Endocrine Tumors Pituitary Tumors

Endocrine Tumors – Pituitary Tumors Endocrine Tumors – Pituitary Tumors Authors: Ayda G. Nambayan, DSN, RN, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital Eri...
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Endocrine Tumors – Pituitary Tumors

Endocrine Tumors – Pituitary Tumors Authors: Ayda G. Nambayan, DSN, RN, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital Erin Gafford, Pediatric Oncology Education Student, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital; Nursing Student, School of Nursing, Union University Content Reviewed by: Daniel H. Alderete, MD, Hospital Nacional de Pediatría J.P. Garrahan, Argentina Cure4Kids Release Date: 1 September 2006 Pituitary tumors Childhood pituitary endocrine tumors are rare and usually benign. The incidence rate at diagnosis is 0.12 per 100,000 person per year for patients age 0-19 years old. It is also interesting to note that when calculated for children 0 -14 years old, the incidence rate is lower (0.03 per 100,000 person per year). Because these tumors affect the production of hormones, they often interfere with the child’s growth and development Clinical Signs and Symptoms: Some pituitary tumors secrete excessive amounts of hormones that produce a characteristic syndrome; but other tumors do not secrete hormones. Pressure on the adjacent structures caused by the tumor produces symptoms common to pituitary tumors. These symptoms include the following:  Restlessness  Headaches  Vomiting  Hydrocephalus with or without increased intracranial pressure  Visual changes (depending upon tumor location): suprasellar pituitary tumors cause bitemporal constriction of the visual fields.  (A – 1) Pituitary hormone deficiencies or overproduction (symptoms depend on the hormone affected) Diagnostic Workup:  Complete history of illness including noticeable changes in behaviors, occurrence and duration of presenting symptoms  Physical exam that includes growth and development retardation and physical changes such as Cushing’s syndrome  Chemical assays to (A – 2) test for specific hormone levels  MRI and CT scan Module 13 - Document 20

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Endocrine Tumors – Pituitary Tumors

Treatment: Treatment is determined by the type of tumor and whether it has invaded the surrounding areas of the pituitary gland. Treatment modalities include surgery, radiation and use of drugs such as bromocriptine (Parlodel), cabergoline, and sandostatin (Ocreotide). Pituitary tumors that are rapidly growing and threaten vision are often surgically resected, either through a (A – 3) trans-sphenoidal technique or craniotomy. Removal of the pituitary gland often necessitates lifelong hormone replacement therapy. Rare complications include total hypophysectomy, with resulting panhypopituitarism, cavernous sinus hemorrhage, transient or permanent diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, leakage of cerebro-spinal fluid, and meningitis. Helpful Weblinks: Chclibrary.org http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&safe=active&biw=996&q=pituitary+tumors+in+children&btnG=Search

The National Institutes of Health – National Institute of Child Health and Development http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pituitary_tumors_in_children.cfm

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Pituitary Tumor Program http://www.mdanderson.org/departments/endocrinology/display.cfm?id=6020fb36-16ad-434bb9e53b74aaecdd60&method=displayfull&pn=7C94FA0E-E9CD-425E-9DE142BFD8CE3805

The Hormone Foundation http://www.hormone.org/public/pituitary.cfm

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Endocrine Tumors – Pituitary Tumors

APPENDIX: A – 1 Clinical Presentation of Different Pituitary Tumors through Hormone Deficiences and Excess

Hormone

Associated Signs and Symptoms Deficiency Excess

Growth Hormone

Poor or retarded growth Gigantism or acromegaly hypoglycemia Adrenocortical Secondary adrenal insufficiency Hypernatremia Hormone Weakness Hypolakemia Orthostatic hypotension Water retention/hypervolemia Hyponatremia hypertension & headaches Hypoglycemia Cushing syndrome Increased skin pigmentation Gonadotropin Pubertal arrest or regression Precocious puberty in children already in puberty Early epiphyseal closure Delayed puberty in pre-pubertal children Low levels of plasma luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone Thyrotropin Poor growth Hyperthyroidism Delayed puberty Thyrotoxicosis Juvenile myxedema Graves Disease Diminished school performance Constipation Cold intolerance Dry skin Symptoms of hypothyroidism Vasopressin deficiency Diabetes insipidus Syndrome of inappropriate(tumor extension to the Polyuria antidiuretic hormone (SIADH): paraventricular Polydipsia fluid retention and hypotonicity nucleus) Dehydration osmolality – low serum/ Hypernatremia high urine

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Endocrine Tumors – Pituitary Tumors

A–2

Test to Evaluate Pituitary Deficiencies

Hormone

Tests

Response

Growth Hormone

Arginine or insulin stimulation L-Dopa stimulation Glucagon stimulation

GH > 6 ng/ml GH > 6 ng/ml GH > 6 ng/ml

Adrenocorticosterone Leutienizing Hormone Follicular Stimulating Hormone TSH

Cortrosyn stimulation LH stimulating hormone stimulation

Cortisol > 18/dl LH and FSH normal for age

Plasma T 4, T3 , TSH and TBG TRH stimulation Water stimulation

Normal levels for age

AVP

Urinary osmolality serum osmolality 

Stratakis C. And Chrousos, G. Endocrine Tumors in Pizzo, P. & Poplack, D., Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology, 3 rd Ed. 1997

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Trans - sphenoidal surgery

A The pituitary gland is approached through the sphenoid process. B Trans-sphenoidal exposure of the pituitary gland and adenomectomy Koch, C. et. al Endocrine Tumors in Pizzo, P and Poplack, D. Principles and Practice of Pediatric oncology

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Acknowledgments:

Authors: Ayda G. Nambayan, DSN, RN, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital Erin Gafford, Pediatric Oncology Education Student, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital; Nursing Student, School of Nursing, Union University Content Reviewed by: Daniel H. Alderete, MD, Hospital Nacional de Pediatría J.P. Garrahan, Argentina Edited by: Marc Kusinitz, PhD, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital Cure4Kids Release Date: 1 September 2006

Cure4Kids.org International Outreach Program St. Jude Children's Research Hospital 332 N. Lauderdale St. Memphis, TN 38105-2794

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Last printed 7/29/2008 3:32:00 PM Last Updated: 17 June 2008; AS X:\HO\IO Edu Grp\Projects\NURSING COURSE\NCEnglish\Edited\Module 13\M13 final Revisions\NEM13D20V14.doc

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