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Copyright 0 Munksgaard 1996 ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVlCA ISSN 0001-690X

Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996: 94: 28.7-302 Printrd in U K - 011 rights reserved

ERIK ROBERT VOLTER STROMGREN 28 November 1909 - 15 March 1993 A Bio-Bibliography By JOHAN SCHIOLDANN and LIZZIE SAND STROMGREN With a preface by NORMAN SARTORIUS Acknowledgements

We wish to express our thanks for the assistance of the Medical Library, Gray lands Psychiatric Hospital, Perth, the Hugh M. Birch Library, Glenside Psychiatric Hospital, Adelaide and the Medical Research Library, Psychiatric Hospital in Aarhus (‘Risskov’). We also acknowledge the assistance of Dr 0. Laigaard, and wish to thank Maureen Bell (English text) and Ibolya Mauch-Puhalak (German text) for assisting with linguistic revision. We also extend our thanks to Professor Norman Sartorius for kindly writing the Preface. The financial support of Dansk Psykiatrisk Selskab (Danish Psychiatric Society), Psykiatrisk Forskningsfond (Psychiatric Research Fund), Dr med. Poul M.

Fargeman’s Legat, and Janssen-Cilag, Copenhagen, is gratefully acknowledged.

Professor Johan Schioldann, M D University of Adelaide Glenside Hospital, Adelaide South Australia Lizzie Sand Stromgren, M D University of Aarhus Psychiatric Hospital in Aarhus Risskov, Denmark


Erik Stromgren Preface

Erik Stromgren remains in our memory -my own, that of my family and also that of the many people who have worked with him as a humanist and a man of wisdom. True, his erudition was impressive, his contributions to science many and his efforts to maintain and improve care for the mentally ill prodigious and successful. However, it is his wisdom and commitment to humanitarian ideals which give depth to his image and make his disappearance so difficult to accept. The chief peculiarity of psychiatric illness is that its stigma is not only attached to those who are ill, but also to those who treat the mentally ill, to the institutions in which they receive care, and to the medicaments which are used in therapy. This is so in many countries, making the prevention and treatment of mental illness difficult, and reducing the opportunities for rehabilitation of those who have had the misfortune to suffer from mental illness. There are many ways to combat this stigma, all of which present difficulties. First, we can attempt to demonstrate that mental illness has characteristics of other diseases which are the subject of medicine. If we were to prove an organic basis to the disorders we treat, and if we could convincingly describe the pathogenesis of mental health problems, it would probably be easier to find support for mental health programmes and to mobilize communities in their implementation. Secondly, we could diminish the stigma and hopelessness that are often linked with the appearance of the disease if we were able to show that we can treat mental illness efficiently and humanely. To do this, we should learn more about mental illness and create institutions in which treatment and care will clearly prevail over incarceration and abuse. Thirdly, we could attempt to speak to the media and governments on behalf of our clients and their families; we could become the advocates of our patients’ rights to treatment, acceptable living conditions and reasonable prospects for the future. We would have to do this by spreading our own conviction that the people who suffer from mental illness deserve our societies’ support because they are like us, only in greater misery than most others. Finally, we could try to select mental health ambassadors to the general public and to governments much more effectively than is usually the case. If we were to be represented by outstanding people, it would become easier to present the evidence about the position of the mentally ill and to make the general public and governments take the necessary action.

With regard to the first three approaches described above, Professor Stromgren taught us all, worldwide, a very great deal. He performed outstandingly important research which demonstrated the nature of mental illness and made psychiatry a respectable part of medicine. The institutions which he directed, helped to create or built were marked by a profound humanitarian sense and by devotion to the goal of helping patients and their families. On the third path, too, in his contacts with governments at home and abroad, he was a model advocate for the right of the mentally ill to receive the best possible care and better conditions of life. With regard to the fourth approach, of reducing the stigma and improving the lot of those who are mentally ill, it is difficult to imagine anyone more adept than he was at dispelling the notion that psychiatrists, at best, have an average knowledge, and are often biased and inhumane guardians of societies’ ill-adjusted groups. Professor Stromgren proved the worth of the discipline of psychiatry by his achievements and by being an outstanding scholar, humanist and administrator, while remaining at all times witty and magnanimous. For all that he taught us and did for psychiatry, we should be grateful to Professor Stromgren, on behalf of both our profession and our patients. For being the humane person that he was we cannot thank him: we can only attempt to express our privilege of having known him by trying to emulate him in work and clarity of thought, in empathy with the disadvantaged and in commitment to teaching those who will follow us about ways of advancing our discipline and making the provision of care for those who are ill a humanitarian endeavour rather than a heartless trade.

Norman Sartorius Erik Stromgren: A Biographical Portrait

Erik Stromgren was born in 1909 in Copenhagen into a Swedish family of great academic tradition and ability. His father, Svante Elis Stromgren, after spending 6 years in Germany, became Professor of Astronomy at Copenhagen University and Director of the Copenhagen Observatory from 1907 until 1940. He was also an eminent figure in international astronomical collaboration. His research, especially with regard to the cosmogony of comets and the so-called three-body problem, was pioneering and crucial. Also a distinguished Latin scholar, he played a major role in the translation into modern languages of works describing Tycho Brahe’s and Ole Romer’s astronomical instruments. Stromgren’s mother, Hedvig, nee Lidforss,

A Bio-Bibliography was an internationally distinguished dentist and wrote many medical-odontological works. His brother, Bengt, followed in their father’s footsteps. His first scientific work was based on his astronomical observations when a boy of fourteen, and by the age of twenty-one he had been awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. He pioneered present-day knowledge of the gas clouds in space, the so-called ‘Stromgren spheres’, and he contributed to our understanding of the solar atmosphere. He also conducted original research in measuring stellar spectra using photoelectric techniques. He held many prestigious positions. In 1936, at the age of twenty-eight, he was appointed professor at the University of Chicago. In 1940 he succeeded his father as Professor of Astronomy at Copenhagen University and Director of the Copenhagen Observatory. In 1951 he was appointed Director of Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin and the McDonald Observatory, Texas, and in 1957 he was appointed Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey. In 1967 he returned to the University of Copenhagen as Professor of Astrophysics. For his many ground-breaking contributions to astronomy he received an extraordinary number of international awards and he succeeded Niels Bohr in the Carlsberg Honorary Residence in Copenhagen - a rare honour. By the age of fourteen Erik Stromgren had developed an interest in philosophy, psychology and psychiatry, and while still an adolescent he read Freud’s Uber Psychoanalyse, and shortly afterwards Eugen Bleuler’s Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie which, in his own words, probably influenced him more than any other book on psychiatry. Thus the direction of the boy’s future destiny was evident at this early stage of his life. At the age of seventeen he enrolled at Copenhagen University to study medicine. While still an undergraduate, Stromgren pursued his psychiatric interests with great vigour. Thus in 1933, while working for several periods as a medical student at the psychiatric hospital ‘Oringe’ at Vordingborg, which was under the directorship of the inspiring Hjalmar Helweg (later professor), and partly inspired by his reading of the publications from Ernst Rudin’s ‘Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatric’ in Munich, then the leading school within psychiatric genetics, at a time when there was barely any interest in this field in Scandinavia, the prodigious student decided to conduct a psychiatric epidemiological study on the population of the island of Bornholm (a catchment area of ‘Oringe’). He considered that the approximately 45000 inhabitants of this region, due to their isolated geography and their distinct dialect, would be eminently suited to such a study. Upon his

graduation in 1934, after a short appointment to ‘Oringe’, he became Medical Officer to the local general hospital in Bornholm, and this enabled him to collect the research data to pursue this ambitious task. The work, Beitrage zur psychiatrischen Erblehre auf Grund von Untersuchungen an einer Znselbevolkerung, was completed just 4 years later as his seminal MD thesis, now one of the most frequently cited epidemiological genetic works in the international literature. Fifty years later he revisited the surviving members of his original proband families. He planned to report this study at the Ninth World Congress of Psychiatry in Rio de Janeiro in 1993. Unfortunately, he became ill, and died shortly before that meeting. During the preparation of his thesis, Stromgren established his first international contacts. Thus in 1935 he visited the (Kraepelin-founded) ‘Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie’ in Munich. In the words of Stromgren, ‘although several of the institute staff were fanatical Nazis, the whole atmosphere seemed relatively relaxed’. There he discussed genetic and epidemiological methodology with Hans Luxenburger (who ‘did not hesitate to make jokes about the government and the Nazis’ in the canteen) and, in particular, with Bruno Schulz, a man of great personal integrity, conscientiousness in research and ‘a deep disgust with the Nazi regime.’ Stromgren also became acquainted with, among others, Erik Essen-Moller and Eliot Slater, who were visitors to the institute at that time. Stromgren’s particular interest during the visit was the problem of age correction for family studies of diseases with a variable age of onset. In the same year, he published a refined method of approaching this complex matter, Z u m Ersatz des Weinbergschen ‘abgekiirzten Verfahrens’. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Frage von der Erblichkeit des Erkrankungsalters bei der Schizophrenie, which has become known as ‘Das Stromgrensche Verfahren’ (‘The Stromgren method’), and is still in use today. Other contributions made by Stromgren, which date back to his student years, include his studies of the psychogenic psychoses, and later his untiring agitation for the acceptance of the validity of the concept as described in 1916 by August Wimmer in his original, epoch-making monograph (Psychogenic forms of mental illnesses), the first comprehensive survey of psychogenic reactions. During his last year as a student of medicine, Stromgren had to spend 6 months in a sanatorium because of a lung infection. During this period he was an avid reader of psychiatric literature. Furthermore, he engaged in making Rorschach tests, probably for the first time in Denmark, on his fellow patients in order to obtain an impression of the personality structure of mentally normal


Erik Stromgren

individuals. By questioning these probands about their ‘goal in life’, he could ascertain the existence of important features of their ‘self-image’ of which they were normally quite unaware. In 1940 and 1945, respectively, followed his outstanding monographs (Episodic psychoses and Disorders of consciousness) - both unfortunately were never translated into a major language - in which he expounded the description of this ‘self-image’ (Personlichkeitsbewusstsein) and the view that psychogenic delusions arise in situations where the subject is forced to make a sudden radical revision of his self-image in a negative direction. This thesis was akin to and inspired by Kretschmer’s work, Der sensitive Beziehungswahn. He also described the image of environment (Gegenstandsbewusstsein) and its abnormal manifestations. As Wimmer’s seminal monograph was never translated into a major language, his concept of psychogenic psychoses, which had become an integral part of Scandinavian psychiatry, was not spoken of outside Scandinavia until after 1945 when, at the instigation of Stromgren, Poul Fxrgeman had undertaken and published a follow-up of cases diagnosed as ‘psychogenic’ by Wimmer and his staff. Unfortunately, this work, like that of Wimmer, was written in Danish. It was with incredible foresight that Stromgren and Martin Roth, nearly two decades later, recommended that Faxgeman, now a Freudian analyst with more than 10 years experience in the USA, should reissue his thesis in English. This he did in 1963, paying special attention to the concept of psychogenesis as it was then understood in both European and Anglo-American psychiatry. The work was coolly received, due to some extent to a very critical review by Slater, while Aubrey Lewis some years later, in 1972, remarked scathingly that the word ‘psychogenic’ should be given ‘decent burial, along with some of the fruitless controversies whose fire it has stoked’. A change in Kurt Schneider’s nosological concepts had induced German-speaking psychiatrists to avoid the concept of these psychoses. Stromgren, who was of the opinion that ‘it may well be that most of the controversies within (this) field could have been avoided had (Wimmer’s) monumental work been translated into English soon after its first publication (in 1916)’, kept agitating untiringly for the validity of this in his opinion ‘often misunderstood’ concept, which had caused so much controversy outside Scandinavia, with the result that it is now generating increasing interest in international psychiatry. From 1935 until 1942, Stromgren for several periods worked at the University Psychiatric Clinic, Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, of which Wimmer was Director from 1933 until his death in 1937.


Stromgren claimed he was much inspired by him, and many years later he characterized him as ‘the most learned psychiatrist I have ever met’, and he considered his clinical acumen to be ‘peerless’ (personal communication). It was also at this time that Stromgren met Villars Lunn (who later, in 1952, succeeded Helweg as Professor of the University Psychiatric Clinic). During this period, due to Stromgren, according to Lunn, the Psychiatric Clinic went through its ‘golden age’. In 1943, after one year at Sankt Hans Hospital at Roskilde, Stromgren was appointed to the Aarhus Psychiatric Hospital, Risskov (from 1945 Superintendent Psychiatrist), and became Reader in Psychiatry at Aarhus University. Stromgren, who had become Professor of Psychiatry at Aarhus University in 1945, modelled ‘Risskov’ on Kraepelin’s ‘Forschungsanstalt’ in Munich, developing a range of institutes for: neuropathology, psychopharmacology, cytogenetics, neuropsychology, forensic psychiatry, psychotherapy and psychiatric demography, the latter becoming the Danish Central Psychiatric Register, a paragon of international psychiatry. A gem at ‘Risskov’ is the Psychiatric Research Library, established by Stromgren, assisted by the unsparing librarian Ellen M. Jensen. It holds one of the finest and most comprehensive collections of psychiatric books and journals in Northern Europe. Under the challenging and inspiring aegis of the always intellectually very demanding Stromgren, research that was generally of a very high standard, and at times epoch-making, emanated from ‘Risskov’. Most famous are the Samsa Island project (the first consultation-liaison project in Europe), the 5-year census studies, and the national and international family, twin and adoption studies which ‘have changed the face of psychopathology’. The famous studies of the therapeutic effect of lithium on manic-depressive illness should also be mentioned. In 1953, Stromgren had drawn the attention of Mogens Schou to John Cade’s reports about lithium treatment of mania. Subsequently, these therapeutic claims were tested and confirmed in the first placebo-controlled trial in clinical psychopharmacology. ‘Risskov’(and thus Aarhus University) became ‘a name on the psychiatric map of the world’ to which many foreign researchers flocked. Stromgren’s influence was ‘worldwide’. It is fascinating to ponder on the fact that Stromgren had more than fulfilled a vision that originated many years before when he was a medical student on a month’s visit to ‘Risskov’, that ‘Risskov’, providing care for the whole spectrum of mental illness in a large catchment area and being close to Aarhus University, would be

A Bio-Bibliography

eminently suitable for the development of a centre for psychiatric research and training. For more than two decades Stromgren, who was an eminent advocate for the plight of the mentally ill, was National Adviser to the Danish State Directorate of Mental Health Services. In this position he exerted a decisive influence on the planning and development of Danish psychiatry. He was instrumental in the establishment of several of the state psychiatric hospitals in Denmark in the post-war years and, in 1958, the Childrens’ Psychiatric Hospital in Aarhus. In his later years, however, he became disillusioned by the ceaseless impact of the antipsychiatric movement, the major closing down of psychiatric beds (realizing that ‘inpatient treatment cannot simply be substituted with outpatient treatment’), and the decline in teaching and research, the latter as a result of the 1968 university student political revolutions. For three decades he had been influential in the medical faculty of Aarhus University, and he had also been involved in the establishment of Odense University. Stromgren’s erudition was extraordinary, and his industry was legendary. He published prolifically in three languages on subjects within psychiatry, child psychiatry and neurology. His monumental bibliography contains approximately 400 works, including articles, monographs and book chapters, several of which have become classics. His involvement in education is epitomized by his seminal textbook of psychiatry, in Danish, which appeared in 13 revised editions between 1951 and 1979, and was used in all of the Scandinavian countries. He was editor of Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica for nearly three decades, during which time that journal attained strong international recognition, receiving contributions from all over the world (including Third World countries). He was co-editor of three editions of Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, and over the years he was a member of the editorial boards of numerous scientific journals in psychiatry and adjacent fields (Acta Genetica et Statistica Medica, Archiv f u r Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten vereinigt mit Zeitschrift f u r die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, Comprehensive Psychiatry, Current Opinion in Psychiatry, European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, European Journal of Psychiatry, Neuropsychobiology: International Journal f o r Basic and Clinical Studies in Psychiatric Research, Psychiatria et Neurologia, Zeitschrift f u r menschliche Vererbungs- und Konstitutionslehre). At numerous congresses, meetings and seminars, many of which he presided over or chaired, he excelled as one of the most outstanding speakers and debaters. In 1978, in collaboration with Mogens Schou, he arranged and co-ordinated

the international scientific symposium, ‘Origin, Prevention and Treatment of Affective Disorders’, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Aarhus University. He delivered a number of prestigious honorary lectures, including the Adolf Meyer Lecture in 1969, the Kraepelin Lecture in 1976, the Maudsley Lecture in 1985, and the Eliot Slater Lecture in 1986, published posthumously in 1994, in which he paid tribute to Slater, claiming that ‘few psychiatrists have had as much influence on my thinking as he’. In this lecture he also gave a most instructive account of his personal remembrances of the difficult period in history under the Nazi regime, and fascinating personal sketches of several of the famous psychiatrists he had met over a period of half a century. With Stromgren’s exceptional intellect, wisdom, foresight and vision, not to mention his formidable academic and scientific ability, coupled with his extraordinary organizational talents and many international contacts, he came to assume an eminent position in many national and international organizations. He was also an adviser to numerous national and foreign governments. In 1938 he became a member of the International Committee of Human Heredity. This was a critical time for this discipline. After World War 11, Stromgren was called on by the German government as an adviser on psychiatry, and thus assisted in the re-integrating of German psychiatry within international psychiatry and, with his ‘ideologyfree’ attitude, he was an important mediator in the rekindling of genetic psychiatric epidemiology after the war, when genetics had become a ‘dirty word’. During his first visit to the USA in 1948, he found it ‘very depressing’ that, with most American psychiatrists it was ‘impossible to discuss the possibility of genetic contribution to the etiology of mental disorders. Psychoanalysis had become a religion’. ‘In spite of my original sympathy for psychoanalysis, I felt that this one-sidedness was a dangerous impoverishment’. At that time, for reasons of socialist ideology, the Soviet Union refuted the contribution of genetics to psychiatric illnesses, whereas genetics in Scandinavia fared much better. Outstanding Swedish contributors within the field were Torsten Sjogren and Erik Essen-Moller. In Copenhagen, Oluf Thomsen and Tage Kernp had already founded the famous Institute of Human Genetics, before the war, in 1938. Stromgren himself, from 1946 until 1950, was in charge of the teaching of human genetics at Aarhus University, and in 1950 he was a committee member of Gesellschaft fur Konstitutions-Forschung. The list of Stromgren’s affiliations and contributions continues to be most impressive. From 1949 until 1970 he was a committee member of 287

Erik Stromgren UNESCO. From 1955 he was a consultant in Mental Health to the World Health Organization (WHO). In 1965, the Aarhus Psychiatric Hospital, regarded as a model centre of psychiatric care and research, became a WHO Field Research Centre which subsequently, in 1981, became a WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health. This centre has taken part in major WHO studies of mental illness, such as the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia and the Study of the Determinants of Outcome of Severe Mental Disorders. Stromgren was also a member of the Scientific Committees to the WHO Collaborating Centres in Cali (1977), Chandigarh (1978), Mannheim (1980) and Nagasaki (1980). From 1961 until 1971 he served on the Executive Committee of the World Psychiatric Association, and from 1972 until 1977 he was its Section Committee Chairman on Nomenclature and Classification. In 1980, his chairmanship of the World Health Organization Advisory Committee on Psychiatric Classification followed. His ‘contributions to the validation and further development of the Kraepelin classification system of psychiatric illnesses and to the last three revisions of the psychiatric section of the International Classification of Diseases are substantial’. As early as 1938 he himself, ‘a great clinician and keen diagnostician’, had developed the first Danish classification of mental illnesses. In 1986, Stromgren became Vice President of the Association of European Psychiatrists. He held this post until 1990, when he felt that ‘the new generation of psychiatrists should take over’. Stromgren became a corresponding member of many scientific societies (Schweizerische Gesellschaft fur Psychiatrie, 1948; American Psychiatric Association, 1955; Finska Iakaresallskapet, 1960; Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1963; SociCtC MCdico-Psychologique, 1964; Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Psychiatrie und Nervenheilkunde, 1968; Kungliga Vetenskaps och Vitterhetssamhallet, Gothenburg, 1969), as well as an honorary member (Asociacion Argentina de Psiquiatria Biologica, 1972; Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Psychiatrie und Nervenheilkunde, 1974; Svenska psykiatriska Foreningen, 1979; Dansk Psykiatrisk Selskab, 1980; Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1982; Gesellschaft Osterreicher Nervenarzte und Psychiater, 1992). He received many prestigious prizes and awards, including the Ernst Carlsen Award in 1964, the Odd-Fellow Research Award in 1973, the Anders Jahre Award in 1975, the Kraepelin Medal in Gold in 1976, the Julius Wagner von Jauregg Medal in 1983, the Stanley R. Dean Award in 1984, the Salmon Award in 1985 and the Lundbeck Fond PV. Petersen Award in 1990. He became an Honorary Doctor of Sciences at the University of Rochester, 288

New York, in 1976, and an Honorary Doctor at Lund University, Sweden, in 1984. He was decorated with the Knight Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog (1952), Knight Cross of First Class of the Order of the Dannebrog (1960), and the Commander Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog (1969). €? Sand Holm painted his portrait, which hangs at ‘Risskov’. At its 75-year jubilee, in 1983, the Danish Psychiatric Society dedicated its Jubilee Publication to Stromgren as, he ‘more than any other person has developed and marked Danish psychiatry in this century’. On Stromgren’s obligatory retirement from public service at the age of seventy, in 1979,he declined to have a bronze bust of him erected in the auditorium at ‘Risskov’, but accepted a memorial plate with the more unpretentious inscription, Erik Strorngren. Consultant Psychiatrist, Psychiatric Hospital in Aarhus 1945-1979. - Professor, University of Aarhus 1945-1 979. - Physician. Teacher.Researcherplanner, in the capacity of all of which he had achieved the unique. Friends and colleagues contributed towards the establishment of a fund to finance the Erik Stromgren Lectures, given by internationally distinguished psychiatric researchers who in turn are awarded the Erik Stromgren Medal, a miniature of the memorial plate. To date, the recipients of this prestigious award have been Erik Essen-Moller (1979), Hans Forssmann (1980), Sir Martin Roth (1982), Manfred Bleuler (1983), Lorna Wing (1984), John K. Wing (1984), Heinz Hafner (1986), Jules Angst (1987), Jan-Otto Ottosson (1987), Pierre Pichot (1989, in which year Carlos Leon was also invited but was unable to attend due to illness), Irving I. Gottesman (1991), Norman Sartorius (1991), Tomas Helgason (1992) and Assen Jablensky (1994). From the time of his retirement to the last days of his life in March 1993, Stromgren, ‘the grand old man in international psychiatry’, unimpaired by age, continued his intense and highly distinguished academic and scientific activities as zealously as before. He is survived by his wife, dr med. Lizzie Sand Stromgren, also a psychiatrist working at ‘Risskov’, and four children, Sten, a government civil servant, Lene Annette, a medical doctor, Jeanina Marianne, a student of ethnography and Peter Michael, a classical guitarist, who graduated from the Royal Danish Academy of Music, Copenhagen. For half a century Stromgren exercised a profound influence on psychiatric epidemiology/genetics, of which he was ‘a founding father’, psychiatric taxonomy, and the planning and organization of mental health services. He was eminently suited as

A Bio-Bibliography a ‘mental health ambassador’, as he was deeply concerned about the plight of the mentally ill. He could be relied upon ‘to complete any commitment to the highest standard’. His scientific literary legacy is immense. Several of his works were seminal and have become classics. He was a great teacher and an inspirational mentor -undogmatic, eclectic, and of ‘Socratic modesty’. In the words of Carlos L e h , he was ‘a figure surrounded by an aura of benign dignity that on a first encounter may induce a caller to take a respectful distance, but once this barrier was removed, one glimpsed a fascinating world of the spirit: a world of wisdom, knowledge, culture, wit, warmness and enlightenment. One was privileged to enjoy the depth of his conceptual views and never ceased to admire his tolerance for the opinion of others and his impressive ability to open new ways for understanding and accord’. Erik Stromgren was one of world psychiatry’s ‘greatest’ figures. His many contributions to psychiatry have earned him a secure place in the history of psychiatry.

Johan Schioldann References ADSERHAILE H, BERTELSEN A, DUPONT A, MUNK-JORGENSEN l? In memoriam Erik Stromgren 28.1 1.1909-15.3.1993. Ugeskr Lzger 1993: 155: 2087. BERIELSENA, BECHP, PULLCH. In memoriam Erik Stromgren. 28.11.1909-15.3.1993. Eur Psychiatry 1993: 8: 113-114. I. In memoriam Erik Stromgren. BERTELSEN A, GOTTESMAN Echt Epidemiologist (1909-1993). Neurol, Psychiatry Brain Res 1994: 2: 197-200. Den Danske Lzgestand. 1982-1 993. Copenhagen: Laegeforeningens Forlag, 1993: 1802 (Erik Stromgren). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago, 1983: 9: 617-618 (Bengt Stromgren). FERGEMAN PM. D e psykogene psykoser belyst gennem katamnestiske unders0gelser (The psychogenic psychoses. A follow-up study). MD thesis. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1945. FRRGEMAN PM. Psychogenic psychoses. A description and follow-up of psychoses following psychological stress. Foreword by Martin Roth. London: Butterworths, 1963. Festskrift, Kobenhavns Universitet. Selvbiografier af Aarets Doctorer. Erik Robert Volter Stromgren. November 1939: 155-1.56. FREEMAN H. Obituary. Erik Stromgren, Professor Emeritus, University of AarhuS Denmark. Psychiatr Bull 1993: 17: 70C701. I, BERTELSEN A. Images in psychiatry. Erik StromGOTTESMAN gren, 1909-1993. Am J Psychiatry 1996: 153: 410. HAFNER H. In memoriam Erik Stromgren. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1994: 243: 298. HAFNER H. In memoriam Erik Stromgren. Nervenarzt 1994: 65: 275-276. HARVALD B. Tage Kemp. Dansk Biografisk Leksikon. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1981: 7: 625426. l? Svante Elis Stromgren (1870-1947). Dansk HEEGAARD Biografisk Leksikon. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1983: 14: 163164.

KEMP T. Oluf Thomsen. Dansk Biografisk Leksikon. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1983: 14: 498-500. Kraks BIB Bog. Virum: Kraks Forlag, 1992: 1130-1131 (Erik Stromgren). Memorial Speech. Ninth World LEON C. ERIKSTROMGREN. Congress of Psychiatry. Rio de Janeiro, 6-12 June 1993. Manuscript. LEWISA. ‘Psychogenic’: a word and its mutations. Psycho1 Med 1972: 2:209-215. LUNNV. In memoriam Erik Stromgren. 28.11.1909-15.3.1993. Ugeskr Lzeger 1993: 155: 1409-1410. MCCABEM. Reactive psychoses. A clinical and genetic investigation. Acta Psychiatr Scand. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1975. NIELSENAV. Svante Elis Stromgren. Dictionary of scientific biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1983: 13: 98-9. OsrENmm I. Erik Stromgren. Dansk Biografisk Leksikon. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1983: 14: 164-165. OTTOSSON JO. Obituary. Erik Stromgren. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1993: 88: 73. JJ. Hedvig Stromgren (1877-1967). Dansk Biografisk PINDBORG Leksikon. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1983: 14: 165-1 66. REISBYN. Nekrolog. Erik Stromgren. 28.11.1909-1 5.3.1993. Aarhus: Universitets Arsberetning, 1993: 525-526. RETTERSTOLN. Present state of reactive psychoses in Scandinavia. Psychopathology 1987: 20: 68-71. RUDKJQBING M. Bengt Georg Daniel Stromgren. Dansk Biografisk Leksikon. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1983: 1 4 162-163. SCHIOLDANN-NTELSEN J. Obituary. Erik Stromgren (1909-1993). Hist Psychiatry 1993: 4: 283-285. SCHIOLDANN-NIELSEN J. Introduction. In: Wimmer A.: On possession states. Hist Psychiatry 1993: 4: 413440. F. Erik Stromgren. Memorial Speech. Ninth SCHCJLSINGER World Congress of Psychiatry. Rio de Janeiro, 6-12 June 1993. Manuscript. SLATERE. Special syndromes and treatments - psychogenic psychoses and ‘Die schizophrenieahnlichen Emotionspsychosen’. Br J Psychiatry 1964: 110: 114-118. SLATER E. Autobiographical sketch. In: SHIELDS J, GO’ITESMAN I. ed. Man, mind and heredity. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins Press, 1971: 1-23. STROMGREN E. Psychiatric teaching - now and in the future. Nord Med 1949: 42: 1589-1595. STROMGREN E. Pathogenese der verschiedenen Formen von psychogenen Psychosen. In: Mehrdimensionale Diagnostik und Therapie. Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag von Herrn Professor, Dr. med., Dr. phil. h.c. Ernst Kretschmer. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag, 1958: 67-70. E. Psychogenic psychoses. In: HIKSCH SR, STROMGREN SHEPHERD M. ed. Themes and variations in European psychiatry. An anthology. Bristol: John Wright, 1974: 97-117. SrRoMGREN E. Personal background and professional experience. In: SHEPHERD M. ed. Psychiatrists on psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982: 1.52-169. STROMGREN E. Dansk psykiatri i historisk lys. In: Schmidt J. ed. 100 Br. Middelfart Sygehus psykiatrisk Afdeling, 14.7.1988. Middelfart: Middelfart Sygehus, 1988: 3244. STROMGREN E. The development of the concept of reactive psychoses. Psychopathology 1987: 20: 6 2 4 7 . STROMGREN E. Das Konzept der psychogenen (reaktiven) Psychosen. In: KASCHAWP, LUNGERSHAUSEN E, ed. TroponSymposium. Paranoide Storungen. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1992: 7: 145-159. STROMGKEN E. Recent history of European psychiatry - ideas, developments, and personalities: the annual Eliot Slater Lecture. Am J Med Genet (Neuropsychiatr Genet) 1994: 54: 405410. WIMMERA. Psychogene Sindssygdomsformer (psychogenic

Erik Stromgren forms of mental illnesses). In: Sct. Hans Hospital 1816-1916. (Jubilee Publication). Gad. 1916: 85-216. Copenhagen: Janssenpharma, 1981. ZERBIN-RUDIN E. Verleihung der goldenen Kraepelin-Medaille an Professor Erik Stromgren am. 13.10.1976 (The awarding of the Kraepelin Medal in Gold to Professor E. Stromgren on 13.10.1976). Manuscript (kindly provided by Professor H. Hafner).

Erik Stromgren‘s Bibliography

E. Lzgen og de vanskelige Barn (The doctor 11. STROMGREN and the difficult child). Medicineren 1939: 4: 9. 1940

12. STROMGREN E. Uber die ‘Bezugsziffer’ bei der Berechnung von Krankheitserwartungen (On the ‘source figures’ for the calculation of illness expectancy). Der Erbarzt 1940: 8: 205-207. 13. STROMGREN E. Episodiske Psykoser. Fem Forelzsninger (Episodic psychoses. Five lectures). Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1940.


1. STROMGREN E. Konstitutionstypus und Arcus Senilis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1932: 7: 823-830. (Memorial volume to August Wimmer.) 1935

2. STROMGREN E. Zum Ersatz des Weinbergschen ‘abgekurzten Verfahrens’. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Frage von der Erblichkeit des Erkrankungsalters bei der Schizophrenie (A substitute for Weinberg’s ‘abridged method’. With a contribution to the question of age of onset in schizophrenia). Zeitschrift fur die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 1935: 153: 784797. 1936

3. STROMGREN E. Om den ixothyme Psyke (On the ixothymic (‘epithymic’) psyche). Hospitalstidende 1936 79: 637-648. 1937

4. STROMGREN E. Uber anthropometrische Indices zur Unterscheidung von Korperbautypen (On anthropometric indices for classification of body types). Zeitschrift fur die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 1937: 159: 75-81. 5. STROMGREN E. Est-il possible de demontrer une relation statistique entre la frequence des maladies infectieuses et la frequence des cas recents d’alienation mentale? (Is it possible to demonstrate a statistical relationship between the frequency of infectious diseases and the frequency of recent cases of mental illnesses?). Bulletin mensuel de I’Office International d’Hygibne publique 1937: 29: 12: 2538-2552. 1938

6. STROMGREN E. Contributions 5 la methode typologique en psychiatrie (Contributions to the typological method in psychiatry). Biotypologie 1938: 6: 1-16. 7. HELWEGH, STURCJP GK, SIMONSEN KM, STROMGREN E. Ambulante psykiatriske Undersagelser hos Barn (Outpatient psychiatric assessments in children). Ugeskrift for Lzger 1938: 100: 47W80. 8. STROMGREN E. Beitrage zur psychiatrischen Erblehre. Auf Grund von Untersuchungen an einer Inselbevolkerung (Contributions to psychiatric genetics based on an island population). MD thesis. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1938. 1939

9. STROMGREN E. Ataxi i den tidlige Barnealder (Ataxia in early childhood). Ugeskrift for Lreger 1939: 101: 516-518. 10. STROMGRENE. Bornepsykiatri (Child psychiatry). Barnesagens Tidende 1939: 34: 110-1 13.


14. STROMGREN E. Om Psykopati hos Barn (On psychopathy in children). Barnesagens Tidende 1941: 36: 168-178. 15. STROMGREN E. Psykiatriske Behandlingsmetoder. En Oversigt (Psychiatric treatment methods. An overview). Copenhagen: Munksgaard. 1941. 1942

16. SrROMGREN E. Mentalobservation af Barn (Forensic psychiatric observation of children). Pzdagogisk-Psykologisk Tidsskrift 1942: 9: 141-151. 17. STROMGREN E. Om Mulighederne for en exakt Uddifferentiering af Konstitutionstyper. (With a German abstract: Uber die Moglichkeit einer exakten Differentiierung der Konstitutionstypen) (On the possibility of an exact differentiation between constitutional types). Nordisk Medicin 1942 13: 157-162. 18. STROMGREN E. Om Psykopati hos Born (On psychopathy in children). Nordisk Tidsskrift for Aandsvageforsorg 1942: 44: 8-26. 1943

19. STROMGREN E. Almindelige Principper for Behandling af akute narkotiske Forgiftninger (General principles in the treatment of acute narcotic intoxications). Nordisk Medicin 1943: 18: 591-5192, 20. STROMGREN E. Vejledning ved Behandling af akute narkotiske Forgiftninger (Guidelines in the treatment of acute narcotic intoxications). Minedsskrift for praktisk Lzgegerning 1943: 21: 492494. 21. STROMGREN E. Psykiske Abnormiteter hos Skoleb0rn (Mental abnormalities in school children). Skolehygiejnisk Tidsskrift 1943: 31: 1-12. 1944

22. STROMGREN E. Hyperkinetiske Psykoser hos Born med szrligt Henblik paa Kramer-Pollnow’s Syndrom (Hyperkinetic psychoses in children with special regard to KramerPollnow’s Syndrom). Bibliotek for k g e r 1944: 136: 323-344. 23. STROMGREN E. Psykiatriske Behandlingsmetoder. En oversigt. Anden Udgave foraget med et Tillseg om Behandlingen af akute narkotiske Forgiftninger (Psychiatric treatment methods. 2nd edition with an appendix on the treatment of acute narcotic intoxications) Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1944. 24. EINARSON L, NEELAV, STROMGREN E. On the problem of diffuse brain sclerosis with special reference to the familial forms (leucoencephalopathia diffusa progressiva hereditaria). Aarhus: Universitetsforlaget i Aarhus. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (Acta Jutlandica 16), 1944. 25. STROMGREN E. Laegegerning ved Aandssvageforsorgen

A Bio-Bibliography (Medical practice for the Authority for the Mentally Handicapped). Ugeskrift for Lager 1944: 106: 637-638, 816-81 7. 26. STROMGREN E. Om Scopolaminets Farlighed. En Advarsel (On the dangerousness of scopolamine. A warning). Ugeskrift for Lager 1944: 106: 891-894. 27. STROMGREN E. Morfinismens Klinik (On the clinical picture of morphinism). Maanedsskrift for praktisk Legegerning og social Medicin 1944: 22: 385400. E. Om godartede skizofreniforme Psykosers 28. STROMGREN Arvebiologi (On the genetics of benign schizophreniform psychoses). In: GERLEB, ed. Henrik Sjobring, den 9. juli 1994. Lund, 1944: 263-270. 29. HERMANN K, STROMGREN E. Paroxysmal disturbances of consciousness in verified localized brain affections. With special regard to the so-called ‘dreamy states’. Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica Scandinavica 1944: 19: 175-194. 30. STROMGREN E. Die arztliche Beurteilung Peters (The medMB, ed. Eine ical assessment of Peter). In: GREGERSEN Kindespsychose, ihr Verlauf und ihre Behandlung. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1944: 20 (Suppl. 32): 165-177. 31. STROMGREN E. Alkohol og Sindslidelser (Alcoholism and mental illnesses). Tidsskrift for Dansk Rode Kors 1944: 4: 85-90. 1945

32. STROMGREN E. Om Sindssygdommenes Aarsager (On the aetiology of mental illness). Social-Demokraten (Copenhagen), 24 January 1945. 33. STROMGREN E. Om Bevidsthedsforstyrrelser (On disturbances of consciousness). Copenhagen: Munksgaard. 1945. E. Om Carbogenbehandling af Kulilteforgift34. STROMGREN ninger (On carbogene treatment of carbonmonoxide intoxications). Nordisk Medicin 1945: 28: 2210. E. Om Carbogenbehandling af Kulilteforgift35. STROMGREN ninger (On carbogene treatment of carbonmonoxide intoxications). Maanedsskrift for praktisk Lzgegerning og social Medicin 1945: 23: 339. 36. STROMGREN E. Skizofreni og Indgifte (Schizophrenia and intermarriage). Nordisk Medicin 1945: 28: 2564. 1946

37. HERMANN K, STROMGREN E. Troubles paroxystiques de la conscience dans les affections cCrCbrales dont la localization a CtC constatCe; considCrations sptciales sur les Ctats dits ‘Ctats de r&ves’[Paroxystic disturbances of consciousness in cerebral affections of which the localization has been diagnosed - the so-called ‘dreamy states’). Annales MCdico-Psychologiques 1946: 1: 195. 38. STROMGREN E. Mental sequelae of suicidal attempts by hanging. In: Memorial Volume to Hjalmar Helweg. Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica Scandinavica 1946: 21: 753780. 39. STROMGREN E. Alkoholisme, Narkomani, Eufomani (Alcoholism, drug addiction). In: JORGENSEN c, ed. Sjalens Lagebog. Copenhagen: Jespersen og Pios Forlag, 1946: 506-530. 40. STROMGREN E. Review of H.I. Schou: Den manio-depressive Psykoses Fysiologi (The physiology of the manic-depressive psychosis). Copenhagen: Gads Forlag, 1946 (Ugeskrift for Lzeger 1946: 45: 1273). 1947

41. STROMGREN E. Recherches de psychiatrie hCrCditaire dans les pays scandinaves au cours des dernitres annCes. (Ge-

netic psychiatric research in Scandinavia in recent years). Annales MCdico-Psychologiques 1947: 2: 441. 42. STROMGREN E. Review of L. le Maire: Legal Kastration i strafferetlig Belysning (Legal castration from the viewpoint of criminal law). Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1946 (Ugeskrift for Lager 1947: 109: 503-504). 43. STROMGREN E. Dansk Sindssygevaesen (Danish Mental Health Services). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1947: 1: 17-19. 44. STROMGREN E. Psychoses in children. In: MAGNCJSSEN G, ed. Report on the Eighth Congress of Scandinavian Psychiatrists in Copenhagen, Denmark. 1946. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1947: 23(Suppl. 47): 245-258. 1948

45. STROMGREN E. Begivenheder inden for psykiatrisk Videnskab i 1947 (Highlights in psychiatric research in 1947). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1948: 2: 106-1 10. 46. STROMGREN E. Dansk psykiatris fremtid (The future of Danish psychiatry). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1948: 2: 123-138. 47. STROMGREN E. Erbpsychiatrische Forschungen der letzten Jahre in den nordischen Landern (Genetic psychiatric research in Scandinavia in recent years). Das Schweizer Archiv fur Neurologie und Psychiatrie 1948: 62: 378-393. 48. STROMGREN E. Social surveys. Journal of Mental Science 1948: 9 4 266-276. 49. STROMGREN E. Psychiatry. In: The humanities and the sciences in Denmark during the Second World War. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1948: 508-512. 1949

50. STROMGREN E. Indledning ti1 diskussion om dansk psykiatris fremtid (Introduction to the discussion on the future of Danish psychiatry). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1949: 3: 137-143, 143-152. E. Psykiatriundervisningen nu og i fremtiden. 51. STROMGREN (English abstract: Psychiatric teaching - now and in the future). Nordisk Medicin 1949: 42: 1589-1595. 52. FAURBYE A, LUNNV, SMITTJW, SMITHJC, STROMGREN E. Memorandum vedrarende dansk psykiatrisk forsknings arbejdsvilksr samt mulighederne for at forbedre disse [Memo concerning the working conditions of Danish psychiatric research and the possibility of improving them). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1949: 3: 194199. 53. STROMGREN E. Neurosebekmnpelsen i Danmark (The fight against neuroses in Denmark). Ugeskrift for Lzger 1949: 111: 1307-1309. 54. HQNCKEP, STROMGREN E, ZAHLEV. Elektroencephalographische Untersuchungen an Psychopathen (Electroencephalographic investigations in psychopaths). Archiv fur Psychiatric und Zeitschrift Neurologie 1949: 183: 5543. 55. STROMGREN E. Begivenheder inden for psykiatrisk videnskab i 1948 (Highlights in psychiatric research in 1948). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1949: 3: 179-183. 56. STROMGREN E. Narkoanalysens anvendelse i retspsykiatrien. (English abstract: the use of narcoanalysis in legal psychiatry). Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab 1949: 37: 195-203. 1950

57. STROMGREN E. Narkoanalyse og retspsykiatri (Narcoanalysis and legal psychiatry). Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab 1950: 38: 164-165. 58. STROMGREN E. Strejftog. Om sunde og syge Tanker. [On

29 1

Erik Stromgren





sound and morbid thoughts. - August Strindberg). Aarhus Stiftstidende 27 and 28. Oktober. - Special print, Aarhus Stiftstidende, 1950. STROMGREN E. Begivenheder inden for psykiatrisk videnskab i 1949 (Highlights in psychiatric research in 1949). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1950: 4: 126-130. STROMGREN E. Statistical and genetic population studies within psychiatry. Methods and principal results. In: Congrks international de psychiatrie, Paris, 1950. Paris: Hermann & Cie, 1950: 6: 155-192. E. Etude statistique et genktique de la popuSTROMGREN lation dans le domaine de la psychiatrie (Statistical and genetic population studies in the field of psychiatry). Annales Medico-Psychologiques 1950: 2: 541. STROMGREN E. Recherches genetiques psychiatriques des dernikres annees dans les pays nordiques (Genetic psychiatric research in Scandinavia in recent years). Annales Medico-Psychologiques 1950: 2: 568.

77. STROMGREN E. Begivenheder inden for psykiatrisk videnskab 1951 (Highlights in psychiatric research in 1951). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1952: 6: 169-1 74. 78. STROMGREN E. Discussion (Statistical and genetic population studies within psychiatry). In: Premier Congrks Mondial de Psychiatrie, Paris, 1950. Paris: Hermann & Cie, 1952: 6: 23-28. 1953

79. STROMCREN E (ed.) Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica (The psychiatric section 1953-1961. Later, from 1961, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica). 80. STROMGREN E. Et vendepunkt i dansk psykiatris historie (A turning point in the history of Danish psychiatry). Ugeskrift for Lzger 1953: 115: 743-745. 81. STROMGREN E. Begivenheder inden for psykiatrisk videnskab 1952 (Highlights in psychiatric research in 1952). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1953: 7: 85-92,


63. SSROMGREN E. Glutaminsyrebehandling af psykoser hos Andssvage (Glutamine acid treatment of psychoses in the mentally retarded). Nordisk Psykiatrisk ‘Iidsskrift 1951:5: 52. 64. STROMGREN E. Psykiatri. In: SYLVEST E. & SYLVEST 0, ed. Fremads Lzgebog. Copenhagen: Fremads Forlag, 1951: 367-394. 65. SrRoMcREN E. Psykoanalysens fremtid i Danmark (The future of psychoanalysis in Denmark). Ugeskrift for Lzger 1951: 113: 687488. 66. STROMGREN E. Dansk psykiatris store mand gaar (The retirement of Danish psychiatry’s great man - Hjalmar Helweg). Dagbladet ‘Politiken’ (Copenhagen) 1951: 31 August. 67. SmOMGREN E. Begivenheder inden for psykiatrisk videnskab i 1950 (Highlights in psychiatric research in 1950). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1951: 5: 87-92. 68. SI-KOMGREN E. Behandling af akutte psykiske krigsreaktioner (The treatment of acute mental reactions to war). Meddelelser fra Sundhedsstyrelsen 1951: 1: 14-16. 69. SSROMGREN E (ed). Jens Chr. Smith, Psykiatriske Forelzsninger. 4. udgave (J. C. SMITH.Psychiatric lectures, 4th edn). Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1951. 1952

70. STROMGREN E. Pentymal, amytal og nembutal. Ugeskrift for Lzger 1952: 114: 119. 71. STROMGREN E. Axel Valdemar Neel, 15.5.1878-24.1.1952. (Obituary). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1952: 6: 79-80. 72. DICKMEISS P, LUNNV, STROMGREN E, BORUPSVENDSEN B. Diagnoseliste med kommentarer. Udarbejdet af Dansk Psykiatrisk Selskabs Diagnoseudvalg 1952 (Psychiatric classification list. Danish Psychiatric Society Committee on Psychiatric Classification 1952). Nordisk Psykatrisk Tidsskrift 1952: 6: 277-295. 73. STROMGREN E. Sindssygehospitalet ved Aarhus (The Psychiatric Hospital at Aarhus, Risskov). Medicinsk Forum 1952: 5: 201-214. 74. SI.ROMGREN E. Om at lzse kurver (Patientindlzggelser i 100 Ar) (On the reading of curves; patient admissions over 100 years). Medicinsk Forum 1952: 5: 224-225. 75. S T R ~ M G RE.E Om N effektiviteten af psykiatrisk terapi (On the efficacy of psychiatric therapy). Medicinsk Forum 1952: 5: 226-232. 76. STROMGREN E. Hvem har farst anvendt ordet ‘psykiatri‘? (Who has first used the word ‘psychiatry’?). Medicinsk Forum 1952: 5: 238-240.



82. STROMGREN E. Genetiske faktorer i psykiatrien (Genetic factors in psychiatry). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1954: 8: 1-20. 83. STROMGREN E. Vold begaaet af psykisk abnorme (Violence committed by the mentally abnormal). Berlingske Tidende (Copenhagen) 1954: 16 March. 84. STROMGREN E. Arvelige faktorer. Konstitution (Hereditary factors. Constitution). In: BLEGVAD N, ed. Nordisk lzrebog for talepzdagoger. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde og Baggers Forlag, 1954: 533-541. 85. SrROMGREN E. Begivenheder inden for psykiatrisk videnskab 1953 (Highlights in psychiatric research in 1953). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1954: 8: 156-163. 86. SCHOU M, JUEL-NIELSEN N, STROMGREN E, VOLDBY H. The treatment of manic psychoses by the administration of lithium salts. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1954: 17: 250-260. 1955

87. SCHOUM, JUEL-NIELSEN N, STROMGREN E, VOI,DSYH. Tratamiento de la psicosis maniacas con litio (Treatment of manic psychosis with lithium). Folia Clinica Internacional 1955: 5: 99-106. 88. SCHOUM, JUEL-NIELSEN N, STROMGREN E, VOLDBYH. Behandling af maniske psykoser med lithium (French summary: Traitement de psychoses maniaques au lithium) Ugeskrift for Lzger 1955: 117: 93-101. 89. STROMGREN E. Psykiske abnormiteter hos gamle (Mental T et al., ed. disturbances in the elderly). In: ECKERSTROM Geriatri. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger. 1955: 164186. 90. STROMGREN E. Neuroserne, almindelig del. In: RIISING J, ed. Kort-fattet lzrebog i neuroser. Copenhagen: Dansk Videnskabs Forlag, 1955: 21-61. 91. STROMGREN E. Status PA et psykiatrisk hospital. Resultater af en ‘tvzrsnitsundersagelse’ pA Sindssygehospitalet ved Aarhus (English summary: The status in a psychiatric hospital). Ugeskrift for Lzger 1955: 117: 221-225. 92. STROMGREN E, ANDERSEN T, S C H I ~ D E.TPsykiatriske problemer pA medicinske sygehusafdelinger. To statistikker. (English summary: Psychiatric problems in medical wards) Ugeskrift for Lzger 1955: 117: 226-230. 93. STROMGREN E. Psykiatriske problemer i almindelig lzgepraksis. Resultater af en statistisk undersagelse (English summary: Psychiatric problems in general practice. Results

A Bio-Bibliography of a statistical investigation). Ugeskrift for Lzger 1955: 117: 230-232. 94. STROMGREN E. Begivenheder inden for psykiatrisk videnskab 1954 (Highlights in psychiatric research in 1954). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1955: 8: 183-192. 1956

95. STROMGREN E. Psykiatri, senge og fremtidsperspektiver (Psychiatry, beds and the future). Ugeskrift for Lzger 1956: 118: 54-55. 96. SI-ROMGREN E. Psykiatriske synspunkter. Indlzg i diskussion om ‘Placeringen af sindssygdommenes behandling i forhold ti1 den ovrige sygdomsbehandling’ ved mode i Det Medicinske Selskab i Copenhagen den 25. oktober 1955 (Psychiatric viewpoints on the placement of the treatment of mental illnesses compared with treatment of non-psychiatric illnesses). Nordisk Medicin 1956: 55: 8124314,814816. E. Hvorfor har du gjort det? (Why have you 97. SIKOMGKEN done this?). (A comment on Robert Emmet Sherwood’s ‘The Road to Rome’). Dagbladet ‘Politiken’ (Copenhagen) 1956: 4 November. 98. RAFAELSEN OJ, STROMGREN E. Ten years’ geriatrics in a Danish psychiatric hospital. In: EITINGEK L ed. Report on the Eleventh Congress of Scandinavian Psychiatrists in Oslo, Norway, 1955. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1956: 32 (Suppl. 106): 103-110. 99. Betznkning afgivet af kommissionen af 29. marts 1952 vedrorende Statens sindssygevzsen. Betznkning Nr. 165. (Submission on Danish Mental Health Service). Copenhagen: Statens trykningskontor, 1956. 100. SrKoMmEN E. Begivenheder inden for psykiatrisk videnskab 1955 (Highlights in psychiatric research in 1955). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1956: 10: 345-354. 101. STKOMGREN E, SMITHJC. Psykiatri. 5. udgave (J.C. Smith. Psychiatry, 5th edn). Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1956. 1957

102. STROMrxEN E. Psykiatriske hospitaler. Ugeskrift for Lzger 1957: 119: 367. 103. STROMGREN E. Begivenheder inden for psykiatrisk videnskab 1956 (Highlights in psychiatric research in 1956). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1957: 11: 245-253. 104. S I K O M G K E N E, SCHOLJ M. Nye midler mod psykiske lidelser (New remedies for mental illnesses). Gutenberghus irsskrift. Copenhagen: Gutenberghus, 1957: 17-25. 1958

105. SIXOMGREN E. Genetics and mental health. In: ‘Growing up in a changing world’. Papers presented at the 10th Annual Meeting of the World Federation for Mental Health, Copenhagen, 1957. London: Courier Co. Ltd. 1958: 15-32. 106. STROMGREN E. Genetics and mental health. Children 1958: 5: 49-54. 107. SrRoMciREN E. Einar Geert-Jorgensen og dansk psykiatri. In: JENSEN 0, LINNEMANN E, ed. Einer Geert-Jorgensen, den 9. april 1958. Copenhagen: Gads Forlag. 1958: 11-13. 108. SIXOMGKEN E. Den fremtidige psykiatriske arbejdsorganization i Danmark (The future working organization of psychiatry in Denmark). Nordisk Medicin 1958: 60: 10281029, 1033. 109. WELNEK J, STROMGREN E. Clinical and genetic studies on benign schizophreniform psychoses based on a follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1958: 33: 377-399. 110. STROMGREN E. Pathogenese der verschiedenen Formen

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115. STROMGREN E. Sindslidelser og arvelighed (Mental illnesses and heredity). In: FROM F, STUKUP GK, ed. Menncskekundskab. Psykologien og hverdagen. Copenhagen: Thaning & Appels Forlag, 1959: 161-173. 116. STROMGREN E. ‘Comparison of drug-induced and enPB et al., ed. dogenous psychoses in man’. In: BRADLEY Neuro-psychopharmacology. Proceedings of the First International Congress of Neuro-Pharmacology, Rome, September 1958. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Co., 183-185. 117. STROMGREN E. Discussion of the fertility of mentally diseased persons. Eugenics Quarterly 1959: 6: 238-239. K, STROMGREN E. Patients in Danish psychiatric 118. ARENTSEN hospitals. Results of a census in 1957. With an appendix of tables and graphs. Universitetsforlaget i Aarhus. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1959 (Acta Jutlandica 31). 119. STROMGREN E. Die Differentialdiagnose zwischen ProzessSchizophrenie und schizophreniformen Psychosen in klinischer und erbbiologischer Beleuchtung. 1. Genetische Aspekte (The differential diagnosis in process schizophrenia and schizophreniform psychoses in hereditary biological perspective. 1. Genetic aspects). In: STOLLWA, ed. Congress Report of the Second International Congress for Psychiatry, Zurich 1957. Zurich: Orell Fiissli, 1959: 323328. 120. STROMGREN E. Diskussionsbeitrag zum Symposium Hoff (Die Synthese in der Schizophrenie) (Discussion: Synthesis in schizophrenia). In: STOLLWA, ed. Congress Report of the Second International Congress for Psychiatry, Zurich 1957. Zurich: Orell Fiissli, 1959: 4: 174175. E. Conclusions (Symposium Hoff): (The 121. STROMGREN changing indications of the various somatic treatments in psychiatry). In: Stoll WA, ed. Congress Report of the Second International Congress for Psychiatry, Zurich 1957. Zurich: Orell Fiissli. 1959: 4: 180-182. 1960

122. SIROMGREN E. Begivenheder inden for psykiatrisk videnskab 1958 og 1959 (Highlights in psychiatric research in 1958 and 1959). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1960: 14: 1-15. 123. STROMGREN E. Hjalmar Helweg 11.2.188f+11.2.1960 (Obituary). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1960: 14: 97-104. 124. STROMGREN E. Menschliche Erblehre und ihre Anwendung auf die Psychiatrie (Human genetics and their application


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125. STROMGREN E. (ed.). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica (Editor 1961-1981). 126. ARENmEiv K, STROMGREN E. Det kommende psykiatriske hospital i Odense (The future psychiatric hospital in Odense). Ugeskrift for Lzger 1961: 123: 316-318. 127. STROMGREN E. Recent studies of prognosis and outcome in the mental disorders. In: HOCH PH, ZUBINJ, ed. Comparative epidemiology of the mental disorders. New York: Grune & Stratton. 1961: 120-131. 128. STROMGREN E. Mental health service planning in Denmark. In: LINNL, ed. Frontiers in general hospital psychiatry, New York: International Universities Press, 1961: 379404. 129. S T R ~ M G RE. E NNeuroserne, almindelig del. In: RIISING J, RONAG, ed. Kortfattet lerebog i neuroser. 2. udgave. Copenhagen: Dansk Videnskabs forlag, 1961: 22-62. E. Diffuse progressive leucoen130. EINARSON L, STROMGREN cephalopathy (diffuse cerebral sclerosis) and its relationship to amaurotic idiocy. Histological and clinical aspects. Universitetsforlaget i Aarhus. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1961 (Acta Jutlantica 33). 131. STKOMGKEN E. Frequency of depressive states within geographically delimited population groups. 1. Introduction. In: SARAUW KRISTIANSEN E, ed. Depression. Proceedings of the Scandinavian Symposium on Depression, 26-28 October 1960, Hornbaek, Denmark. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1961: 37 (Suppl. 162): 60-61. 132. SORENSEN A, STROMGREN E. Frequency of depressive states within geographically delimited population groups. 2. Prevalence (The Samsg Investigation). In: SARAUW KRISTIANSEN E, ed. Depression. Proceedings of the Scandinavian Symposium on Depression, 26-28 October 1960, Hornbaek, Denmark. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1961: 37 (SUPPI.162): 62-68. 133. S T R ~ M G RE. E NPsykiatri. P i grundlag af Jens Chr. Smith: Psykiatriske Forelaesninger. 7. udgave (Psychiatry, 7th edn). Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1961. 134. SrRoMGREN E. Defining the unit of study in field investigations in the mental disorders. In: ZUBIN J. ed. Field studies in the mental disorders. New York: Grune & Stratton. 1961: 173-182. 1962

135. STROMGREN E . Trends in psychiatric genetics in Scandinavia. In: KALLMANN FJ, ed. Expanding goals of genetics in psychiatry. New York & London: Grune & Stratton, 1962: 228-234. 136. STROMGREN E. Genetic implications of alcoholism. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae 1962: 11: 333-337. E. Hospitaliseringsbehovet. Behovet for psy137. STROMGREN kiatriske pladser (The need for psychiatric hospital beds). Nordisk Medicin 1962: 68: 1049-1051. 138. STROMGREN E. Depressive tilstande og deres behandling. (Depressive conditions and their treatment). Medicinsk Forum 1962: 15: 111-119. E. Chr. A. Volf's metode. Ugeskrift for Laeger 139. STROMGREN 1962: 124: 1816. 140. NIELSENJ, JUEL-NIELSEN N, STROMGREN E. Psykiatriske lidelser i almen laegepraksis (Psychiatric illnesses in general practice). Ugeskrift for Laeger 1962: 124: 1103-1108. E. Klinisk vurdering af 141. STROMGREN LS, STROMGREN amitriptylin. Resultater af behandling af 64 depressive patienter (English summary: Clinical evaluation of am-


itriptyline. Results of treatment of 64 depressive patients). Ugeskrift for Laeger 1962: 124: 14341438. 142. SCHOUM, STROMGREN E. Undgi litium i graviditetens forste del (Avoid lithium in the first trimester of pregnancy). Ugeskrift for Laeger 1962: 124: 1906. E. Psykiske lidelser hos gamle (Mental ill143. STROMGREN nesses in the elderly). Medicinsk &-bog 1962-63. Copenhagen: Munksgaard Forlag, 1962: 356-369. 144. STROMGREN E. Review of Schulte: Klinik der ' A nstahPsychiatrie. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag, 1962 (Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1962: 38: 248). 145. STROMGREN E. Review of Kretschmer, E: Medizinische Psychologie. 12, uberarbeitete Auflage. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag, 1963 (Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1962: 38: 339). 1963

146. STROMGREN E. Epidemiology of old-age psychiatric disorders. In: WILLIAMS RH et al., ed. Processes of aging. Social and psychological perspectives. New York: Atherton Press, 1963: 2: 133-151. 147. STROMGREN E. The psychiatric hospital as centre of community psychiatry. Comprehensive Psychiatry 1963: 4: 433441. 148. ALSTROM CH, STROMGREN E. Torsten Sjogren. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1963: 39: 5-8. 149. JUEL-NIELSEN N, STROMGREN E. Five years later. A comparison between census studies of patients in psychiatric institutions in Denmark in 1957 and 1962. With an appendix of tables and graphs. Universitetsforlaget i Aarhus. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1963 (Acta Jutlandica 35). 150. STROMGREN E. Statshospitaler og psykiatriske afdelinger p i centralsygehusene (Psychiatric hospitals and psychiatric departments in general hospitals). Ugeskrift for Lzger 1963: 125: 1564-1565, 1605-1606. E. Klinisk vurdering af 151. STROMGREN LS, STROMGREN amitriptylin (Clinical evaluation of amitriptyline). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1963: 17: 101-109. 1964

152. STROMGRENE. Psychoses caused by neuroleptics. L'EncCphale 1964: 53: 170-174. 153. STROMGREN E, SCHOUM. Lithium treatment of manic states. Postgraduate Medicine 1964: 35: 83-86. E. Psychiatric deviations in older people. In: 154. STROMGREN FROM HANSEN P, ed. Age with a future. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Gerontology, Copenhagen, 1963. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1964: 7475. 155. STROMGREN E. Recent studies on prevalence of mental disorders in the aged. In: FROM HANSEN P, ed. Age with a future. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Gerontology, Copenhagen, 1963. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1964: 243-247. 156. STROMGREN E. Psykiatriens stilling i dansk sundhedsvaesen (The present state of psychiatry in Danish health services). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1964: 18: 436441, 442448. 157. STROMGREN E. Psykiatri. 8. udgave (Psychiatry, 8th edn). Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1964. 158. STROMGREN E. Livsmod kan genvindes (Spirits can be regained). Helse 1964: 10: 59-61. 1965

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174. STROMGREN E. Spredte bemaerkninger om den kliniske virkning af litiumbehandlingen ved manio-depressiv psykose og om problemerne omkring gennemfarelsen af behandlingen (A few remarks on the clinical effect of lithium treatment in manic-depressive psychosis and on the problems regarding its implementation). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1966: 2 0 436-440. E. Litiumbehandling af manio-depressiv 175. STROMGREN psykose. Lecture delivered at Skandinavisk Selskab for Psykofarmakologi, Copenhagen, March 1966. ~~~.STROMG E.RReview EN of Jaspers, K. General psychopathology. Translated from the German, 7th edn, by J. Hoenig and M. W. Hamilton. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1963. (Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1966: 42: 111). 1967

177. STROMGREN E. Neurosen und Psychopathien. In: BECKER PE, ed. Humangenetik. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag, 1967: 578-598. 178. BJBRKLUND BERTELSEN KA, STROMGREN E. Hvad er der sket p i statshospitalerne de sidste 15 Br, og hvad forventer man, den naermeste fremtid vil bringe? (What has happened in the psychiatric hospitals over the last fifteen years and what is expected that the future will bring?). Mentalhygiejne 1967: 20: 6-18. 179. NIELSEN J, STROMGREN E. A five-year survey of a psychiatric service in a geographically delimited rural population. In: FREEMAN H , FARNDALE J, ed. New aspects of the mental health services. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1967: 350-380. 180. STROMGREN E. Sindslidelser og arvelighed (Mental illnesses and heredity). In: FROM F, STURUP GK, ed. Menneskekundskab. Copenhagen: Thaning & Appels Forlag, 1967: 21-37. 181. STROMGREN E. Psykiatri. 9. udgave (Psychiatry, 9th edn). Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1967. 1968

182. STROMGREN E. Contributions to psychiatric epidemiology and genetics. Universitetsforlaget i Aarhus. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1968 (Acta Jutlandica 40). 183.BJ0RKLUND BERTELSEN KA, STROMGREN E. Hvad er der sket p i statshospitalerne de sidste 15 i r , og hvad forventer man, den nmmeste fremtid vil bringe? (What has happened in the psychiatric hospitals over the last fifteen years and what is expected that the near future will bring?). Dansk Hospitalsforbunds Medlemsblad 1968: 5 4 120123.127. 184. STROMGREN E. Endogene Psychosen und degenerative Erkrankungen des Kindesalters in ihrer Beziehung zur Altersphase (Endogenous psychoses and degenerative illnesses in childhood and their relationship to age). In: STUTTEH. HARBAUER H, ed. Concilium Paedopsychiatricum. Verhandlungen des 3. Europaischen Kongresses fur Padopsychiatrie, Wiesbaden, 4-9 May, 1967. Basel: Karger. 1968: 80-86. 185. STROMGREN E. Statshospitalet ved Aarhus (Psychiatric Hospital in Aarhus ‘Risskov’). Dansk Psykolognyt 1968: 22: 185-186. 1969

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193. STKOMGREN E. Psykiatrisk epidemiologi. MA1 og metoder (Psychiatric epidemiology. Objectives and methods). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1970: 24: 3-15. 194. STROMGREN E, Dalby A, Dalby MA, Ranheim B. Cataract, deafness, cerebellar ataxia, psychosis and dementia - a F’, ed. Aspects of presenile new syndrome. In: JLJLJL-JENSEN dementia, metabolic neuropathy and myopathy, free subjects. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Congress of Scandinavian Neurologists. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 1970: 46 (Suppl. 43): 261-262. 195. SI-ROMGREN E. Orienterende indledning. Psykosernes klinik med specielt henblik pA diagnostik (An introductory overview. On the clinical manifestation of the psychoses, especially in regard to diagnosis). In: Symposium om psykiatri for ikke-psykiatere. (Symposium on psychiatry for non-psychiatrists). Copenhagen: Merck Sharp & Dohme, 1970: 7-14. 196. STROMGREN E. Festrede (Ceremonial oration). In: Festschrift: 150 Jahre. Landeskrankenhaus Schleswig. Festschrift. 1 Oktober 1970. Schleswig: Landeskrankenhaus Schleswig, 1970: 20-27. 197. STROMGREN E. Indledningsord ved den 16. Nordiske Psykiaterkongres, Aarhus 1.4.July 1970 (Introductory speech at the 16th Nordic Psychiatrists’ Conference). Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift 1970: 24: 256-263. 198. STROMGREN E. Depressive tilstande (Depressive conditions). Copenhagen: Ciba-Geigy, 1971. 1971

199. BENNIKE BF, JERSILD T, MILFELDT M, STROMGREN E et al. Forslag ti1 bekrempelse af narkoticamisbruget (Proposals for the fight against drug addiction). Ugeskrift for Lreger 1971: 133: 1330-1331. 200. BENNIKE BF, JERSILD T, MILFELDT M, STROMGREN E et al. Danish physicians action against drug addiction. South African Medical Journal 1971: 45: 48344835. 201. BENNIKE BF, JERSILD T, MILFELDT M, STROMGREN E et al. Lakaraktion i Danmark mot narkotika (Danish physicians

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210. STROMGREN E. Verlauf der Schizophrenicn (The course o f schizophrenia). In: HUBERG, ed. Verlauf und Ausgang schizophrener Erkrankungen. 2. Weissenauer Schizophreniesymposion, 4-5.5.1973. Stuttgart: F. K. Schattauer Verlag, 1973: 121-136. 211. STROMGREN E. Epidemiological basis for planning. In: WING JK. HAMER H, ed. Roots of evaluation. The epidemiological basis for planning psychiatric services. Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mannheim, 2629 July 1972. London: Oxford University Press, 1973: 13-19. 212. STROMGREN E, WNGJK. Diagnosis and distribution of schizophrenia. Development of the concept of schizophrenia. In: Report of the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia, Vol. 1. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1973: 14-38. 213. STROMGREN E. Mental health service planning based on prevalence and incidence studies. In: I)E LA FUENTE R, WEISMAN MN, ed. Psychiatry. Part 11. Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress of Psychiatry, Mexico, D. F., 2.5 November to 4 December 1971. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica. New York: American Elsevier Publishing. Co., 1973: 1381-1383. 214. STROMGREN E (ed.) Anafranil Symposium 1972. Beretning fra symposium afholdt pi%Scanticon (Aarhus), fra 21-23. September 1972 (Proceedings of an Auafranit symposium in 1972 in Aarhus). Copenhagen: Geigy, 1973.

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