EFFECT OF N-INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SWEET CORN

P r o c e e d i n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l The 4th Green Technology Faculty of Science and Technology Islamic of University State Maulana Malik Ibr...
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P r o c e e d i n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l The 4th Green Technology Faculty of Science and Technology Islamic of University State Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang

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EFFECT OF N-INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SWEET CORN Zainal Arifin and Indriana Ratna Dewi BPTP East Java e-mail: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Sweet corn as food Attracted many people, so the need for growing sweet corn. Many farmers to plant early maturing sweet corn Because of his age around 65-75 days. This study aims to know the effects of N and organic fertilization on growth and yield of sweet corn. The experiment was conducted in rainfed lowland in KP. Kirkcaldy, Kirkcaldy Subdistrict, Mojokerto District on Dray Season (DS II) 2012. Designed a randomized trial with 10 treatments were repeated 3 times in plots measuring 5 m x 3 m at a spacing of 75 cm x 20 cm. Treatment includes: (1) Urea 0 kg/ha, (2) Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha, (3) Urea 100 kg/ha, (4) Urea 100 kg/ha + Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha, (5) urea 200 kg/ha, (6) urea 200 kg/ha + Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha, (7) Urea 300 kg/ha, (8) Urea 300 kg/ha + Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha, (9) Urea 400 kg/ha, and (10) Urea 400 kg/ha + Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha. The results showed that planting sweet corn with fertilizer urea 300 kg/ha obtained a high yield of cob corn and significantly different from urea fertilizer with lower dose. Keywords: sweet corn, fertilizer, growth, yield cob

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INTRODUCTION

chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers on crop specific sweet corn.

Corn is the main commodity crops have an important role in achieving food security and national contribution corn production in East Java reached 31.86% (Diperta Prov. Jawa Timur. 2009). In addition to meeting the needs of food and animal feed, recently began a much-loved type of corn is the sweet corn are harvested young. Land management by rational fertilization is an effort to increase efficiency and optimize production costs increased production of sweet corn. Efficient use of fertilizer is basically giving a good fertilizer macro nutrients and micro nutrients in the number, types and shapes to suit the needs of plants, and by granting the right time according to the needs and growth of sweet corn crop. Excess fertilizer in addition to a waste of funds, also disrupt the balance of nutrients in the soil and environmental pollution (Adiningsih et al., 1989; Moersidi et al., 1991; Rochayati et al., 1991), while the fertilizer is too bit can not provide the optimal level of production.

This study aimed to determine the effect of N inorganic and organic fertilizer on growth and yield of sweet corn MATERIALS AND METHODS Fertilization studies at the age of sweet corn harvest 75 days held in lowland Mojosari village, Mojosari Subdistrict, Mojokerto District, in DS II 2012. Designed studies using randomized treatment groups with 10 repeated 3 times, consist of : (1) Urea 0 kg/ha, (2) Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha, (3) Urea 100 kg/ha, (4) Urea 100 kg/ha + Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha, (5) urea 200 kg/ha, (6) urea 200 kg/ha + Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha, (7) Urea 300 kg/ha, (8) Urea 300 kg/ha + Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha, (9) Urea 400 kg/ha, and (10) Urea 400 kg/ha + Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha. Experimental plots measuring 5 m x 3 m with spacing of 75 cm x 20 cm, 1 seed per hole. Organic fertilizer used is cow manure.

The use of N inorganic fertilizer is continuously being offset by organic fertilizers can damage soil physical properties such as water holding capacity (Nugroho et al. 2000). According to Tisdale et al. (1985) and Karama (2000), nutrient needs are only met by the addition of inorganic fertilizer without organic fertilizer leads to the depletion of nutrients in the soil quickly. Such conditions lead to a decline in soil fertility. Decline in soil fertility is related to the low soil organic matter content. The content of organic matter in lowland in East Java, 99% is low at less than 2% (Suyamto, 2003), thus causing the deterioration of land quality. Therefore we need the addition of organic fertilizer to improve soil productivity. Sugito et al. (1995) added, the higher the organic matter into the soil will be given higher water binding and the ability to provide more groundwater. Therefore we need

Dose and timing of fertilizer application, the first fertilizer immediately after planting maize, namely : ½ dose of Urea/ha + 100 kg SP-36/ha + 50 kg KCl/ha + 2 t organic fertilizer/ha, while the second fertilization 21 Day After Planting (DAP), namely: ½ dose of Urea/ha + 50 kg KCl/ha. Data analysis using ANOVA followed Duncan Significant Difference Test (DMRT 5%) (Gomez and Gomez, 1993). RESULTS Agroecology of Research Sites The experiment was conducted in rainfed lowland in the Mojosari Village, Mojosari Subdistrict, Mojokerto District, in DS II 2012 (Table 1).

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The numbers followed the same letter in the same column are not significantly different by DMRT at 5% level

Table 1. Results of soil nutrient analysis before trial in rainfed lowland in Mojosari village, Mojosari Subdistrict, Mojokerto District. Analysis Content Category Texture : Sand % 60 Dust % 21 Loam % 19 Class Sandy loam pH : H2O 6,0 Rather acid C-organic (%) 1,05 Low N-total (%) 0,12 Low C/N ratio 8,75 Low P-Olsen (ppm) 69 Low K (cmol(+) kg-1) 0,26 Low Na (cmol(+) kg-1) 0,49 Medium Ca (cmol(+) kg-1) 9,19 Medium Mg (cmol(+) kg-1) 3,91 High KTK (cmol(+) kg-1) 18,97 Medium * The results of soil laboratory analysis of BPTP East Java 2012

Results and Components of Plant N-inorganic fertilization (urea) on sweet corn showed an increase in cob length, cob diameter and stover fresh weight (Table 3). Table 3. Effect of N and organic fertilizer to sweet corn on cob length, cob diameter and stover fresh weight, DS II 2012, Mojokerto District No. Fertilization Cob Cob Stover length diameter fresh (cm) (cm) weight (t/ha) 1. Urea 0 kg/ha 8,75f 3,00e 4.90f 2. Organic fertilizer 10,50e 3,03e 5.40f 2 t/ha 3. Urea 100 kg/ha 12,52c 3,76d 7.50e 4. Urea 100 kg/ha + 11,23d 3,69d 7.52e Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha 5. Urea 200 kg/ha 12,36c 3,74d 14.93bc 6. Urea 200 kg/ha + 13,56b 3,84d 12.40d Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha 7. Urea 300 kg/ha 15,70a 4,20a 16.37b 8. Urea 300 kg/ha + 13,97b 3,69d 17.93a Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha 9. Urea 400 kg/ha 15,35a 4,08ab 15.77b 10. Urea 400 kg/ha + 15,94a 3,98bc 13.87c Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha C V (%) 5,87 6,71 6,90

Plant Growth Plant height, cob height and number of leaves of sweet corn affected by N inorganic and organic fertilizer (Table 2). Table 2. Effect of N and organic fertilizer to sweet corn on plant height, cob height and number of leaves, DS II 2012, Mojokerto District No.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Fertilization

Plant height (cm) Urea 0 kg/ha 80,20h Organik fertilizer 2 t/ha 92,33g Urea 100 kg/ha 125,33e Urea 100 kg/ha + 114,33f Organik fertilizer 2 t/ha Urea 200 kg/ha 124,67e Urea 200 kg/ha + 134,67d Organik fertilizer 2 t/ha Urea 300 kg/ha 148,67a Urea 300 kg/ha + 140,00bc Organik fertilizer 2 t/ha Urea 400 kg/ha 142,87b Urea 400 kg/ha + 138,33c Organik fertilizer 2 t/ha C V (%) 10,19

Cob height (cm) 38,60f 38,93f 60,07e 63,60d

Number of leaves 8,47e 8,67e 10,07bc 9,47d

The numbers followed the same letter in the same column are not significantly different by DMRT at 5% level

65,07d 9,60d 69,60bc 9,33d 75,73a 10,33b 75,87a 10,20b

Further increased dose of fertilizer N (urea) obtained an increase in cob cornhusk weight or cob weight (Table 4)

70,00b 10,93a 67,53c 10,20bc 5,86

5,27

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Table 4. Effect of N and organic fertilizer to sweet corn on cob cornhusk weight and cob weight, DS II 2012, Mojokerto District No Fertilization Cob corn Cob husk weight weight (t/ha) (t/ha) 1. Urea 0 kg/ha 4.94f 4.18f 2. Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha 6.86e 5.72e 3. Urea 100 kg/ha 9.68d 7.85d 4. Urea 100 kg/ha + 8.13e 6.67e Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha 5. Urea 200 kg/ha 10.36d 8.21d 6. Urea 200 kg/ha + 12.11c 9.46c Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha 7. Urea 300 kg/ha 16.87a 12.98a 8. Urea 300 kg/ha + 12.83c 10.27c Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha 9. Urea 400 kg/ha 16.41a 12.62ab 10. Urea 400 kg/ha + 15.03b 12.03b Organic fertilizer 2 t/ha C V (%) 6,90 6,23

weight is achieved when the sweet corn crop fertilized 300 kg Urea/ha plus 2 t organic fertilizer/ha. Stover fresh plant sweet corn from a young age are potentially used as animal feed. This is in accordance with the opinion Arifin et al. (2003), maize straw of the young age plants have a high crude protein content with a low crude fiber so it very well when used directly for animal feed. The use of organic fertilizer is less noticeable on growth and yield of sweet corn due to very low nutrient availability following the slow process of decomposition. Fertilization 300 kg Urea/ha on sweet corn gained increasing of cob cornhusk weight and cob weights significantly more higher, each 16,87 t/ha and 12,98 t/ha. Appropriate soil analysis results (Table 1) which indicates, Ntotal content in the soil is low so it is the response when added N-inorganic fertilizer into the soil.

The numbers followed the same letter in the same column are not significantly different by DMRT at 5% level

DISCUSSION CONCLUSION Soil fertility is low with C-organic, Ntotal, P2O5 and K content is low and has the soil texture of sandy loam.

1. The increased dose of fertilizer N (urea) obtained an increase in cob cornhusk weight and cob weight. 2. Fertilization application of 300 kg Urea/ha plus 100 kg SP-36/ha and 100 kg KCl/ha gave the best cob weight of 12,98 t/ha.

Effect of N fertilization highly significant increase in plant height, cob height and number of leaves of sweet corn. Fertilization application of 300 kg Urea/ha obtained significantly increased plant height compared to other fertilization treatments. Similarly, significantly higher cob highs found in fertilization 300 kg Urea/ha with or without 2 t organic fertilizer/ha in sweet corn. Highest number of leaves of sweet corn significantly encountered in the treatment of fertilization 400 kg Urea/ha.

REFERENCES Adiningsih, S., J. S. Moersidi, M. Sudjadi, dan A.M. Fagi. 1989. Evaluasi Kepelruan Fosfat pada Lahan Sawah Intensifikasi di Jawa. Prosiding Lokakarya Nasional Efisiensi Penggunaan Pupuk. Pusat Penelitian Tanah dan Agroklimat, Bogor. Arifin, Z., Endang P.K., N. Istiqomah, M. Soleh, N. Hasan, B. Pikukuh dan H. Suseno. 2003. Pengkajian Model Usahatani Terpadu CropFish-Livestock System (CFLS) Berbasis Konservasi Air di Lahan Sawah Tadah Hujan.

Fertilization 300 kg Urea/ha in sweet corn obtained cob length and cob diameter more higher, while the highest stover fresh 230

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Dalam Roesmarkam et al. (Ed.). Prosiding Seminar Nasional Inovasi Teknologi Dan Kelembagaan Agribisnis. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, Bogor. p : 226-237 Diperta Prov. Jawa Timur. 2009. Laporan Tahunan 2009. Dinas Pertanian Propinsi Jawa Timur. Gomez. A.K dan Gomez, A.A. 1983. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd Edition. Los Banos. Karama, S. 2000. Tanah Sakit Perlu Sistem Pertanian Organik. Mimbar 27 (305) : 8. P3GI. 2006. Teknologi pengkomposan dengan Inopos. Pasuruan Moersidi, S., J. Prawirasumantri, W. Hartatik, A. Pramudia, dan M. Sudjadi. 1991. Evaluasi kedua keperluan fosfat pada lahan sawah intensifikasi di Jawa. Prosiding Lokakarya Nasional Efisiensi Penggunaan Pupuk V. Pusat Penelitian Tanah dan Agroklimat, Bogor. Nugroho, A., Syamsulbahri, D. Hariyono, A.Soegianto dan Hariatin, N. 2000. Upaya meningkatkan hasil jagung manis melalui pemberian kompos Azolla dan pupuk N (Urea). Agrivita. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian. Universitas Brawijaya. 22(1) : 11-16.. Rochayati, S., Muljadi dan J.S. Sri Adiningsih. 1991. Penelitian Efisiensi Penggunaan Pupuk di Lahan Sawah. Prosiding Lokakarya Nasional Efisiensi Penggunaan Pupuk V:107-143. Pusat Penelitian Tanah dan Agroklimat, Bogor. Sugito, Y., Y. Nuraini, dan E. Nihayati. 1995. Sistem Pertanian Organik. Fakultas Pertanian Unibraw. p : 19-35. Suyamto. 2003. Pemetaan Kesuburan Tanah Lahan Sawah dan Sistem Produksi Padi di Jawa Timur. Dinas Pertanian Propinsi Jawa Timur, Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Jawa Timur. Tisdale, S.L., W.L. Nelson, dan J.D. Beaton. 1985. Soil fertility and Fertilizers. 4th ed. Macmillan Pub. Co., New York. 754p.

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