energy production from waste (agricultural, food, municipal)

BBSRC-DBT Bioenergy Workshop Biogas / energy production from waste (agricultural, food, municipal) A UK Perspective Keith Waldron KEY SOURCES OF IN...
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BBSRC-DBT Bioenergy Workshop

Biogas / energy production from waste (agricultural, food, municipal) A UK Perspective Keith Waldron

KEY SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Lucy Hopwood (NNFCC) [email protected] Richard Parker (Renewables East) [email protected] WRAP UK

Overview • What is AD • Why do we need AD

– Drivers and UK Biogas Market

• How can we achieve AD in the UK? – Sources of biomass – Financial incentives – Improved technologies

• Examples of emerging AD activities • Conclusions

Overview • What is AD • Why do we need AD

– Drivers and UK Biogas Market

• How can we achieve AD in the UK? – Sources of biomass – Financial incentives – Improved technologies

• Examples of emerging AD activities • Conclusions

Biological and chemical stages of anaerobic digestion

Large Organic polymers Carbohydrates Fats Proteins

Soluble Organic monomers Sugars Fatty Acids Amino Acids

Carbonic acids Propionic, Butyric, Acetic Acids Long chain VFAs and alcohols Hydrogen CO2 & NH3

C6H12O6 → 3CO2 + 3CH4 Mesophilic or thermophilic

Hydrogen Acetic acid CO2

CH4 CO2

Agricultural slurries Municipal Solid waste

Sorting / recycling

AD

biowaste

DIGESTER

Food industry

Methane production Over 1-2 weeks

EFFLUENT

BIOGAS COMPRESSION & STORAGE

SEPARATOR ETC

SOLID FIBRE e.g. composted

LIQUID e.g. fertilizer applications

VEHICLE FUEL transport

BOILER GENERATOR Electricity to National Grid

+CHP

Overview • What is AD • Why do we need AD

– Drivers and UK Biogas Market

• How can we achieve AD in the UK? – Sources of biomass – Financial incentives – Improved technologies

• Examples of emerging AD activities • Conclusions

UK Commitments and Targets (2020)  Climate Change Act

• Greenhouse gas emissions 34% below 1990 levels

 EU Renewable Energy Directive

• 15% of UK‟s energy from renewable sources

 EU Landfill Directive

• Biodegradable municipal waste sent to landfill 35% of that produced in 1995

EU Waste Framework Directive (2008) Waste Hierarchy Prevention

 

Using less material in design and manufacture. Keeping products for longer; re-use.

Preparing for re-use



Checking, cleaning, repairing, refurbishing, whole items or spare parts.,

 

Turning waste into a new substance or product. Includes composting, if it meets quality protocols.



Including AD, incineration with energy recovery, gasification and pyrolysis which produce energy and materials from waste; some backfilling operations.



Landfill and incineration without energy recovery.

Recycling Other recovery Disposa l

Renewable Energy Strategy (UK) • Renewable Energy Strategy

– UK delivery plan – 15% renewable energy by 2020

Renewable Heat (12% by 2020) Renewable Power (30% by 2020) Renewable Transport Fuels (10% by 2020)

• Why and How can Anaerobic Digestion contribute?

Coalition Agreement • “We will establish a full system of feed-in tariffs in electricity – as well as the maintenance of banded Renewables Obligation Certificates” • “We will introduce measures to promote a huge increase in energy from waste through anaerobic digestion” • “We will create a green investment bank”

Overview • What is AD • Why do we need AD

– Drivers and UK Biogas Market

• How can we achieve AD in the UK? – Sources of biomass – Financial incentives – Improved technologies

• Examples of emerging AD activities • Conclusions

Resource Availability  Energy crops are one possible feedstock:  Simplified regulation  Arable rotation - good break crop  Grass – multiple cut, multiple use

…But they do require land which is a more limited resource in the UK.

Resource Availability  Food Waste ≈ 16 Mt/y ≈ 8.3 Mt/y household ≈ 6.3 Mt/y commercial & industrial ≈ 1.3 Mt/y food service & supermarkets

 Agricultural Waste ≈ 90 Mt/y ≈ 13 million cattle ≈ 33 million sheep ≈ 4 million pigs ≈ 166 million chickens

 Sewage Sludge ≈ 1.73 Mt/yr

1 tonne food waste = 300kWhe Food waste potential = 5 TWhe

+

1 tonne slurry / manure = 50 – 100kWhe

Agricultural waste potential = 8 TWhe

+ 1 tonne sewage sludge = 125 - 150kWhe Sewage sludge potential = 1 TWhe

Renewables Obligation The Renewables Obligation (RO) for large-scale (generally >5MW) renewable electricity projects.

ROCs issued to accredited generators for renewable electricity.  Introduced in April 2002  Banded from April 2009  Double ROCs for Anaerobic Digestion • ROC value c. £44 – 50 per MWh  Banding Review due 2013 •

Consultation on the grandfathering policy of support [for AD] under the RO – Grandfathering of support at current levels for AD and EfW generators

Feed-In-Tariffs – Payment rates Technology

Scale

Tariff level for new installations (p/kWh) *

Tariff Lifetime (years)

Anaerobic Digestion

≤ 500 kW

11.5

20

Anaerobic Digestion

> 500 kW

9.0

20

PV

> 4 – 10 kW

36.1

25

PV

>10 – 100kW

31.4

25

PV

>100kW – 5MW

29.3

25

Wind

>15 – 100 kW

24.1

20

Wind

>100 – 500 kW

18.8

20

Wind

>500kW – 1.5MW

9.4

20

Wind

> 1.5 – 5MW



4.5 20(RPI linked) * NB Tariffs will be inflated annually

Fast-track review of small-scale AD [and PV] tariffs announced on 07 February 2011  < 250kWe = 14p/kWh  250 – 500kWe = 13p/kWe

Renewable Heat Incentive - Tariffs Technology Small Biomass Medium Biomass

Small ground source

Large ground source

Tariff (p/kWh)

< 200

Tier 1: 7.6 Tier 2: 1.9

200 – 1,000

Tier 1: 4.7 Tier 2: 1.9

≥ 1,000

2.6

Biomethane injection and biogas combustion (excl. landfill)

Injection all scales; combustion < 200

6.5

Ground-source heat pumps; water-source heat pumps; deep geothermal

< 100

4.3

Solid Biomass; Municipal Solid Waste (incl. CHP)

Large Biomass Biomethane

Size (kWth)

≥ 100

3.0

* NB Tariffs will be inflated annually (RPI linked)

Research and Development

MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY

Additional activities • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • •

Integration of on-farm biodiesel production with anaerobic digestion to maximise energy yield and greenhouse gas savings from process and farm residues Author(s): Heaven, S (Heaven, Sonia)1; Salter, AM (Salter, Andrew M.)1; Banks, CJ (Banks, Charles J.)1 Southampton University Fermentative biohydrogen production systems integration. Author(s): Guwy, A J; Dinsdale, R M; Kim, J R; Massanet-Nicolau, J; Premier, G Source: Bioresource technology Volume: 102 Issue: 18 Pages: 8534-42 Published: 2011Sep (Epub 2011 May 04) University of Glamorgan Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom Author(s): Burnley, S (Burnley, Stephen)1; Phillips, R (Phillips, Rhiannon)2; Coleman, T (Coleman, Terry)3; Rampling, T (Rampling, Terence) Open University, Milton Keynes Life cycle assessment of biogas infrastructure options on a regional scale Author(s): Patterson, T (Patterson, Tim)1; Esteves, S (Esteves, Sandra)1; Dinsdale, R (Dinsdale, Richard)1; Guwy, A (Guwy, Alan)1 Univ. Glamorgan Financial appraisal of wet mesophilic AD technology as a renewable energy and waste management technology Author(s): Dolan, T (Dolan, T.)1; Cook, MB (Cook, M. B.)2; Angus, AJ (Angus, A. J.)1 Cranfield University

Overview • What is AD • Why do we need AD

– Drivers and UK Biogas Market

• How can we achieve AD in the UK? – Sources of biomass – Financial incentives – Improved technologies

• Examples of emerging AD activities • Conclusions

AD Development in the UK There are two categories of AD developing in the UK:  Farm-fed systems

 Waste-fed systems

-

-

-

Slurry Livestock Processing material generated on the farm only, i.e. Waste manure, crops and crop waste Manure Digestate can be spread on own land Scale is typically 100kW to 1MW grown Capital cost is typically £500kPurpose to £2.5 million Vegetative Annual income is typically £120k to £1.2 million Material Residual Capital grant is a possibility, subject to State Aid Planning is normally straightforward – can be passed without the need for full application Commercial Environmental permitting is straightforward – no need Food Waste Industrial for full permitting, not handling waste Waste-handling licences not required Household Environmental Impact Assessment not necessary Likely to generate heat & power through CHP Human Sewage Ideally forWaste local use Electricity grid connection may be necessary Heat may be wasted

-

Processing external waste; including domestic & commercial food waste, food processing waste and possibly farm materialsFARM Digestate spread on additional land off-site Scale is typically 1MW to 2.5MW Capital cost is typically £5 - 10 million Annual income is typically £2 - 4 million Capital grant is unlikely, unless for demonstration Planning is likely to be a long and challenging process Environmental permitting will be very stringent Waste-handling licences will be required WASTEwill be required Environment Impact Assessment May use biogas through CHP or direct gas grid injection Higher cost of gas upgrading technology Optimising use of outputs

Biogas Map ON-FARM 32 plants now

 c.40 further plants planned or in construction

OFF-FARM 22 plants now  c.20 further plants planned or in construction

How is Anaerobic Digestion being used in the Farming Sector? - Some Examples

Small-farm AD

125 – 150kW, typical dairy unit using slurry and maize or grass silage. 5-10ktpa, cost £300 - 800k

Source: BiogenGreenfinch

Medium-farm AD

500kW – 1MW, large farm or several farmers working together. Based on a dairy farm, possible supplementary feedstock coming from adjacent farms, i.e. maize or grass. Cost £1 – 2 million. 10-20ktpa

Source: BiogenGreenfinch

Centralised AD

2MW food waste plant – food waste recycler, also generating energy. 50,000tpa mixed waste. Cost £6 – 8 million.

How is Anaerobic Digestion being used in the Food Sector? - Some Examples

Adnams Brewery Location:

Southwold, Suffolk

Input:

12,500 tpa

Source:

Brewery waste generated on-site, local food waste

Equipment:

Three digesters, biogas upgrade

Biogas Use:

Biomethane Injection (60%), Vehicle Fuel

Digestate Use:

Local agricultural land used to grow barley for brewery

Commissioned:

2010

Capex:

£2.75 million (supported by ERDF, EEDA, DECC)

Benefits:

Issues:

- Community cost benefits (5% pa.)

- Securing local food waste

- Saving 50,000t CO2e from landfill

- Delay of RHI

- Carbon footprint reduced 50% over 5yrs

Guy & Wright (Green Tye) Location:

Bishop Stortford, Hertfordshire

Input:

10,000 tpa

Source:

Tomato waste on-site and wholesale market rejects

Enquipmet:

Macerator, underground digesters, CHP

Biogas Use:

500 kWe CHP (on-site and power export)

Digestate Use:

Own use or locally

Commissioned:

2009

Benefits: - Heat in greenhouses to allow year round production and reduce cost of fossil fuel - CO2 used in greenhouses for faster ripening and increased yields (60 – 300t/acre) - Reduced waste to landfill

GWE Biogas Location:

Driffield, East Yorkshire

Input:

50,000 tpa

Source:

Local authorities, food manufacture, supermarkets

Equipment:

De-packaging, heat recovery, water recovery, advanced digestate processing.

Biogas Use:

2MWe CHP (85% exported)

Digestate Use:

On-site and via local farmers; separated

Commissioned:

October 2010

Capex:

£9.5 million (supported by ETF, WRAP and CO2Sense)

Benefits:

Issues:

- 15 local jobs created

- Securing waste pre-operation

- Green power to 3,200 homes - Consistency of feedstock - 260,000tCO2 saving in 10 years

- Gate fees & haulage costs

Timeline for AD Development in the UK Feb 2009 „Shared Goals‟ document

2009 Feb 2010 RHI Consultation published by DECC

2010

March 2009 AD Task Group convened

July 2009 AD Task Group report April 2010 FIT‟s introduced

March 2010 Implementation Plan (Defra)

Jan – Mar 2011 AD Strategy process

2011

Sept 2009 Official AD Portal launched

April 2009 RO Banding

July 2010 Ministerial Roundtable

May 2010 Coalition Agreement March 2011 RHI details published

Feb 2011 FIT Emergency Review

Dec 2009 Biomethane Guide for Producers

32 PLANTS

Dec 2010 Launch AD Framework

Oct 2010 CSR

c.50 PLANTS

June 2011 RHI - Phase 1 implemented May 2011 AD Strategy published

c.100 PLANTS

Overview • What is AD • Why do we need AD

– Drivers and UK Biogas Market

• How can we achieve AD in the UK? – Sources of biomass – Financial incentives – Improved technologies

• Examples of emerging AD activities • Conclusions

 Small-scale technology options

 Availability of finance

 Waste segregation

 Perceived technology issues

 Biogas Upgrading

 Cost of energy crops

 Biomethane for Transport

 Security of incentives

Biomethane yields

Reliability of ROCs

Technical

Economic

BARRIERS TO UPTAKE Social  Food waste collections  Markets for digestate  Skills & training  Food vs. Fuel conflict NIMBI

Regulatory  Planning  Permitting  Health & Safety  Gas Quality Standards

Conclusion • The UK has come a long way in just a few years,

• But, barriers to development remain in place. • To see a “huge increase” in AD we need;  Long-term security - Policy - Incentives - Feedstock supply

 Confidence

 Investment  Strategy & planning  Regulatory framework

Official AD Information Portal:

www.biogas-info.co.uk

Waste Policy Review Defra, June 2011:



“Food waste is an example of where prevention and recycling / recovery go hand in hand. We need to cut down the estimated 16 million tonnes produced every year in Britain, while ensuring that more is not simply disposed of in landfill”.



“…Government supports efficient energy recovery from residual waste which can deliver environmental benefits, reduce carbon impacts and provide economic opportunities.



“Our aim is to get the most energy out of genuinely residual waste, not to get the most waste into energy recovery.”

AD Strategy & Action Plan Defra / DECC, June 2011: •

“ Around 16Mt of food and drink waste arise annually in the UK…half from households and half from manufacture, retail, hospitality & business”



“The production, distribution and disposal of avoidable household waste generates 20MtCO2e (3% of total UK GHG emissions) and uses 6% of UKs water footprint”



“Based on likely waste resources (c.5Mt)…this would replace 47,500t of nitrogen (N), 14,720t of diphosphorous pentoxide (P2O5) and 20,400t of potassium oxide (K2O) – saving 386,000tCO2e



“Based on likely waste resources AD could deliver between 3–5 Terawatt hours (TWh) of electricity by 2020.”

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