ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Module-5 † Concept and Methods of Impacts Identification † Checklists † Matrices † Networks † Directed Graphs † Overla...
Author: Reynold Cross
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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Module-5 † Concept and Methods of Impacts Identification † Checklists † Matrices † Networks † Directed Graphs † Overlays

EIA METHODOLOGIES

†

Checklists

†

Matrices

†

Networks

†

Directed Graphs

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METHODS OF PREDICTION

†

Professional Judgement

†

Quantitative Math Methods

†

Experiments, Physical Methods

CHECKLISTS Simple Checklists †

Simple listing of factors

Checklists including additional information: †

Type of impacts

†

Ranking of impacts

†

Including mitigation measures

Descriptive Checklists Addresses: †

Actions

†

Impacts

†

Mitigation

†

Ranking

†

Different phases of project

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SIMPLE CHECKLIST TOPICAL ISSUE Land form. Will the project result in

YES

• Unstable slopes of embankments? • Extensive disruption to or displacement of the soil? • Impact to land classified as prime of unique farmland? • Changes in ground contours, shorelines, stream channels, or river banks? • Destruction, covering or modification of unique physical features? • Increased wind or water erosion of soils? • Foreclosure on future uses of site on a long term basis? Air/climatology, Will the project result in •

All pollutant emissions which will exceed or show standard or cause deterioration of ambient air quality? • Objectionable odors? • Alteration of air movement, humidity or temperature? • Emissions of hazardous air pollutants Water Will the project result in • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Discharge to a public water system? Changes in currents or water movement Changes in absorption rates drainage water runoff? Alterations to the course or flow of flood water? Impoundment, control or modification of the body of water equal or quarter side 10 acres in surface area? Discharges into surface water Alteration of the direction Alteration in groundwater quality? Contamination of public water supplies? Violation of State Stream Quality Standards applicable? Location in a riverine or coastal floodplan? Exposure of people or property to water-related hazards such as flooding? Location in a State’s coastal zone and subject to consistency with the State Coastal Zone Management Plan? Impact on or construction in a wetland or inland floodplan?

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MAY BE

NO

COMMENTS

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Additional Information on Checklist

INTERACTION MATRICES “A Simple Interaction Matrix displays project actions or activities along one axis, with appropriate environmental factors listed along other axis of Matrix” When an action or activity is expected to have an environmental impact, it is noticed by the intersection cell and is further described in terms of MAGNITUDE and IMPORTANCE.

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SIMPLE MATRICES

M Varies from 1 to 10 Based on objective evaluation of facts Can be –ve or +ve

Varies from 1 to 10 Based on subjective judgment

I

MAIN FEATURES OF SIMPLE MATRICES † Addition or summation of impacts can give useful information. † Matrix can be prepared WITH or WITHOUT mitigation measures. † Matrix can be prepared for different phases of the Project. † Addresses the direct impact only. † Don’t include the information about time, duration etc. † Characterization of impacts in Matrix SB

=

SA

=

B

=

A

=

a

=

b

=

O

=

NA

=

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INPUTS FOR INTERACTION MATRIX FOR DAM PROJECT

LEOPOLD MATRIX (WITHOUT MITIGATION)

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LEOPOLD MATRIX (WITH MITIGATION)

STEPPED MATRICES

† Can be used to address the secondary and tertiary impacts. † Environmental factors are displayed against other environmental factors.

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NETWORKS

† Integrate impact causes and consequences

† Useful for identifying impacts with a project.

† Aid in organizing impacts for discussions

† Minimal information on technical aspects of impacts

NETWORK DIAGRAM FOR AN IMPOUNDMENT PROJECT

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NETWORK DIAGRAM OF DREDGING PROJECT

DIRECTED GRAPH OR DIGRAPH OF HOUSING PROJECT

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COMPARISON OF IMPACT PREDICTION TECHNIQUES ADVANTAGES Checklists –simple –ranking and weighting

Matrices

Networks

Overlays

GIS and computer expert systems



simple to understand and use



good for site selection and priority setting



link action to impact



good method for displaying EIA results



link action to impact



useful in simplified form for checking for second order impacts



handles direct and indirect impacts



easy to understand



good display method

DISADVANTAGES •

do not distinguish between direct and indirect impacts



do not link action and impact



the process of incorporating values can be controversial



difficult to distinguish direct and indirect impacts



significant potential for double-counting of impacts



can become very complex if used beyond simplified version



address only direct impacts do not address impact duration or probability



good siting tool





excellent for impact identification and analysis



heavy reliance on knowledge and data



often complex and expensive



good for ‘experimenting’

IMPACT MITIGATION

IT SEEKS TO: † Find better ways of doing things † Minimize or eliminate negative impacts † Enhance project benefits † Protect pubic and individual rights of compensation PROPONENTS HAVE THE RESPONSIBILTIY TO: † Avoid or minimize impacts † Plan for managing impacts

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IMPACT MITIGATION

Understanding the Problems is the Key to Effective Mitigation ASK: † What the problem is † When the problem will occur and when it should be addressed † Where the problem should be addressed † How the problem should be addressed † Who stands to gain or lose MITIGATION OPTIONS † Alternative way of meeting the need † Changes in planning and design † Improving monitoring and management † Monetary compensation † Replacing, relocation, rehabilitating

TYPICAL PHYSICAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATIONS † Design mitigation for all phases of the project † State policy and standards † Designate responsibility † Provide a schedule of tasks, including training † Include a system for reporting † Include a system for monitoring and auditing † Contain a contingency plan

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LAND, AIR, WATER

† Fugitive Dust Emissions

† Water sprinkling

† Emissions (during construction and operation)

† Tuning and utilization EOPs + Proactive Control

† Potential environmental outputs during the operation phase

† Potential environmental outputs during the operation phase

† Labour employed, water demands, wastewater assessment

† Estimate demands, treatment,

† Soil contamination (solid waste generation, spills etc)

† SWMP covering six functional elements, avoiding spills

LAND, AIR, WATER

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of

wastewater wastewater

Use of Computer Models for Impact Assessment n

Cause effect analysis of projected waste input and water quality response and projection analysis for achieving the desired water quality standards.

n

Waste load allocation to river bodies.

LAND, AIR, WATER

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FLORA AND FAUNA

† Land conversion to industrial and residential uses. † Land conversion to agricultural uses. † Land conversion to transportation uses. † Significance is assigned on the basis of: † Role of that species in Food-Web relation † Role of species in carrying capacity † Evaluation of resiliency of plant or animal specie. † Species of Economic Importance † Changes in threatened species † Effect of the change in specie quantity

IMPACT MITIGATION

IMPACT MANAGEMENT PLANS † Design mitigation for all phases of the project † State policy and standards † Designate responsibility † Provide a schedule of tasks, including training † Include a system for reporting † Include a system for monitoring and auditing † Contain a contingency plan

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TRANSPLANTATION OF TREES

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TRANSPLANTATION OF TREES

TRANSPLANTATION OF TREES

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TRANSPLANTATION OF TREES

TRANSPLANTATION OF TREES

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TRANSPLANTATION OF TREES

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SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AND POTENTIAL CHANGES

MANGLA DAM RAISING PROJECT

N

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MANGLA DAM RAISING PROJECT

† A population of about 50,000 persons is being affected

† About 8000 houses and other buildings are being affected

† A total of 6,388 hectares of land (residential, agriculture and barren) is to be acquired

† 28 brick kilns will be abandoned

MANGLA DAM RAISING PROJECT

† An unprecedented and very attractive compensation package for the affectees has been provided

† Previous owners of the cultivated land will be permitted to cultivate their lands when the reservoir level recedes

† New City near Mirpur and four small towns along the periphery of the reservoir are being constructed

† Vocational training programs have been devised for local population

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MANGLA DAM RAISING PROJECT

† Bridge over River Jhelum at Dhangali is being constructed

† Pakistan Resettlement Policy is being followed for the resettlement and compensation process

† Monitoring and evaluation process will be used to assess the status of the compensation package for the affectees

† Internal and external monitoring will be done to assess the efficiency of the resettlement and compensation process

MANGLA DAM RAISING PROJECT

† The monitoring and evaluation team will need at least one ex-post evaluation survey to assess the achievements of the resettlement objective

† PAPs are being involved in the monitoring and evaluation work to improve the performance of the resettlement program

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