluation. An overview of the steps in a “typical” evaluation Step 1 Get an Overview of the Programme

Step 2 Determine Why You Are Evaluating Step 3 Determine what you need to know and formulate research questions

Step 4 Figure out what information you need to answer questions

Step 5 Design the Evaluation

Step 6 Collect Information /Data

Step7 Analyse Information

Step 8 Formulate Conclusions Step 9 Use Results to Modify Programme 13

2.3

Process Evaluation Process Evaluations describe and assess programme materials and

activities. Examination of materials is likely to occur while prorammes are being developed, as a check on the appropriateness of the approach and procedures that will be used in the programme. For example, programme staff might systematically review the units in a curriculum to determine whether they adequately address all of the behaviours the programme seeks to influence. A programme administrator might observe teachers using the programme and write a descriptive account of how students respond, then provide feedback to instructors. Examining the implementation of programme activities is an important form of process evaluation. Implementation analysis documents what actually transpires in a programme and how closely it resembles the programme’s goals. Establishing the extent and nature of programme implementation is also an important first step in studying programme outcomes; that is, it describes the interventions to which any findings about outcomes may be attributed. Outcome evaluation assesses programme achievements and effects (Rossi and Freeman 1993).

2.4

Outcome Evaluations Outcome Evaluations study the immediate or direct effects of the

programme on participants. For example, when a 10-session programme aimed at teaching refusal skills is completed, can the participants demonstrate the skills successfully? This type of evaluation is not unlike what happens when a

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teacher administers a test before and after a unit to make sure the students have learned the material. The scope of an outcome evaluation can extend beyond knowledge or attitudes, however, to examine the immediate behavioural effects of programmes.

2.5

Impact Evaluations Impact Evaluations look beyond the immediate results of polices,

instruction, or services to identify longer-term as well as unintended programme effects. They may also examine what happens when several programmes operate in unison. For example, an impact evaluation might examine whether a programm immediate positive effects on behaviour were sustained over time. Some school, districts and community agencies may limit their inquiry of process evaluation. Others may have interest and the resources to pursue an examination of whether their activities are affecting participants and others in a positive manner (outcome or impact evaluation). The choice should be made based upon local needs, resources, and requirements. Regardless of the kind of evaluation, all evaluations use data collected in a systematic manner. These data may be quantitative such as counts of programme participants, amount of counselling or other services received, or incidence of a specific behaviour. They also may be qualitative such as description of what transpired at a series of counselling sessions or an expert’s best judgment of the age-appropriateness of a skill training curriculum. Successful evaluations often blend quantitative and qualitative data collection.

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2.6

What are the Purposes of Evaluation? Five purposes of evaluation have been discussed These are: Feedback, Control, Research, Intervention, Power

2.6.1

Feedback Feedback provides quality control over the design and delivery of training activities. Some important “evaluation for feedback” questions include…..

2.6.2



Are the objectives being met?



Were pertinent topics and learning events covered?



Is there evidence of before and after learning?



Is there evidence of transfer of learning back to the work place?



Do we know for whom the program was most and least beneficial?



What is good and what is not so good? (Newby, 1992. p 24)

Control Control relates training policy and practice to organizational goals (productivity, cost-benefit analysis). Some important “evaluation for control” questions include…





What is the value of the training to the organization?



Are measures of worth compared to measures of cost?

Was consideration given to different combinations of interventions for tackling the problem (were options besides training considered)? (Newby, 1992, p 24)

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2.6.3

Research Research is to add to knowledge of training principles to improve

techniques.

Some

important

“evaluation

for

research”

questions

include…….. •

Internal validity: To what extent can particular conclusions justly be drawn from the data collection? External validity: To what extent can information gained from a training

programme be applicable generally to other situations? (Newby, 1992, p 25)

2.6.4

Intervention Intervention is the process of using evaluation to affect the way the

programme being evaluated is viewed, and subsequently using this to redefine the sharing of learning between trainers, trainees, and employing managers. Some important “evaluation for intervention” questions include.. •

Are line managers involved in pre/post training activities?



Is management an extension of training?



Are changes made in the work environment to support use of new skills learned during training?



Does training cause the training department to continually rethink and adjust the deployment of trainers to functions that strengthen the role of training? (Newby, 1992, p 25)

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2.6.5

Power Power is to use evaluation information for political agenda. Some

important “evaluation for power” questions include…… •

Is evidence gathered and used via evaluation based upon sound evidence?



Is it presented fairly and ethically?



Is it reported to appropriate stakeholders? (Newby, 1992, p 26) In evaluating the untrained teachers Diploma in Basic Education in

Visual Arts programme even though five purposes have been mentioned and discussed most of them were considered in the write-up. 2.7

Types of Evaluation The following types of evaluation have been discussed

2.7.1



Formative evaluation



Summative evaluation



Process evaluation



Product evaluation



Usability testing

Formative Evaluation Evaluation of a programme is its developmental stages. In the instructional design process, formative evaluation occurs before the final product is completed.

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Formative evaluation most often results in changes to the instructional programme to make more effective (Pershing, Reigeluth (1996); as cited in Molenda & Peershing (in press). Formative evaluation aims at ensuring a healthy acquisition and development of knowledge and skills by students. Formative evaluation is also used to identify students’ needs in order to guide them towards desired goals. As students’ needs and difficulties are identified, appropriate remedial measures are taken to solve such problems. The purpose is to find out whether after a learning experience students are able to do what they were previously unable to do. A short-term objective of formative evaluation may be to help students pass the endof-year promotional examination or long-term, the school certificate examinations. Whatever activities are set into motion under this type of evaluation, the ultimate goal is to help students perform well at the end of the programme. Formative evaluation attempts at identifying the content ie (knowledge or skills) which have not been mastered by the students to appraise the level of cognitive abilities such as memorization, classification, comparison, analysis, explanation, qualification, application and so on. In other words, formative evaluation provides the evaluator with useful information about the strengths or weaknesses of the students within an instructional content (Ogunniyi, 1990).

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2.7.2

Summative Evaluation This consists of those activities that judge the worth of a completed programme. In the instructional design process, summative evaluation is often viewed as the final stage. Summative evaluation usually does not result in changes to the instructional programme being evaluated; it often informs the trainer and organization whether students learned from the training and whether on the job performance improved. According to Ogunniyi 1990 summative evaluation is primarily concerned with purposes, progress, and outcomes of the teaching-learning process. It attempts as far as possible to determine to what extent the broad objectives of a programme have been achieved.

It is based on the

following assumption: -

that the programme’s objectives are achievable

-

that the teaching-learning process has been conducted effectively

-

that the teaching techniques, learning materials and audio-visual aids are adequate and have been judiciously dispensed. Unlike formative evaluation, which is guidance-oriented,

summative evaluation is judgemental in nature. Summative evaluation carries a threat with it in that the student may have no knowledge of the evaluation. In class tests the students often can predict to a reasonable extent what would be asked. In this instance the external examiner is the Institute of Education – Cape Coast and so this does not pose any threat to the students. Students can then predict to a reasonable extent what

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would be asked. It has become necessary to evaluate the programmeUntrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education in Visual Art programme to find out growth or lack of growth in acquisition desirable knowledge, skills, attitudes and societal values and also provide educational administrators with a adequate information about teacher’s effectiveness and school needs. The researcher finds it very necessary to evaluate the programme since there has not been any evaluation since the inception of the programme. 2.7.3

Process Evaluation This includes monitoring an instructor’s performance, weighing the use of instructional materials, or assessing the learning experiences found in the training setting.

2.74

Product Evaluation This also involves relating the outcomes to pre-specified objectives and considering both positive and unintended outcomes.

2.7.5

Usability Testing Determining whether people can use the product easily to meet their goals? The advent of computer-based and web-based instruction and necessary form of evaluation.

2.8

Policy Issues about U.T.D.B.E Constitutional Mandate Article 38 of the 1992 Constitution mandates the Government of Ghana to provide Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) for all children of school-going age. In 1996 the Government set out the

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frame-work for achieving this mandate. The implementation of the FCUBE programme required the service of a large number of wellqualified teachers particularly in primary methodology. There are about 24,000 untrained teachers presently working in Ghana Basic school system. To reduce this number of untrained teachers, it is intended that between 2004 and 2006, the Government will, through Teacher Education, enroll about 92% of eligible candidates for the Untrained Teachers’ Diploma in Basic Education (UTDBE) programme. The aim is to run a four-year in-service teacher development programme over the period 2004-2010 for the untrained teachers. The training of the untrained teachers through this programme is part of the Government’s strategy to provide quality Basic education for all in Ghana by 2015, in accordance with the Education for All (EFA) targets. After going through the course, participants will play a key role in leadership and the implementation of curriculum in the Basic schools and the community. In this way, the benefits of the programme will be felt. (Handbook for UTDBE programme (through distance education), 2003). There is therefore the need to evaluate these governments policies about the Untrained Teachers’ Diploma in Basic Education programme and to examine problems and propose interventions where necessary.

2.9

Education for All and Poverty Alleviation In 1992, Ghana signed the Jomitien Declaration of achieving quality

Basic education for all. This was reaffirmed in 2000 at the conference on

22

Education for All (EFA) in Dakar. Accessing educational opportunities, particularly, in the poor and deprived rural areas of the country is however impeded by persistent shortage of trained and qualified teachers- (Handbook for UTDBE programme (through distance education), 2003._ The achievement of quality education for all is dependent. Among other factors, a well-trained teaching force that is motivated and willing to work under challenging conditions. Teachers trained to identify and overcome the challenges will be better equipped to improve pupils’ achievement and reduce repetition, dropout rate and encourage effective learning. The programme will not only achieve the above expectations but also, the successful candidate will receive higher income than previously. Thus, the programme will also contribute to the alleviation of poverty. Additionally, training of the untrained teachers who are already in the rural communities would produce more enlightened teachers to educate communities in which they serve. Poverty cannot be alleviated but rather be reduced. Once trainees are employed they would definitely earn an income and this will reduce poverty. This is not all; trainees under this programme would not be competent to educate the communities on the HIV menace and its prevention since they do not have much knowledge in the study of the HIV. The HIV is studied for one semester and it would be impossible for any trainee to educate any community about the menace and its prevention. The knowledge acquired would be enough for himself or herself and not for the large community.

23

3.0

Equity Issues The training of untrained teachers presents significant challenges

involving equity, quality and the efficient use of resources. This programme is designed to reach out to all untrained personnel. In order not to compromise on equity, the programme has been designed to give the untrained teachers the knowledge and skills that enable them to perform their duties professionally on successful completion of the programme. The untrained teachers continue to earn salaries while being trained. Once qualified, trainees enjoy increased job security and other benefits. Every effort is made to encourage female untrained teachers to pursue the programme to the end. One good thing concerning the payment of untrained teacher’s salaries is that once trainees are enrolled on the programme trainees’ appointment is not terminated. Formally untrained teachers (pupils teachers) were made to renew their contract with GES every year. With the inception of the UTDBE programme teachers remained permanently on the pay roll. 3.1

Roles and Responsibilities The programme is administered and supported at five levels.



The National level is administered and supported by Teacher Education Division of the Ghana Education Service.



The Teacher Training College level is also administered and supported by the Principal of the College. Co-ordinator and tutors.

24



The Regional level by the Regional co-ordinator located at the Regional Education Office.



The District level at the District Office by District Director and a team of professional support cadres headed by the district co-ordinator.



The school level by the Headteacher and school mentors The Teacher Education Division – T.E.D: is responsible for the overall implementation and efficiency of the programme. Roles ad Responsibilities assigned and supported at the five levels could work effectively if well supervised.

3.2 Teacher Education Division •

Identifies recruits, brings and trains writing and materials development teams.



Organizes writing teams to develop syllabuses



Prints and distributes relevant materials.



Designs and implements staff/trainee management support services.



Identifies the needs of support cadres and plans training programmes for them.



Compiles data and provides support for each district. It is the TED that executes and evaluates the training programmes

3.3

Teacher Training Colleges

The tutors in the colleges: •

serve as resource persons at the induction course for the trainees enrolled on the programme and at residential face to face meeting. 25



are responsible for invigilation of examination



mark examination scripts



moderates marked assignments



monitor and maintain all relevant records on each trainee



provide regular training for the professional support cadres



set and mark assignments and quizzes/tests.



provide tutorial support during circuit tutorial meetings. The principal in collaboration with this/her District Directors of Education of Ghana is responsible for the overall organization of the induction course and residential face to face meetings.

3.4

Regional Directors Every region has a co-ordinator. The regional chief inspector serves as the Regional Co-ordinator he/she is assisted by the other Regional inspector Regional training officer and Guidance and Counseling coordinator to



Assist with the orientation of support cadres in their regions as required by the National team.



Keep records on district activities in the regions.



Regularly monitor the progress of the implementation of the programmme in their regions and notify the national team of any difficulties.



Participate in induction course organized for newly enrolled trainees.

26

The Regional Director has oversight responsible for the success of the programme in every district in his/her region.

3.5

District Directorate The district plays the key support in the implementation of the programme. They co-ordinate all activities concerning the programme ie provide academic, professional and personal support as well as counseling to the trainees. The District Director is responsible for the overall co-ordination of the programme in his/her district. He/she:



Supervisors induction courses for newly enrolled trainees.



Ensures effective learning environment for the programme in the district



Solicit support from the District Assembly, Community -Based Organization (C.B.O), Faith-Based Organization (FBO), and NonGovernmental Organizations for effective implementation of the programme.



Organizes seminars, fora, durbars and workshops on the programme periodically for stakeholders in the district.



Ensures that the professional support cadres play their roles in the programme effectively.



Receives feedback on all activities from the District co-ordinator



Ensures maximum enrollment of untrained teachers.



Carries out annual appraisal of the work of the professional support cadres.

27



3.6

Organizes graduation ceremonies for successful trainees

District Co-Ordinators Every District has a co-ordinator. The District co-ordinator is the assistant director in charge of supervision. He/she:



Supervises the activities of the District field tutors cadres



Ensures that adequate data is compiled on the trainees



Ensures that regular tutorials are organized for the trainees.



Ensures that school visits are carried out to support trainees.



Ensures that trainees are given regular feedback.



Takes part in programme monitoring and evaluation activities



Attends training sessions as and when necessary.



Reports on progress of the trainees enrolled on the programme to the District Director.



3.7

Laises with the District field tutor/cadres.

District Field Support Cadres Every district has a team of district field support cadres to be appointed from qualified circuit supervisors, District trading officer, District Guidance and counseling co-ordinator and other professional in the District. The team is headed by the District co-ordinator, where a district has a Training College, Teachers Training College tutors are included on

28

the cadre team to support the teaching of English, mathematics and science. The academic qualification for cadres is at least first degree. They: •

Provide training for school mentors



Conduct school visits to support school mentors in their work



Co-ordinate activities of trainees



Take part in cluster/circuit tutorial session



Report on progress of the trainees to the district co-ordinator



Carry out classroom lesson observation using appropriate checklists and give feedback to trainees.



Provide group-based or individual academic counselling as and when needed.



Tutor and assess trainees when required



Keep group and individual records

• Attend training sessions as and when necessary. Even though the district field support cadres are charged with the above responsibilities most of the above tasks are unattended to. Counseling records keeping and trainees assessments are relegated to the background.

3.8

Mentors /Headteachers Headteacher who are responsible are certified to mentor trainees. They provide on the job professional guidance and encouragement to trainees with respect to the following: 29



Lesson notes preparation



Classroom teaching



Professional skills and standard development In addition, mentors:



Offer advice to trainees on how to plan their study time



organize periodic meetings with trainees to discuss their problems



assist and guide trainees to complete assignments on time



organize demonstration lessons for trainees, observe teaching and demonstration lessons mounted by trainees and provide feedback



collaborate with cadres to support trainees Headteachers are also to see to it that trainees are not over-burdened

with other school responsibilities. Neither should trainees be allowed to squeeze in any part of the normal school teaching hours for their private study. Naturally mentors/headteachers are among the first line of contact should trainees have any difficulties with their studies. Even though mentors/headteachers are tasked to see to the implementation of the above points stated hardly do you see them performing these duties. They do not guide them in lesson notes preparation, classroom teaching, discussing trainees problems, helping them to complete assignments. Most Headteaches find it difficult to issue out corrective measures to the trainees who they feel are older than them. To be frank, to correct a trainee who is older than you and working under you becomes very difficult on the part of many Headteachers and as such leave them to their fate.

30

Even though trainees should not squeeze part of normal squeeze teaching hours for their private study this is not adhered to. These go a long way to affect the success of the programme.

3.9

Infrastructure

In the case of tables and chairs at the various colleges selected, the large intake of students outnumbered the facilities, example tables and chairs. This created seating problems for most colleges and as a result brought about congestion in the classrooms. At St. John Bosco’s (on page 51). Table 1.8 indicated that tables and chairs were not enough to accommodate the large number of students. This is not all, at St. Joseph’s College, (on page 56). Table 1.8, Seventh Day Adventist on page 61, table 1.8 and Accra College of Education on page 66, Table 1.8 all indicated there were not enough tables and chairs to accommodate the large intake of students. Each of the colleges selected had the following: Church building, Dinning Hall, Computer Theatre, Assembly Hall, Science Laboratory which helped to promote effective learning at the colleges.

3.9.1

Art Studios Information gathered from the selected colleges indicated that most

colleges had no Art Studios and even those with Art Studios were not well equipped with tools and materials to work with.

31

3.9.2 Teaching and Learning Materials Students were made to rely on modules and handbooks supplied by Teacher Education since they would be assessed by the contents of the modules and handbooks. Colleges were not supplied with equipment, tools and materials for practical works. Students were made to purchase their own materials for practical works. In case of Visual Arts lessons, students provided poster colours, pencils, brushes, cardboards, A-4 sheets for their own practical works. This did not promote effective learning as most students could not afford to buy materials for their own works. This actually affected quality learning as the government intends ensuring by the end of 2015.

3.9.3

Qualification of Tutors Minimum qualification of tutors at the colleges initially was First

Degree in an area of specialization. Due to the upgrading of colleges into tertiary status it has become necessary for every tutor to upgrade himself/herself to meet the challenges ahead. Information gathered on Appendix E, interview guide for tutors indicated almost all the tutors from the selected colleges have gone in for their second degrees. It is unfortunate that this upgrading of tutors actually took off when the U.T.D.B.E programme has ended. Those who already had gone in for the upgrading actually updated their knowledge in the area of their specialization and so it help them to teach effectively.

32

3.9.4

Qualities of a Good Art Teacher

According to Farrant (1980:168) “when a teacher teaches, it is expected that the educational should be learning what is being taught. The teacher imparts the knowledge while the learner assimilates the knowledge”. In this wise a good Art teacher should be the one who can teach to the understanding of his students. Again, a good Art teacher is the one who has good command of his subject matter. He is versatile in such a way that he is not found wanting in his area of study. He is also the type who can make use of numerous teaching techniques to enable his students understand what he wants to put across. A teacher who manages his class very well is known to be a good teacher and so a good Art teacher should also have such qualities. He should also be in the position to accept his students anytime they approach him with problems to be solved. In short he should be tolerant in dealing with students. A good Art teacher should also relate well with his students. His human relations should not only be limited to his Art students but be extended to students not offering Art. He should also be in the position to improvise materials when actual materials and tools are not available to use. He should also encourage his students to improvise in absence of real tools and materials. A good Art teacher should be appreciative in dealing with students’ works. He should be in the position to appreciate students’ efforts so as to encourage them to work the more to achieve success in the end. A good Art teacher is the one who relies on instructional media for his teaching. Instructional media which include: Visual Materials, Audio-Aids, Audio-Visual TLMs, Community Resources etc.

33

Visual Materials include objects, models, specimens, textbooks, workbooks, programmed materials, handouts, chalkboards, flannel or felt boards, illustrations, photographs, slides, film strips overhead projectors, opaque projectors, graphics, charts, graphs, maps and globe, posters, diagrams. Radio, Record Players, Tape Recorders are considered under Audio-TLMs. When the teacher is equipped with all these, teaching goes on smoothly and pupils understand better. The teacher becomes competent in his teaching.

3.9.5 Structure of the Programme The programme is based on the same curriculum as that approved for training teachers via the pre-service model offered in the Teacher Training Colleges. The courses, forms of assessment and outcome standards for this programme are the same as those used for the pre-service routes. The UTDBE programme offers other courses in addition to the study of Visual Art. The only significant difference is that the students on this programme study part-time over a period of 4 years and take courses while teaching in school (inservice), instead of 3 years full time as in the case of pre-service. Trainees study by a combination of the following methods: distance learning, school based professional development and periodic residential face-to-face meetings. The Programme which is studied on part-time basis over a period of four years combines distance learning, school based professional development and periodic residential face-to-face meetings. This should have been good for the programme but trainees after residential face-to-face refuse to learn on their

34

own. This has been their major problem. Learning on their own becomes a problem for students in their various districts. They only contact their modules when they report at their various Training Colleges to study and write examinations. Most trainees are above the ages of forty-five and study at these age becomes difficult for them. The programme in future should consider age limit when considering candidate to be trained. The age limit should not be more than thirty-five years for the recruitment of the U.T.D.B.E programme since trainees above this age find it difficult to cope up with learning.

3.9.6

Programme Content

The programme is divided into four sets of courses as follows:

3.9.7

Core Foundation Courses This consists of subject content courses offered in the basic school

system. These courses are designed to extend and deepen trainee’s knowledge of the subject they are teaching in the basic schools.

3.9.8

Course Foundation Courses

What the trainees would study while under training are the subjects taught at the basic level i.e. Trainees are trained in the subjects studied at the basic schools.

This has been the best because it will help pupils to learn and

understand what is taught. The content of the course is good enough to make pupils well educated.

35

3.9.9

Education And Professional Studies Courses

These will assist trainees to learn how to teach the foundation courses and any other courses they will teach. The courses are also designed to groom the trainees in the principle and practice of education as well as organisation and management of learning environments. These include a series of professional courses covering areas such as Principles of Education, Child and Adolescent Development Learning and Trends in Education and School Management. To be a professional teacher one needs to study courses in education i.e. areas covering Principles of Education, Child and Adolescent Development and Trends in Education and School Management. Here too the planners were in the right direction in training trainees in these areas since trainee would interact more with pupils at the Basic Level. Studying the child would go a long way to assist the teacher trainee in training the pupils at the Basic Level.

4.0

Practical Activities These assist the trainees to teach the practical activity subjects. The two main areas covered are:



Music and Dance



Physical Education

Children normally learn through activities and so the introduction of Music and Dance assists learning. Children also need to do a lot of exercises for better development of their bodies and minds and so the introduction of Physical Education as practical subject would also help pupils at the Basic level.

36

4.1

General Studies Courses These are courses that will broaden the minds of the trainees, make them

abreast with current issues and provide them with modern day communication skills. There are two courses in this group: •

HIV/AIDS Education and



Introduction to Information Technology

General courses seem to broaden the minds of the trainees and make them abreast with current issues but instead of HIV/AIDS Education, the introduction of Environmental Studies would equip the trainee the skills of maintaining good health in the communities. These skills would be passed on to the pupils at the basic level. This in short would avoid health hazards rather then learning HIV/AIDS Education. For modern day communication the introduction of Information Technology is in the right direction. Trainees should get easy access to the computer and be able to use so as to teach pupils at the Basic level.

4.2

Courses and Credit Allocations The Tables below present the courses and credit weightings over the fouryear period:

37

Year One Table 2.6 Year One Semester One Course Structure Course Code

Course To Be Taken

Credits

FDC 111

English Language Studies 1

2

EPS 111

Principles And Practice Of Education

2

FDC 112

Mathematics 1 (Number &Basic Algebra )

2

PRA 111

Physical Education (Principles, Foundation &

2

Methods) FDC 114

Integrated Science 1

2

FDC 113

Ghanaian Language And Culture (Language And

2

Language Teaching) Total Number Of Credits

12

Table 2.7 Year One Semester Two Course Structure Course Code

Course To Be Taken

Credits

FDC 119

Religious & Moral Education (Gen. Intro. &

2

Methods) FDC 118

Environmental & Social Studies 1

2

PRA 121

Music & Dance (Elements & Methods)

2

FDC 121

Child & Adolescent Development And Learning

2

Total Number Of Credits

8

Total number of Credits for year one, semester one and two = 12 + 8 = 20

38

Year Two Table 3 One Semester Course Code

Course To Be Taken

Credits

FDC 124

Integrated Science 2

2

EPS 121

Principles & Methods Of Teaching In Basic

2

Schools FDC 121

Environmental & Social Studies 1English (With

2

Elements Of Literature)

GNS 121

HIV/AIDS

2

FDC 128

Environmental And Social Studies 2

2

FDC 112

Visual Art

2

Total Number Of Credits

12

Year Two Table 4 Semester Two Course Structure Course

Course To Be Taken

Credits

FDC 119

Mathematics 2 (Trigonometry & Geometry)

2

FDC 118

Ghanaian Language And Culture 2 Literature &

2

Code

Cultural Studies) PRA 121

Educating The Individual With Special Needs

Total Number Of Credits

2 6

Total number of Credit for year two, semester one and two = 12 + 6 = 18

39

Year Three Table 5

Semester One Course Structure

Course Code

Course To Be Taken

Credits

PFC 211

Methods Of Teaching English (Primary)

3

PFC 222

Methods Of Teaching Primary School

3

Mathematics EPS 301

Trend In Education And School Management

2

PFC 218

Methods Of Teaching Environmental & Social

2

Studies Total Number Of Credits

10

Year Three Table 6 Semester Two Course Structure Course Code

Course To Be Taken

Credits

FDC 119

Information And Communication Technology

2

FDC 118

Methods Of Teaching Integrated Science

3

EPS 290

Teaching Practice 1

6

PRA 121

Statistics And Probability

2

Total Number Of Credits

13

Total number of Credit for year three, semester one and two = 10 + 13 = 23

40

Year Four Table 7

Semester One Course Structure

Course Code

Course To Be Taken

Credits

PFC 212

Methods Of Teaching English (Junior

3

Secondary) PFC 222

Methods Of Teaching JSS Mathematics

3

EPS 123

Principles and Methods of Early Childhood

2

Teaching FDC 224

Integrated Science 3

2

Total Number Of Credits

10

Year Four Table 8 Semester Two Course Structure Course Code

Course To Be Taken

Credits

FDC 228

Environmental And Social Studies 3

2

FDC 222

Another Algebra

2

EPS 390

Teaching Practice 2

6

EPS 302

Introduction to Guidance and Counseling

2

Total Number Of Credits

12

Total number of credits for year four, semesters one and two = 10 + 12 = 22

41

The courses studied are suitable for teaching at the basic level. This will enable the trainee to be well equipped to teach the subjects mentioned earlier. The programme is therefore competency-based and targets for development are set out for the trainees. In the case of Visual Arts, the duration for the learning of the subject is very limited and this would be not help the trainee to acquire enough knowledge to teach effectively at the basic level. More so there many topics to be studied both in Unit I and Unit II. Since most of these topics are practical oriented it is essential more time is given to the study of the subject. The same trainee is also expected to learn all these subjects stated above and this goes a long way to affect the learning of Visual Arts subject.

4.3 Nature Of The Visual Arts Programme The Visual Arts Programme is designed to update the student’s knowledge and skills in art. The purpose of the course is therefore to provide students with current adequate and relevant information on Visual Arts to make them competent and effective teachers of the subject. Each course is two credits and it is recommended that students do not spend more than one hour to study each lesson of the course. There are two unit courses. This covers Unit 1: Art fundamentals 1 Unit 2: Art fundamentals 2 The break down is as follows;

42

Unit 1 Art Fundamentals 1 1.1. Elements of Design 1.2. Principles Of Design 1.3. Perception 1.4. Colourwork (Basic Concepts) 1.5. Colourwork (Terminology) 1.6. Colour Harmony 1.7. Drawing (Tools And Materials And Techniques) 1.8. Creativity – The Concept 1.9. Man As A Creative Being 1.10.

Creativity, Society And Taboos

Unit 2 Art Fundamentals 2 2.1.Motivation (Direct And Indirect) 2.2.Child And Adolescent Art 1 2.3.Idea Development 2.4.Preliminary Design 2.5.Design And Technology 2.6. Print Making 2.7. Lettering (Typing) 2.8. Lettering (Freestyle And Calligraphy) 2.9. Upper Case And Lower Case Lettering 2.10. Child And Adolescent Art 2

43

Even though the topics listed under units 1 & 2 are good, the basic level pupils should be taken through the design process which involves identifying a problem, having a mental picture of the solutions or visualizing the solutions, sketching the solution and making the artifacts or products that eventually solves the problem. The emphasis should be laid on technology which involves the use of tools and materials and processes to develop a product that satisfies a need or solves a problem. This type of training will serve as foundation for continuing education and for future career. This training again will make pupils become creative and capably of combining and using a variety of knowledge and skills in making products. The purpose of the Visual Arts Programme is to update students’ knowledge and skills in Art. It is also to provide students with current, adequate and relevant information on Visual Arts to make them competent and efficient. The 2-credit hour course will not prepare students adequately to teach the subject at the Basic level. Considering the course content, the purpose of the Visual Art Programme would be defeated in that enough would not be learnt considering the practical nature of the subject. More time or the course should be given more credit hours so that student would get the chance to study the course in order to impart what is learnt to the Basic level. This is not all, most trainees have no knowledge about the subject art and so they need more time to study and equip themselves with the basic skills in order to impart to the young ones at the Basic level. This is not all, so many topics are

44

studied within a short time and this does not help students understand what is learnt. Again because of students’ poor academic background students get very little out of the programme. Visual Arts are practical oriented and so there is the need that each college should acquire a spacious studio well equipped with tools and materials for use by the trainees. Normally practical teaching in the classroom is done in a rush as the room should be tidied up for the next tutor to come and teach. Teaching of this practical subject is usually done in a rush. There is therefore the need for every college to acquire a large studio to accommodate large number of trainees admitted for the visual art.

4.4 Qualification for the Programme Selection of applicants is guided by a set criteria. The applicant must: •

be teaching



have a teaching experience of at least one year



be in a public basic school



have no plans to transfer from the district for the next four years



be not more than fifty-five years old at the time of enrollment on to the programme.

The panel from District Directorate is to interview the applicants and scouting their original certificates to ensure that they are authentic. The results of the interview should be communicated to TED. One of the criteria for applicants’ selection which says an applicant should not be more than fifty-five years old at the time of enrollment could not work. 45

Some applicants are about fifty-five or about getting to sixty years. This could be seen in their activities. Some applicants had to drop out in the course of training due to the brisk nature of the training. In future the selection of trainees should be done at the colleges where applicants would show up with their necessary documents to be enrolled in the programme and not at the district level.

4.5 Qualification Of Applicants The applicant must posses one of the following qualifications: •

Middle School Leaving Certificate



General Certificate of Examination Ordinary Level



Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination/West African Secondary School Certificate Examination. •

General Certificate Examination Advance Level



City and Guilds



National Vocational Training Institute

Qualification of applicants under this programme is good but the problem with it is whether the panel would be sincere enough to check and admit those qualified. Since most trainees were not interview before admission it could be possible that those not interviewed had no genuine requirements to be admitted. These are those who could not cope with the brisk nature of the programme.

46

4.6 Registration After the selection process is completed, the Directors, TED shall notify successful candidates through their respective District Directors of their selection for the programme and of any conditions attached. Selected candidates shall be deemed to have enrolled for the programme only when they have met the conditions outlined in their letter of admission and paid the required fees. Registration under this criteria is also good. 4.7 Payment of Fees Trainees are required to pay the following: •

Boarding and lodging for induction and residential courses



Handbooks



Course modules



Registration for examination

Trainees pay all fees by bankers draft and are issued with receipts, which are presented for the collection of materials during the induction course at the Training College where they will receive training. Payment by this process i.e. bankers draft is the best way of checking embezzlement of fees by accountants.

4.8 Banking of Fees Teacher Training College opens a separate account with separate receipt books for the programme. The amount collected is paid into this account. College is given modalities on how to disburse the funds. It will be very disastrous to ran the two programmes i.e. UTDBE and the Regular College Students with the same accounts. It is therefore very necessary

47

that a separate accounts with separate books are a acquired for the UTDBE programme. This way of collecting fees and banking of fees worked effectively with all the colleges.

4.9 Sources of Funding The sources by which monies are generated for sustainability of the programme are: •

Sale of application forms



Sale of course wares (handbooks and modules)



Payment of boarding and lodging



Government of Ghana



External funding where possible

Sources of funding the programme are limited and in future well wishes from the Regions or Districts should come to aid of the colleges in terms of funding.

4.9.1 Mode of Assessment Generally, assessment is intended to stimulate students to learn, ascertain their performance and help improve upon the teaching and learning process. Assessment of trainees therefore, forms an essential part of the process of obtaining information on the progress trainees are making towards developing professional competencies. Assessment is to stimulate student to learn and to ascertain their progrmme and help improve upon their teaching and learning process. In view of this, assessment for the programme both internal and external is the best for the programme. Also the check-list used to assess trainees’ performance in 48

practical training could be followed. Feedback on assignments is the best for students. Student should know their performance in every activity so as to ginger them to put up their best in subsequent tests.

Types of Assessment for the Programme: There are two main types of assessment; Internal and External

4.9.2

Internal Assessment This includes trainee’s performance in teaching lessons, preparing

teaching-learning materials, projects, portfolios assignment and quizzes. It aims at: •

providing information that tutors and trainees can use to decide how trainee’s learning should be taken forward and to give the trainee targets and feedbacks about his/her achievement.



diagnosing learning difficulties of trainees so that appropriate intervention strategies and guidance can be given.

4.9.3

External Assessment

The external assessment consists of end-of-semester examination. •

it provide information on what trainees know and can do



it provide stakeholders and trainees with a comprehensive record of progress and achievement.

49

In order to achieve these purposes •

tutors should have full knowledge of what they are to teach



Tutors should play the role of facilitators in the teaching and learning process.



Trainees should be given opportunity to demonstrate diversity of skills and share ideas or opinions in the teaching and learning process.

4.9.4 Weighting of the Two Assessments Internal Assessment

-

40%

Assessments given to students in schools. These include assignments, quizzes, projects. External Assessment

-

60%

Assessments given to students when examined by Institute of Education – Cape Coast. These are all government policies on U.T.D.B.E programme and captured from the students’ handbook. If contributions of players i.e. tutors at the various colleges where the programme is studied together with the examined body – Institute of Education Cape Coast play their assessment roles effectively the programme would produce competent teachers at the end of it all. With regard to what has been said, the programme has been successful with this type of assessment.

50

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY

3.1 Overview The previous chapter reviewed the related literature. This chapter focuses on the following: research design, library research, population for the study, sampling design and sample, data collection instruments, validation of instruments, primary and secondary data, data collection procedures and data analysis plan.

3.2 Research Design The principal design used in the study was qualitative research. The researcher employed the descriptive research method as described in qualitative research.

3.2.1 Qualitative Research Qualitative is a field of enquiry that cuts across disciplines and subjects matters. It involves an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and the reason for governing human behaviour. Qualitative research relies on reasons behind various aspects of behaviour (Best: 1989). Best further stated that qualitative research seeks to investigate the reason why and how of decision making. Qualitative researchers typically rely on four methods of gathering information, namely: 

Participating in the setting

51



Direct observation



In-depth interview



Analysis of documents and materials

3.2.2. Library Research Library research was also used to collect data from several sources. The researcher made use of books, journals, brochures. Research was also done on the internet relating to evaluation. Libraries visited include Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (Main Library), College of Art and Social Sciences (CASS) library – K.N.U.S.T, Department of Art Education library and U.E.W – Winneba.

3.3 Population for the Study These included all the bodies that will benefit from the study i.e. District Education Office(s), Teacher Education, Institute of Education and Colleges of Education. Accessible population consists of all the 38 Colleges of Education and samples were selected from the accessible.

3.4 Sampling Purposive sampling technique was used for the study. For the purpose of the study, one college was selected from each of the four phases. Phase 1 – St. John Bosco’s College of Education – Navrongo Phase 2 – St. Joseph’s College of Education – Bechem

52

Phase 3 – Seventh Day Adventist College of Education – Koforidua Phase 4 – Accra College of Education – Accra

3.5

Data Collection Instruments In an attempt to collect data for the study, observation, interviews and

questionnaire were designed and administered by the researcher. A lot of observation was also used for the collection of data. Two separate questionnaire were designed for two (2) respondents i.e. students and some tutors of the selected colleges of study. The questionnaire were designed in a way that factual information could easily be obtained from the respondents. Forty questionnaires were given to the respondents, in each college selected. The respondents were given time to answer the questions. The respondents were collected after some time. Out of the forty questionnaires all forty questionnaires were received in the case of St. John Bosco’s, St. Joseph’s and Seventh Day Adventist Colleges while thirty-five were received from Accra College. In the case of tutors, questionnaire were made available for each of the colleges visited.

3.5.1 Questionnaire Questionnaire is a data collecting instrument used to gather factual information. In questionnaire, a set of questions are well designed and usually printed on papers. The questions could be open-ended form or closed-form

53

which are administered or distributed out to prospective respondents. Mainly an open-ended question is the one that requires people to give a comment or an opinion rather than a yes or no answer. Whiles close-ended question form limits and answer to yes or no or giving options to choose an appropriate answer.

3.5.2. Interview Interview can be defined as a oral questionnaire used to solicit the views of people concerning given issues or events. It is usually a face-to-face verbal relationship used rather than asking interviewee to write. There is the need for the interviewer to establish a good rapport between him and the interviewee before the interview in conducted. Interview questions could either be openended form or close-ended form. The open-ended form calls for free response in the respondents own choice of words, while the close-ended form calls for short checked response. The researcher used a validated interview guide with advance notice and copies sent to interviewee included a checklist for the interviewee to tick the appropriate responses.

3.5.3 Data Collection Procedures The researcher made use of questionnaire, interview and observation as research instruments for collecting data. In an attempt to collect data for the study, some questionnaire were designed and administered by the researcher and were given to the respondents. Between thirty-five and forty copies of questionnaire were given to respondents in each of the Colleges visited.

54

Respondents were given one hour to answer the questions. Responses were collected after one hour. Due to the presence of the researcher at the various colleges visited respondents submitted all questionnaires given out.

3.5.4 Data Analysis Plan Data collected were assembled, analysed, interpreted, conclusions drawn and recommendations made. This is presented in the next chapter.

55

CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS Personal Information – St. John Bosco’s College - Navrongo U/E Research Q.1 What is the average age of U.T.D.B.E trainee? Table 4.1 Age Group of Trainees Age

Number of Respondents

Percentage

25 – 30 years

3

7.5

31 – 35 years

4

10.0

36 – 40 years

4

10.0

41 – 45 years

4

10.0

46 – 50 years

10

25.0

50 years and above

15

37.5

Total

40

100

The Table 4.1 above shows six age groups of the respondents. From the table of forty students (37.5%) were above 50 years. This is followed by ages between forty-six to fifty recorded by the respondents. There is ample evidence that students enrolled in the programme were above the age thirty-five. This means the programme enrolled over-aged trainees. Ages of students admitted in the programme is very high and this affected their learning. Most of them are responsible parents and had to combine solving family issues together with learning activities. This never helped them in their studies as far as the programme was concerned.

56

Table 4.2 Occupation of Respondents before Enrollment Occupation

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Teaching

25

62.5

Non-Teaching

15

37.5

Total

40

100

Table 4.2 shows the occupation respondents were engaged in before their enrollment in the programme. (62.5%) were already in the teaching service while (37.5%) were also engaged in other occupation not necessary teaching. The Table indicated that greater number of students were already in the teaching profession before being enrolled in the programme. Since they were already in the teaching profession they are supposed to learn and teach better than they used to be. It could be said that their experience in the teaching played a good ground for their training.

Table 4.3 Number of Years of Respondents in the Teaching Service Year

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Less than a year

2

5.0

2 – 5 years

3

7.5

6 – 10 years

10

25.0

10 and above

25

62.5

Total

40

100.0

57

In Table 4.3, majority of the respondents (62.5%) have been in the teaching service for over ten years. However, (5%) of the respondents have been in the teaching profession in less than a year. Since most of the trainees have been in the profession for a longer period of years they could perform better under the programme.

Table 4.4 Class Taught Class

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Kindergarten

30

75.0

Primary 1 to Primary 6

10

25.0

Total

40

100.0

Table 4.4 shows (75%) of the trainees were teaching at the kindergarten. However, ten respondents representing 25% also taught at the basic level i.e primary 1 – primary 6. Most trainees i.e. 75% taught at the lower level i.e. kindergarten and with little training under the programme could teach better at the basic level.

Table 4.5

Respondents Interviewed before Enrollment

Responses

Number of

Percentage

Respondents Yes

10

25

No

30

75

Total

40

100.0

58

Table 4.5 indicates that (75%) of the trainees were not interviewed before being enrolled in the programme. Those who went through interview process were about 25%. Since there were criteria set for enrollment of trainees, the criteria should have been followed. This created a situation where unqualified trainees were enrolled into the programme. These were the trainees who found learning situation very difficult. Recruiting unqualified trainees into the programme makes teaching very difficult and also good products cannot come out from the trainees and eventually affects teaching at the basic level.

Table 4.6

Availability of Art Materials for Practicals (College Based)

Responses

Number of

Percentage

Respondents Yes

5

12.5

No

35

87.5

Total

40

100.0

Table 4.6 shows 35 respondents representing (87.5%) complained about the colleges not providing art materials for practicals. Five of them also representing twelve and a half percent 12.5% answered in the affirmative that there are somehow some art materials for practical work. Nevertheless, the response shown in Table 1.6 above indicates that inadequate art materials are supplied by the colleges for practical work. A factor that militates against effective teaching of art as far as practical work is concerned in schools. Logically, for pupils at the basic level to get maximum training in Visual Arts

59

(80%) practical time should be given to the teaching of the subject while(20%) theory time should be given to the teaching of the subject. In a case where there are no Art materials for the teaching of the subject, children tend to suffer as far as the teaching of Art is concerned.

Table 4.7

Retention of Material Learnt

Responses

Number of

Percentage

Respondents Yes

15

37.5

No

25

62.5

Total

40

100.0

Table 4.7 demonstrates that (62.5%) of the 25 respondents have problems of recollecting or remembering what they read and learnt. This could be attributed to either old age or long absence of reading. The fact that aged trainees are selected for the programme, there is the possibility that over-aged trainees would find it difficult to remember what they have read and learnt. In effect, these type of trainees cannot be trained to teach at the basic level and if it does happen, then pupils at the basic level would not received the quality of education required of them.

60

Table 4.8 Availability of Adequate Furniture and Chairs Responses

Number of

Percentage

Respondents Yes

5

12.5

No

35

87.5

Total

40

100.0

Table 4.8 shows there are not enough tables and chairs to accommodate the large intake of students for the programme. (87.5%) of the trainees had no tables and chairs. In a situation like this effective learning cannot take place. One needs to study under good conditions where tables and chairs should be made available. Trainees standing while lectures are delivered would not promote effective learning.

Table 4.9

Availability of Art Studios

Responses

Number of

Percentage

Respondents Yes

5

12.5

No

35

87.5

Total

40

100.0

Table 4.9 indicates that (87.5%) of the trainees complained there are no Art Studios for practical works. Since the subject Visual Arts is practical oriented each selected college should have well-equipped studio for effective

61

teaching and leaning of the subject. Effective learning of the subject would not be assured since there are no studios for Art practical works.

Table 4.10 Where Art Practicals are Organised

Location

Number of

Percentage

Respondents Art Studio

5

12.5

Classroom

35

87.5

Total

40

100.0

Table 4.10 demonstrates that most art practicals are carried out in the classrooms indicating there are not enough art studios for practicals. (87.5%) of the respondents complained Art workds are done in the classrooms. Practicals in Visual Arts should be carried out in the studio and not in a classroom so that if one could not finish his/her work it could be continued at another time at the studio. The classroom could not be the right option because the class must be tidied up for the next lesson to take place.

Table 4.11 Credit Hours for Art in a Week Credit Hours

Number of Respondents

Percentage

2

40

100

4

0

0

Total

40

100.0

62

Table 4.11 shows only two-credit hours is given to the teaching of art in a week, a situation which will not promote effective teaching and learning of the subject. (100%) of the respondents agreed for the fact that two credit hours is given to the teaching of the subject in a week. In order for the trainees to learn the subject, ample credit hours should be given to the study of the subject for trainees to teaching effectively at the basic level.

63

Personal Information St. Joseph’s College of Education – Bechem, B/A Research Q.1 What is the average age of U.T.D.B.E. Trainee? Table 4:1 Age Group of Trainees Age

No. of Respondents

Percentage

25 – 30 years

4

10.0

31 – 35 years

3

7.5

36 – 40 years

4

10.0

41 – 45 years

4

10.0

46 – 50 years

12

30.0

50 years and above

13

32.8

Total

40

100

From the Table 4.1 thirteen respondents represented fifty years and above students were above fifty years. Fifty years and above recorded (32.5%). Lowest age group between twenty-five and thirty also recorded ten percent (10%). There is ample evidence that students enrolled under the programme were above thirty years. Ages of students admitted for the programme is very high and this affected their learning. Most of the were responsible parents and had to combine solving family issues together learning activities. This never helped them in their studies as far the programme was concerned. Table 4.2 Occupation of Respondents before Enrollment Occupation

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Teaching

30

75.0

Non-Teaching

10

25.0

Total

40

100

64

Table 4.2 shows seventy-five percent (75%) were enrolled in the teaching service before the programme, while twenty-five percent (25%) were not in the teaching service before enrolled in the programme. Table 4.2 The table indicated that greater number of students were already in the teaching profession before being enrolled in the programme. Since they were already in the teaching profession, they are supposed to learn and to teach better than they used to be. It could be said that their experience in the teaching played a good ground for their training.

Table 4.3 Number of Years of Respondents in the Teaching Service Year

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Less than a Year

3

7.5

2 – 5 years

2

5.0

6 – 10 years

10

25.0

10 and above

25

62.5

Total

40

100

In Table 4.3 majority of respondents (62.5%) have been in the teaching service for over ten years. However (7.5%) of the respondents have been in the teaching profession in less than a year. Since most trainees have been in the profession for a longer period, they could perform better under the programme.

65

Table 4.4 Class Taught Class

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Kindergarten

25

62.5

Primary 1 to Primary 6

15

37.5

Total

40

100

Table 4.4 shows (62.5%) of the trainees were teaching at the kindergarten. However, fifteen respondents representing (37.5%) also taught at the basic level i.e. primary 1 – primary 6. Most trainees i.e. (62.5%) taught at the lower level i.e. kindergarten and with the little training under the programme could teach better at the basic level.

Table 4.5 Respondents Interviewed before Enrollment Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

15

37.5

No

25

62.5

Total

40

100

Table 4.5 indicates (62.5%) were not interviewed before being enrolled in the programme. Those who went through interview process were about (37.5%). The remaining 62.5% did not go through any interview before being enrolled into the programme. Since there were criteria set for enrollment of trainees, the criteria for interview should have been followed. This created a situation where unqualified trainees were enrolled into the programme. These 66

were the trainees who found learning situation very difficult. Recruiting unqualified trainees into the programme makes teaching difficult and also good product cannot come out from the trainees and will eventually affect teaching at the basic level.

Table 4.6 Availability of Art Materials for Practicals (College Based) Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

4

10

No

36

90

Total

40

100

Majority of the respondents, 36 of them representing 90% complained about the colleges not providing Art materials for practicals. Four of them also representing ten percent answered in the affirmative that there is somehow some art materials for practical work. Nevertheless, the response shown in Table 1.6 indicates that inadequate Art materials are supplied by the colleges for practical works. A factor that militate against effective teaching of art as far practical work is concerned in schools. Logically, for pupils at the basic level to get maximum training in Visual Arts (80%) practical time should be given to the teaching of the subject while (20%) theory time should be given to the teaching of the subject. In a case where there are no Art materials for the teaching of the subject, children tend to suffer as far as the teaching of Art is concerned.

67

Table 4.7 Retention of Material Learnt Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

10

25.0

No

30

75.0

Total

40

100

Table 4.7 demonstrates (75.5%) of the respondents have problems of recollecting or remembering what they have read and learnt. This could be attributed to either old age or long absence of reading. The fact that aged trainees are selected for the programme, there is the possibility that over-aged trainees would find it difficult to remember what they have read and learnt. In effect, these types of trainees cannot be trained to teach at the basic level and if it does happen, then pupils at the basic level would not received the quality of education required of them.

Table 4.8 Availability of Adequate Furniture Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

4

10

No

36

90

Total

40

100

Table 4.8 shows there are not enough tables and chairs to accommodate the large intake of students for the programme. (90%) of the trainees have no tables and chairs. In a situation like this effective learning cannot take place. 68

One needs to study under good conditions where tables and chairs should be made available. Trainees standing while lectures are delivered would not promote effective learning.

Table 4.9

Availability of Art Studios

Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

3

7.5

No

37

92.5

Total

40

100

Table 4.9 indicates that (92.5%) of the trainees complained of nonexistence of Art Studios for practical works. Since the subject Visual Arts is practical oriented each selected college should have well equipped studio for effective teaching and learning of the subject. Effective learning of the subject would not be assured since there are no studios for Art practical works

Table 4.10

Where Art Pacticals are Organized

Location

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Art Studio

5

12.5

Classroom

35

87.5

Total

40

100

Table 4.10 demonstrate that most Art practicals are carried out in the classrooms indicating there are not enough art studios for practicals. (87.5) of the respondents complained Art works are done in the classrooms. Practicals in

69

Visual Arts should be carried out in the studio and not in the classroom so that if one could finish his/her work it could be continued at another time at the studio. The classroom could not be the right option because the class must be tidied up for the next lesson to take place.

Table 4.11 Credit Hours for Art in A week Credit Hours

No. of Respondents

Percentage

2

40

37.5

4

0

0

Total

40

100

Table 4.11 shows only two-credit hours is given to the teaching of Art in a week, a situation which will not promote effective teaching and learning of the said subject. (100%) of the respondents agreed for the fact that two credit hours is given to the teaching of the subject in a week. In order for the trainees to learn, ample credit hours should be given to the study of the subject for them to teach effectively at the basic level.

70

Personal Information Seventh Day Adventist College of Education – Koforidua, E/R Research Q.1 What is the average age of U.T.D.B.E Trainee? Table 4.1 Age Group of Trainees Age

No. of Respondents

Percentage

25 – 30 years

3

7.5

31 – 35 years

4

10.0

36 – 40 years

4

10.0

41 – 45 years

4

10.0

46 – 50 years

10

25.0

50 years and above

15

37.5

Total

40

100

Table 4.1 shows six age groups of respondents. From the table of forty students (37.5%) were above fifty years. Ages of students admitted fro the programme is very high and this affected their learning. Most of them are responsible parents and had to combine solving family issues together with learning activities. This never helped them in their studies as far as the programme was concerned.

Table 4.2 Occupations of Respondents before Enrollment Occupation

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Teaching

25

62.5

Non-Teaching

15

37.5

Total

40

100

71

Table shows (62.5%) were enrolled in the teaching service before the programme while over thirty-seven were not in the teaching service before enrolled in the programme. The table indicated that greater number of students were already in the teaching profession. Since they were already in the teaching profession they are supported to learn and to teach better than they used to be. It could be said that their experience in the teaching played a good ground for their learning. Table 4.3 Numbers of Years of Respondents in the Teaching Service Years

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Less that a year

1

2.5

2 – 5 years

4

10.0

6 – 10 years

10

25.0

10 and above

25

62.5

Total

40

100

In Table 4.3, majority of respondents (62.5%) have been in the teaching service for over ten years. However, 2.5 of the respondents have been in the teaching profession in less than a year. Since most trainees have been in the teaching profession for a longer period they could perform better under the programme.

72

Table 4.4 Class Taught Class

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Kindergarten

20

50

Primary 1 to Primary 6

20

50

Total

40

100

Table 4.4 shows (50%) of the trainees were teaching at Kindergarten. However, 20 respondents representing (50%) also taught at the basic level i.e. primary 1- primary 6. Because trainees have been teaching at the lower level for a long period of years when given little training they could teach better.

Table 4.5 Respondents Interviewed before Enrollment

Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

10

25.0

No

30

75.0

Total

40

100

Table 4.5 indicates (75%) were not interviewed before enrolled in the programme. Those who went through interview process were 25%. The remaining 75% did go through any interview before enrolled into the programme. Since there were criteria set for the enrollment of trainees, the criteria for interview should have been followed. This created a situation where unqualified trainees were enrolled into the programme. These were the trainees who found learning situation very difficult. Recruiting unqualified trainees into

73

the programme makes teaching difficult and also good product cannot come out from the trainees and will eventually affect teaching at the basic level.

Table 4.6

Availability of Art Materials for Practicals (College Based)

Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

2

5.0

No

38

95.0

Total

40

100

In Table 4.6, 38 respondents representing (95%) complained about the colleges not providing Art materials for practicals. Two of them also representing (5%) answered in the affirmative that there is somehow some Art materials for practical work. A factor that militate against effective teaching of Art as far as practical work is concerned in schools. Logically, for pupils at the basic level to get maximum training in Visual Arts (80%) practical time should be given to the teaching of the subject while (20%) theory time should be given to the teaching of the subject. In a case where there are no Art materials for the teaching of the subject, children tend to suffer as far as the teaching of Art is concerned.

74

Table 4.7 Retention of Material Learnt Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

10

25.0

No

30

75.0

Total

40

100

Table 4.7above indicates (75%) of the respondents have problems in remembering what is taught them. This could be attributed to either old age or long absence of reading. The fact that aged trainees are selected for the programme, there is the possibility that over-aged trainees would find it difficult to remember what they have read and learnt. In effect, these types of trainees cannot be trained to teach at the basic level and if it does happen, then pupils at the basic level would not received the quality of education required of them.

Table 4.8 Availability of Adequate Furniture Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

5

12.5

No

35

87.5

Total

40

100

Table 4.8 shows there are not enough tables and chairs. (87.5%) of the trainees had no tables and chairs. In a situation like this, effective learning cannot take place. One needs to study under good conditions where tables and chairs should be made available for trainees to use. Trainees standing while learning would not made learning effective. 75

Table 4.9 Availability of Art Studios Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

3

7.5

No

37

92.5

Total

40

100

Table 4.9 indicates that (92.5%) of the trainees complained of nonexistence of Art Studio for practical works. Since the subject Visual Arts is practical oriented each college should have well-equipped studio for effective teaching and learning of the subject. . Effective learning of the subject would not be assured since there are no studios for Art practical works

Table 4.10 Where Art Practicals are Organized Location

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Art Studio

2

5.0

Classroom

38

95.0

Total

40

100

Table 4.10 shows 95% of Art practical works are done in the classroom while 5% of them also stated Art practical works are done in the Art studio. Practical works should be carried out in the Art Studio and not in the classroom. In the classroom situation, the class should be tidied up for the next lesson studio to be continued at another time.

76

Table 4.11 Credit Hours for Art in a week

Credit Hours

No. of Respondents

Percentage

2

40

37.5

4

0

0

Total

40

100

Table 4.11 shows only two-credit hours is given to the teaching of Art in a week, a situation which will not promote effective teaching and learning of the said subject. (100%) of the respondents agreed for the fact that two-credit hours is given to the teaching of the subject, Visual Arts in a week. In order for the trainees to learn the subject, ample credit hours should bed given to the study of the subject for the trainees to teach effectively at the basic level.

77

Personal Information Accra College of Education – Accra, Greater Accra Research Q.1 What is the average age of U.T.D.B.E Trainee? Table 4.1

Age Group of Trainee

Age

No. of Respondents

Percentage

25 – 30 years

3

8.6

31 – 35 years

3

8.6

36 – 40 years

3

8.6

41 – 45 years

3

8.6

46 – 50 years

8

22.8

50 years and above

15

42.8

Total

40

100

Table 4.1 shows six age groups of the respondents. From the table of thirty-five students (42.8%) were above fifty years. This was followed by ages between 46 – 50 years with (22.8%). Ages of students admitted for the programme is very high and this affected their learning. Most of them are responsible parents and had to combine solving family issues coupled with learning activities. This never helped them in their studies as far as the programme was concerned. This means the programme enrolled over-aged trainees.

78

Table 4.2 Occupation of Respondents before Enrollment

Occupation

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Teaching

30

85.7

Non-Teaching

5

14.3

Total

35

100

Table 4.2 shows (87.7%) were enrolled in the teaching service before the programme while (14.3%) were not in the teaching service before enrolled in the programme. Since students were already teaching when enrolled into the programme they could cope up with learning with little effort.

Table 4.3 Number of Years of Respondents in the Teaching Service Years

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Less that a year

3

8.6

2 – 5 years

4

10.4

6 – 10 years

8

22.9

10 years and above

20

57.9

Total

35

100

Table 4.3, majority of respondents (57.9%) have been in the teaching service for over ten years. However (8.6%) of the respondents have been in the service in less than a year. Since most trainees have been in the teaching

79

profession for a longer period of years they could perform better under the programme.

Table 4.4 Class Taught Class

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Kindergarten

20

57.1

Primary 1 to Primary 6

15

42.9

Total

35

100

Table 4.4 shows (57.1%) of respondents were teaching at the kindergarten. However, fifteen respondents representing 42.9% also taught at the basic level i.e. primary 1 – primary 6. Most trainees i.e. (57.1%) taught at the lower level i.e. Kindergarten and with little training under the programme could teach better at the basic level.

Table 4.5 Respondents Interviewed before Enrollment

Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

15

42.9

No

20

57.1

Total

35

100

Table 4.5 indicates (57.1%) were not interviewed before enrolled in the programme. Those who went through interviewed process were 42.9%. The

80

remaining 57.1% did not go through any interview before enrolled into the programme. Since there were criteria set for enrollment of trainees the criteria should have been used for the selection of trainees. This resulted in a situation where unqualified trainees were enrolled into the programme. These trainees were those who found learning difficult. Recruiting unqualified trainees into the programme makes teaching difficult and also good product cannot come out from the trainees and will eventually affect teaching at the basic level.

Table 4.6 Availability of Art Materials for Practicals (College Based) Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

5

14.3

No

30

85.7

Total

35

100

Table 4.6 indicates 30 respondents representing (85.7%) complained about the colleges not providing Art materials for practicals. Five of them also representing (14.3%) answered in the affirmative that there are somehow some Art materials for practical work. Nevertheless, the responses show inadequate Art materials are supplied by the college for practical works. A factor that militates against effective teaching of Art as far as practical work is concerned in schools. Logically, for pupils at the basic level to get maximum training in Visual Arts (80%) practical time should be given to the teaching of the subject while (20%) theory time should be given to the teaching of the subject. In a case

81

where there are no Art materials for the teaching of the subject, children tend to suffer as far as the teaching of Art is concerned.

Table 4.7 Retention of Material Learnt Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

10

28.6

No

25

71.4

Total

35

100

Table 4.7 demonstrates that (71.4%) of the 25 respondents have problems of remembering what has been learnt. This could be attributed to either old age or long absence of reading. The fact that aged trainees are selected for the programme, there is the possibility that over-aged trainees would find it difficult to remember what they have read and learnt. In effect, these types of trainees cannot be trained to teach at the basic level and if it does happen, then pupils at the basic level would not received the quality of education required of them.

Table 4.8 Availability of Adequate Furniture Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

5

14.3

No

30

85.7

Total

40

100

82

Table 4.8 shows there are not enough tables and chairs to accommodate the large intake of students for the programme. (85.7%) of the trainees had no tables and learning cannot take place. One needs to study under good conditions where tables and chairs should be made available for trainees to use. Trainees standing while lectures are delivered could not promote effective learning.

Table 4.9 Availability of Art Studios Responses

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

3

8.6

No

32

91.4

Total

35

100

Table indicates that (91.4%) of the trainees complained of non-existence of Art Studio for practical works. Since the subject Visual Arts is practical oriented each selected college should have well equipped studio for effective teaching and learning of the subject. Effective learning of the subject would not be assured since there are no studios for Art practical works.

Table 4.10 Where Art Practicals are Organized Location

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Art Studio

5

14.3

Classroom

30

85.7

Total

35

100

83

Table 4.10 demonstrates that most Art practicals are carried out in the classrooms indicating there are not enough art studios for practicals. (87.7%) of the respondents complained Art works are done in the classrooms. Practicals in Visual Arts should be carried out in the studio and not in the classrooms so that if one could not finish his or her work it could be continued at another time at the studio. Classroom could not be the right option for it must be tidied up for next class to commence.

Table 4.11 Credit Hours for Art in A week Credit Hours

No. of Respondents

Percentage

2

35

100

4

0

0

Total

35

100

Table 4.11 shows only two-credit hours is given to the teaching of Art in a week, a situation which will not promote effective teaching and learning of the said subject. (100%) of the respondents agreed for the fact that two-credit hours is given to the teaching of the subject in a week. In order for the trainees to learn and teach the subject, ample credit hours should be given to the study of the subject for trainees to teach effectively at the basic level.

84

Academic Qualification for Tutors Table 4.2.1 Qualification Qualification

Number of

Percentage

Respondents 1st Degree (BA, BSC)

8

20.0

1st Degree (B.ed)

8

20.0

2nd Degree ( MA, M.ed)

12

30.0

2nd Degree (M.Phil)

12

30.0

Total

40

100

Table 4.2.1 indicates that (20%) are 1st Degree (BA,B.Sc) holders, 20% are also 1st Degree (B.ed) holders. Majority of the tutors in the colleges have their 2nd Degrees with (MA, M.ed) and (M. Phil). This represents 30% each. Tutors at the colleges have the qualification to teach effectively at the colleges. Table 4.2.2 Years Taught in Training College Years

Number of Respondents

Percentage

Less than 5 yrs

10

25.0

5 – 10 years

12

30.0

10 – 15 years

8

20.0

More than 15 years

10

25.0

Total

40

100

85

Table 4.2.3 shows majority of tutors have taught between five and ten years. This represents about 30%. Tutors who have taught for more than fifteen years represent (25%). Since tutors have taught for more than ten years they should be able to teach effectively at the colleges. Tutors would be conversant with the training college programme and therefore could deliver effectively as far as teaching is concerned.

Table 4.2.4 Availability of Material for Practicals (Visual Art) Responses

Number of

Percentage

Respondents Yes

10

25.0

No

30

75.0

Total

40

100

Table 4.2.4 shows (75%) complained about non-availability of art materials for practicals. Ten respondents representing 25% responded in affirmative that there are materials for practical works. In a situation where materials for the teaching of Art is not available trainees find it difficult to understand. A good Art tutor should involve his students in practicals for better understanding.

86

Table 4.2.5 How does this affect Learning? Responses

Number of

Percentage

Respondents Yes

10

75.0

No

30

25.0

Total

40

100

Table 4.2.5 indicates non-availability of materials for art affects teaching and learning of the subject. This is evident because 75% representing 30 respondents had it on the high side. Ten respondents representing 25% responded lack of art materials did not affect teaching and learning of visual art. For effective teaching and learning of subject like Visual Arts the teacher should employ a lot of practicals for trainees to be equipped with skills.

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CHAPTER FIVE

5.0

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the problems with the Visual Arts component of the untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education and also to examine problems and propose interventions. The researcher did all he could to write the following findings. 1. Concerning ages of students enrolled in the programmed it was evident that majority of enrolled students were between ages forty to fifty years. Greater percentages were above the ages of fifty years. 2. It was also confirmed that most students were already in the teaching service before being enrolled into the programmed. Few students were not in the service before being enrolled into the programmed. 3. Majority of enrolled students who had stayed in the teaching profession were teaching in the kindergarten. Findings proved that they had been teaching in Kindergarten and in the primary level. 4. This is not all, findings also revealed that majority of the enrolled students were not interviewed before enrolled in the programme. Results also indicated that very few students went through interview before being enrolled into the programme. 4. In the case of availability of materials, for practical works in visual art, majority of students complained of non-availability of art materials for practical

88

works. However, very few students indicated that there were supplied with some art materials. 6. Most students had difficulty in recollecting what has been learnt. They have very low retentive memory. 7. The research also revealed that majority of the colleges do not have enough tables and chairs to accommodate students in their various classrooms. 8. It was also confirmed that most colleges had no Art studio for practical works. Most Art works are done in the classrooms a condition which is not conducive to the teaching and learning of visual art. 9. It was evident from findings that number of periods allocated to the teaching of visual art was not enough. Results collated from colleges revealed only twocredit hours were allocated to the teaching and learning of the subject.

5.2 Conclusions From the findings, it has been revealed that most students enrolled in the programme are over aged. Learning becomes very difficult for some students who are above the ages forty to fifty and above. It is very good that most students enrolled in the programme were already in the teaching profession while some of them were not in the teaching profession. Those not in the profession could encounter problems in their studies as some of them may not be teachers.

89

Most students were made to teach at the kindergarten and at the primary level. Most of these teachers had been teaching at these lower level for a long period of time. Most students enrolled in the programme were not interviewed. It is only through interviews that eligible students could be selected for the programme. Visual Arts materials were lacking at most colleges. Since the subject visual art is practical oriented there is the need to involve student in practical works. Without art materials practical work cannot go on successfully. Most students in this programme have low retentive memory. This could be attributed to the fact that most of them are old. They find it difficult to remember what has been taught. Family problems could also be another factor as most of them could not cope up with learning and family problems. Lack of enough tables and chairs also impede teaching and learning. Most colleges had problem of enough tables and chairs to accommodate the large intake of students. Normally practical works for visual art is done in art studio. Since most colleges do not have art studio, practical works are organized in the classroom, a situation which is not conducive to the teaching and learning of visual art. It is clear that only two periods was allocated to the teaching and learning of visual art. This two-credit hour is not enough.

90

5.3. Recommendations Based on the above conclusions, some policy directions are suggested: Government should come out with age-limit in terms of selection of students for the programme. Since ages above forty years find it difficult to learn. Government should always insist on enrolling trainees already in the teaching profession for this would ensure smooth learning process. Again, once they are already in the teaching profession coping up with learning would not be all that difficult. Most students enrolled taught at the kindergarten and lower primary due to their academic qualification. Ghana education should organize periodic courses for these students to upgrade their knowledge. Since interview was one of the criteria for the enrollment, government should insist on District Education Office(s) to do proper screening to enroll good trainees for the programme. Government should again equip the colleges where the programmes are organized with Visual Arts materials for effective teaching and learning of the subject. Since some trainees had the difficulty of retention of memory that would be the reason why proper screening should be done in case of interview to disqualified trainees with such difficulty. In future the government should furnish the colleges with enough table and chairs to accommodate the large intake of students into the programme.

91

Each college should acquire large and spacious and well-equipped art studio for the teaching and learning of practical works. Visual Arts being practical oriented subject should attract ample credit hours on the time table for effective teaching and learning of the subject. Two-hour period allocated for the teaching of the subject is not enough and it will not promote effective teaching and learning of the subject. Government should have run short courses for trainees and after examination admit them into the existing training colleges rather than enrolling trainees into the programme. Policy issues about U.T.D.B.E Constitutional Mandate was a good policy but the fact that the participants will play key role in leadership and implementation of curriculum in the basic schools and the community need to be considered. The government should have run short courses for the trainees and after examinations admit them into the existing training colleges. Most participants’ academic background are very weak such that the period for the training is not adequate for participants to acquire enough knowledge and skills to teach children at the basic level. Policies by the government may sound good but its implementation sometimes hinder the smooth running of the programme with respect to the teaching and learning of visual art.

92

REFERENCES Bloom, B.S. (1971). Handbook On Summative Evaluation of Students Learning. New York: McGraw Hill. Pp. 7-8 DAC Evaluation Quality Standards (see http://www.oecd.org). Accessed: 4th Dec. 2008 Farrant, J.S. (1980). Principles and Practice of Education. UK: Longman Group Ltd. P. 168. Handbook for UTDBE programme through Distance Education, (2003) Accra: GES. Kifer, E. (1995). Evaluation. A General View, Englewood. pp. 384 – 392. Molenda, Pershing, Reigeluth (1996); cited in Molenda & Pershing. Newby (1992). In Training Evaluation Handbook. San Diego, ch 3. Ogunniyi, M.B (1990). Educational Measurement and Evaluation. Nigeria: Longman, p.6 Tamakloe, Amedahe, Atta, (1996). Principles and Methods of Teaching. Accra: Black Mask Ltd. Accra, p 59 Thorpe, M. (1993). Evaluating Open and Distance Learning (2nd ed.). U.K: Longman Group Ltd. p. xv.

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APPENDIX ‘A’ St. John Bosco’s College Of Education Interview Guide for Students

I am Frimpong Allan Kay, MA Student in the Department of General Art Studies, Faculty of Fine Art, College of Art and Social Sciences – Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. I am evaluating the Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education – Visual Arts programme in selected colleges of Education in Ghana. In view of this, you are kindly requested to respond to the following items to enable me complete work on the evaluation process. You are however assured of confidentially of your views and anonymity of any details provided. Thank you. 1. Which of the phase do you belong to? a) Phase I b) Phase II c) Phase III d) Phase IV 2. In which Region is your College? 1. Ashanti 2. Brong Ahafo 3. Central 4. Eastern

94

5. Greater Accra 6. Northern 7. Upper West 8. Upper East 9. Volta 10. Western 3. Age a) 25 – 30 years b) 31 – 35 years c) 36 – 40 years d) 46 – 50 years

4. Were you doing any work before enrolling in this programme? a) Yes

b) No

5. If “Yes” state the work………………………………………………………..

6. If “No” state your occupation………………………………………………… 7. How long have you been teaching? a) Less than a year b) 2 – 5 years c) 6 – 10 years d) 10 years and above

95

8. What class (Basic Level) have you been teaching for the past years? a) Kindergarten b) Primary 1 – Primary 6 9. Are you still teaching? a) Yes

b) No

10. Were you examined and interviewed before enrolled on the programme? a) Yes

b) No

11. How often do you access the following materials? (Please tick [ √ ] No

Item

(a)

Internet

(b)

Course modules

(c)

Circuit –based Tutorials

(d)

Cluster-based Meetings

(e)

Residential face-to-face

Never

Sometimes

Always

12. How often do you meet the following people at your district meetings? No

Item

(a)

Circuit Supervisors

(b)

School Mentors

(c)

Cadres

(d)

Training College Tutors

Never

Sometimes

Always

13. Have your ever received any sponsorship whiles on the programme? a) Yes

b) No

96

14. State the source of sponsorship if Yes.....................………………………… 15. Do you have problems as far as learning is concerned? a) Yes

b) No

16. If “Yes” state the problem…………………………………………………….

17. Do your college have enough tables and chairs to accommodate students in the classroom? a) Yes

b) No

18. Do your college have spacious art studio for practical work? a) Yes

b) No

19. If “No” where do you do practical work…………………………………….. 20. How many credit hours do you have for the learning of visual arts in a week?………………………………………………………………….………… 21. Do you think the credit hours allocated to the teaching of art is enough? a) Yes

b) No

22. How do you obtain materials for your practicals? Tick where applicable [√ ] a) College provides b) Students provide c) Tutors provide

97

APPENDIX ‘B’ St. Joseph’s College Of Education Interview Guide for Students

I am Frimpong Allan Kay, MA Student in the Department of General Art Studies, Faculty of Fine Art, College of Art and Social Sciences – Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. I am evaluating the Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education – Visual Arts programme in selected colleges of Education in Ghana. In view of this, you are kindly requested to respond to the following items to enable me complete work on the evaluation process. You are however assured of confidentially of your views and anonymity of any details provided. Thank you. 1. Which of the phase do you belong to? a) Phase I b) Phase II c) Phase III d) Phase IV 2. In which Region is your College? 1. Ashanti 2. Brong Ahafo 3. Central 4. Eastern

98

5. Greater Accra 6. Northern 7. Upper West 8. Upper East 9. Volta 10. Western 3. Age a) 25 – 30 years b) 31 – 35 years c) 36 – 40 years d) 46 – 50 years 4. Were you doing any work before enrolling in this programme? a) Yes

b) No

5. If “Yes” state the work………………………………………………………..

6. If “No” state your occupation………………………………………………… 7. How long have you been teaching? a) Less than a year b) 2 – 5 years c) 6 – 10 years d) 10 years and above 8. What class (Basic Level) have you been teaching for the past years? a) Kindergarten

99

b) Primary 1 – Primary 6 9. Are you still teaching? a) Yes

b) No

10. Were you examined and interviewed before enrolled on the programme? a) Yes

b) No

11. How often do you access the following materials? (Please tick [ √ ] No

Item

(a)

Internet

(b)

Course modules

(c)

Circuit –based Tutorials

(d)

Cluster-based Meetings

(e)

Residential face-to-face

Never

Sometimes

Always

12. How often do you meet the following people at your district meetings? No

Item

(a)

Circuit Supervisors

(b)

School Mentors

(c)

Cadres

(d)

Training College Tutors

Never

Sometimes

Always

13. Have your ever received any sponsorship whiles on the programme? a) Yes

b) No

100

14. State the source of sponsorship if Yes.....................………………………… 15. Do you have problems as far as learning is concerned? a) Yes

b) No

16. If “Yes” state the problem……………………………………………………. 17. Do your college have enough tables and chairs to accommodate students in the classroom? a) Yes

b) No

18. Do your college have spacious art studio for practical work? a) Yes

b) No

19. If “No” where do you do practical work……………………………………..

20. How many credit hours do you have for the learning of visual arts in a week? …………………………………………………………………………………… 21. Do you think the credit hours allocated to the teaching of art is enough? a) Yes

b) No

22. How do you obtain materials for your practicals? Tick where applicable [√ ] a) College provides b) Students provide c) Tutors provide

101

APPENDIX ‘C’ St. Seventh Day Adventist College of Education Interview Guide for Students

I am Frimpong Allan Kay, MA Student in the Department of General Art Studies, Faculty of Fine Art, College of Art and Social Sciences – Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. I am evaluating the Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education – Visual Arts programme in selected colleges of Education in Ghana. In view of this, you are kindly requested to respond to the following items to enable me complete work on the evaluation process. You are however assured of confidentially of your views and anonymity of any details provided. Thank you. 1. Which of the phase do you belong to? a) Phase I b) Phase II c) Phase III d) Phase IV 2. In which Region is your College? 1. Ashanti 2. Brong Ahafo 3. Central 4. Eastern

102

5. Greater Accra 6. Northern 7. Upper West 8. Upper East 9. Volta 10. Western 3. Age a) 25 – 30 years b) 31 – 35 years c) 36 – 40 years d) 46 – 50 years 4. Were you doing any work before enrolling in this programme? a) Yes

b) No

5. If “Yes” state the work………………………………………………………..

6. If “No” state your occupation…………………………………………………

7. How long have you been teaching? a) Less than a year b) 2 – 5 years c) 6 – 10 years d) 10 years and above 8. What class (Basic Level) have you been teaching for the past years? a) Kindergarten 103

b) Primary 1 – Primary 6

9. Are you still teaching? a) Yes

b) No

10. Were you examined and interviewed before enrolled on the programme? a) Yes

b) No

11. How often do you access the following materials? (Please tick [ √ ] No

Item

(a)

Internet

(b)

Course modules

(c)

Circuit –based Tutorials

(d)

Cluster-based Meetings

(e)

Residential face-to-face

Never

Sometimes

Always

12. How often do you meet the following people at your district meetings? No

Item

(a)

Circuit Supervisors

(b)

School Mentors

(c)

Cadres

(d)

Training College Tutors

Never

104

Sometimes

Always

13. Have your ever received any sponsorship whiles on the programme? a) Yes

b) No

14. State the source of sponsorship if Yes.....................……………………… 15. Do you have problems as far as learning is concerned? a) Yes

b) No

16. If “Yes” state the problem…………………………………………………. 17. Do your college have enough tables and chairs to accommodate students in the classroom? a) Yes

b) No

18. Do your college have spacious art studio for practical work? a) Yes

b) No

19. If “No” where do you do practical work………………………………….. 20. How many credit hours do you have for the learning of visual arts in a week?....................................................………………………………………… 21. Do you think the credit hours allocated to the teaching of art is enough? a) Yes

b) No

22. How do you obtain materials for your practicals? Tick where applicable [√ ] a) College provides b) Students provide c) Tutors provide 105

APPENDIX ‘D’ Accra College of Education Interview Guide for Students

I am Frimpong Allan Kay, MA Student in the Department of General Art Studies, Faculty of Fine Art, College of Art and Social Sciences – Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. I am evaluating the Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education – Visual Arts programme in selected colleges of Education in Ghana. In view of this, you are kindly requested to respond to the following items to enable me complete work on the evaluation process. You are however assured of confidentially of your views and anonymity of any details provided. Thank you. 1. Which of the phase do you belong to? a) Phase I b) Phase II c) Phase III d) Phase IV 2. In which Region is your College? 1. Ashanti 2. Brong Ahafo 3. Central 4. Eastern

106

5. Greater Accra 6. Northern 7. Upper West 8. Upper East 9. Volta 10. Western 3. Age a) 25 – 30 years b) 31 – 35 years c) 36 – 40 years d) 46 – 50 years 4. Were you doing any work before enrolling in this programme? a) Yes

b) No

5. If “Yes” state the work………………………………………………………..

6. If “No” state your occupation…………………………………………………

7. How long have you been teaching? a) Less than a year b) 2 – 5 years c) 6 – 10 years d) 10 years and above 8. What class (Basic Level) have you been teaching for the past years? a) Kindergarten 107

b) Primary 1 – Primary 6

9. Are you still teaching? a) Yes

b) No

10. Were you examined and interviewed before enrolled on the programme? a) Yes

b) No

11. How often do you access the following materials? (Please tick [ √ ] No

Item

(a)

Internet

(b)

Course modules

(c)

Circuit –based Tutorials

(d)

Cluster-based Meetings

(e)

Residential face-to-face

Never

Sometimes

Always

12. How often do you meet the following people at your district meetings? No

Item

(a)

Circuit Supervisors

(b)

School Mentors

(c)

Cadres

(d)

Training College Tutors

Never

108

Sometimes

Always

13. Have your ever received any sponsorship whiles on the programme? a) Yes

b) No

14. State the source of sponsorship if Yes.....................…………… …………… 15. Do you have problems as far as learning is concerned? a) Yes

b) No

16. If “Yes” state the problem………………………………………………. 17. Do your college have enough tables and chairs to accommodate students in the classroom? a) Yes

b) No

18. Do your college have spacious art studio for practical work? a) Yes

b) No

19. If “No” where do you do practical work…………………………………….. 20. How many credit hours do you have for the learning of visual arts in a week?.......................................................................................…………………. 21. Do you think the credit hours allocated to the teaching of art is enough? a) Yes

b) No

22. How do you obtain materials for your practicals? Tick where applicable [√ ] a) College provides b) Students provide c) Tutors provide

109

APPENDIX ‘E’ Interview Guide for Tutors I am Frimpong Allan Kay, MA Student in the Department of General Art Studies, Faculty of Fine Art, College of Art and Social Sciences – Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. I am evaluating the Untrained Teachers Diploma in Basic Education – Visual Arts programme in selected colleges of Education in Ghana. In view of this, you are kindly requested to respond to the following items to enable me complete work on the evaluation process. You are however assured of confidentially of your views and anonymity of any details provided. Thank you. 1. What is your position? a) Principal b) Vice Principal c) Vice Administration d) Tutor 2. Which of the phases of the UTDBE programme do you teach? a) Phase I b) Phase II c) Phase III d) Phase IV 3. Age a) Less than 30

110

b) 31 – 40 c) 41 – 50 d) 51 and Above 4. Your academic qualification a) 1st Degree (BA, B.Sc) b) 1st Degree (B.ed) c) 2nd Degree (MA, M.ed) d) 2nd Degree (M.Phil) 5. How long have you been teaching? a) Less than 5 years b) 5 – 10 years c) 10 – 15 years d) More than 15 years 6. How long have you been teaching in the training college? a) Less than 5 years b) 5 – 10 years c) 10 years and above 7. How often does your college support the UTDBE programme in providing the following services? (Please tick)

111

No. a

Item

Never

Sometimes

Always

Serve as resource persons during induction courses

b

Serve as facilitators during residential face-to-face meetings

c

Conduct semester examinations

d

Mark examination scripts

e

Set assignments, quizzes

8. How available are these support services to trainees in your college No.

Item

a

Course modules

b

Internet

c

Cluster-based meetings

d

Circuit-based tutorials

e

Residential face-to-face

Never

Sometimes

Always

9. What subject do you teach?................................................................................ 10. State the number of periods in a week ………………………………………. 11. State problems that you encounter in the teaching of your subject a) …………………………………………………………………… b) ………………………………………………………………………… c)………………………………………………………………………………… d)………………………………………………………………………………… 112

f)………………………………………………………………………………… g)………………………………………………………………………………… 12. Does the college provide materials for practical work? a) Yes b) No 13. Does this affect the teaching and learning of your subject? a) Yes b) No

113

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