Directed Reading. Section: What Is a Mineral? CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERALS

Back Print Name Class Date Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: What Is a Mineral? 1. What do a ruby, a gold nugget, and a grain of salt ha...
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Directed Reading Section: What Is a Mineral? 1. What do a ruby, a gold nugget, and a grain of salt have in common?

2. What substances are the basic materials of Earth’s crust?

3. What is a mineral?

CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERALS ______ 4. To determine if a substance is a mineral or a nonmineral, scientists a. run a lot of tests. b. ask three basic questions. c. ask five basic questions. d. ask four basic questions. ______ 5. Scientists determine that a substance is a mineral when the answer to a. half the questions is yes. b. half the questions is no. c. all four questions is yes. d. all four questions is no. ______ 6. What is an inorganic substance? a. one that is hard, dense, and lifeless b. one that is made up of living things or the remains of living things c. one that is not made up of living things or the remains of living things d. something made up of the remains of ancient plants ______ 7. Which of the following is a question scientists ask to determine if a substance is a mineral? a. Does the substance occur naturally? b. Will the substance sink to the bottom of a tank? c. Is the substance shiny and heavy? d. Is the substance manufactured? Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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Directed Reading continued ______ 8. Why is obsidian not a mineral? a. It does not sink to the bottom of a water tank. b. The atoms are not arranged in a regularly repeating crystalline structure. c. The atoms are arranged in a regularly repeating crystalline structure. d. It does not conduct electricity. ______ 9. What is the fourth question scientists ask to determine if a substance is a mineral? a. Does it weigh more than most other substances of its density? b. Does it float or sink? c. Does it have a consistent chemical composition? d. Does it have an inconsistent chemical composition?

KINDS OF MINERALS ______ 10. How many different kinds of minerals have scientists identified? a. fewer than 3,000 b. more than 3,000 c. fewer than 200 d. more than 30,000 ______ 11. How many minerals are common? a. fewer than 20 b. about a dozen c. more than 20 d. more than 3,000 ______ 12. The common minerals are called a. sand. b. dirt-forming minerals. c. rock-forming minerals. d. common form minerals. ______ 13. Which of the following are among the 10 most common minerals? a. quartz, sand, uranium, rock salt b. diamonds, rock candy, salt c. ice, sediment, sugar d. quartz, gypsum, halite ______ 14. What are the two main groups of minerals? a. reflective and nonreflective b. silicate and nonsilicate c. nutritional and non-nutritional d. animal and vegetable

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Directed Reading continued 15. What is the basis for classifying minerals into two main groups?

16. Describe a silicate mineral.

17. What two atoms are found in the mineral quartz?

18. What are the most common silicate minerals?

19. What determines what type of feldspar will form?

20. In addition to quartz and feldspars, what is another type of silicate mineral?

21. Ferromagnesian minerals are rich in what metals?

22. 96% of Earth’s crust is made up of what?

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Directed Reading continued In the space provided, write the letter of the definition that best matches the term or phrase.

______ 23. carbonates

a. elements uncombined with other elements

______ 24. halides

b. compounds that contain a sulfate group (SO4)

______ 25. native elements

c. compounds that contain a carbonate group (CO3)

______ 26. oxides

d. compounds that consist of one or more elements combined with sulfur

______ 27. sulfates

e. compounds that contain oxygen and an element other than silicon

______ 28. sulfides

f. compounds that consist of chlorine or fluorine combined with sodium, potassium, or calcium

29. What are nonsilicate minerals?

30. What are the six major groups of nonsilicate minerals?

CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE ______ 31. What do all minerals in Earth’s crust have? a. a silicon atom and an oxygen atom b. a crystalline structure c. the same number of elements and compounds d. the same number of protons and electrons ______ 32. What characterizes each type of mineral crystal? a. a silicon atom and an oxygen atom b. the unique number of elements and compounds c. shared geometric shapes d. a specific geometric arrangement of atoms

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Directed Reading continued 33. What is a crystal?

34. Each type of mineral crystal is characterized by what?

35. What hinders the growth of single, large crystals?

36. As a result of the conditions under which minerals form, minerals are commonly made up of what?

37. If a crystal forms where the surrounding material is not restrictive, how will the mineral develop?

38. Why is knowing crystal shapes helpful?

39. How do scientists use X rays to study the structure of crystals?

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Directed Reading continued CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE OF SILICATE MINERALS ______ 40. The crystalline structure of silicate minerals is a. made up of different basic building blocks. b. made up of the same basic building blocks. c. inconsistent from mineral to mineral. d. unique, unlike any other crystal. ______ 41. What does each building block of the crystalline structure of silicate minerals have? a. four oxygen atoms arranged in a pyramid with one silicon atom in the center b. one oxygen atom with four silicon atoms in the center c. three oxygen atoms arranged in a pyramid with two silicon atoms in the center d. four oxygen atoms arranged in a pyramid with four silicon atoms in the center ______ 42. How many sides does the basic building block of the crystalline structure of silicate minerals have? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 ______ 43. What is the basic building block of the crystalline structure of silicate minerals called? a. silicon tetrahedron b. silicon-oxygen octagon c. oxygen tetrahedron d. silicon-oxygen tetrahedron ______ 44. What is true of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra? a. They combine in the same arrangements to form different silicates. b. They combine in different arrangements to form different silicates. c. They combine in the same arrangements to form the same silicates. d. They combine in different arrangements to form nonsilicates. ______ 45. The various arrangements of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedra are a result of a. the kinds of bonds that form between the silicon atoms of the tetrahedra and other tetrahedra. b. the kinds of bonds that form between the oxygen atoms of the tetrahedra and the silicon atoms of the tetrahedra. c. the kinds of bonds that form between the oxygen atoms of the tetrahedra and other atoms. d. the kinds of bonds that form between the silicon atoms of the tetrahedra and other atoms. Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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Directed Reading continued ______ 46. The oxygen and silicon atoms of the tetrahedra may bond with a. silicon atoms of other tetrahedra only. b. atoms of neighboring tetrahedra, and bonds may form between the silicon atoms and other elements outside the tetrahedra. c. atoms of other elements only. d. atoms of neighboring tetrahedra, and bonds may form between the oxygen atoms and other elements outside the tetrahedra.

THE CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE OF NONSILICATE MINERALS ______ 47. Why do nonsilicate minerals show a variety of crystalline structures? a. because nonsilicate minerals are similar to silicate minerals b. because nonsilicate minerals have similar chemical compositions c. because nonsilicate minerals have diverse chemical compositions d. because silicate minerals have diverse chemical compositions ______ 48. What are common crystal structures for nonsilicate minerals? a. cubes, spheres, triangles b. cubes, hexagonal prisms, irregular messes c. prisms, polyspheres, tetragons d. cubes, hexagonal prisms, irregular masses ______ 49. Nonsilicates may form a. tetrahedra that are similar to those in silicates. b. tetrahedra that are similar to those in nonsilicates. c. tetrahedra that are exactly the same as those in silicates. d. other crystalline structures that are exactly like silicates. ______ 50. What is true of the ions in the center of nonsilicate tetrahedra? a. They are oxygen. b. They are not silicon. c. They are silicon. d. They are not ions. 51. How can classes of nonsilicate minerals be divided into smaller groups?

52. What determines a nonsilicate’s characteristics?

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Directed Reading continued 53. Why do the native elements have very high densities?

54. What is closest packing?

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Directed Reading Section: Identifying Minerals ______ 1. Mineralogists are scientists who a. study the weather. b. examine, analyze, and classify the weather. c. examine, analyze, and classify minerals. d. examine, analyze, and classify animals. ______ 2. Mineralogists identify minerals by a. using special equipment. b. finding similar minerals in books. c. studying properties of the weather. d. studying the properties of minerals.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS ______ 3. Each mineral has specific properties that are a result of a. scientific theory. b. crystals in its chemicals. c. chemical composition and crystalline structure. d. specialized equipment. ______ 4. What is one property of a mineral that is easy to observe? a. magnetism b. size c. weight d. color ______ 5. Color alone is generally a. a reliable clue for identifying a mineral sample. b. not a reliable clue for identifying a mineral sample. c. the best way of identifying a mineral sample. d. not a clue for identifying a mineral sample. ______ 6. What is true of mineral color? a. It takes large amounts of certain elements to affect color. b. Very small amounts of certain elements may greatly affect color. c. Many minerals are dissimilar in color. d. All minerals are similar in color. ______ 7. What is corundum? a. yellow pyrite with traces of fool’s gold b. a bluish mineral composed of aluminum and carbon atoms c. a colorless mineral composed of aluminum and oxygen atoms d. amethyst with traces of chromium Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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Directed Reading continued ______ 8. What is corundum with traces of chromium, Cr? a. a red gem called diamond b. a red gem called sapphire c. a red gem called ruby d. a red gem called garnet ______ 9. What causes the purple color of amethyst? a. carbon, C; and iron, Fe b. manganese, Mn; and corundum c. quartz and crystal d. manganese, Mn; and iron, Fe ______ 10. What is another reason that color is unreliable in identifying minerals? a. Color is not a significant property of minerals. b. Most minerals are basically the same color. c. Weathered surfaces may hide the color of minerals. d. Minerals and elements are basically the same color. ______ 11. What is streak? a. the shape of the mineral crystal when frozen b. the color of the mineral in powdered form c. the surface color observed when the mineral is cleaved d. the color of the mineral in large crystals ______ 12. The easiest way to observe the streak of a mineral is to a. rub some of the mineral against a streak plate. b. rub two pieces of the mineral together. c. rub the mineral on paper. d. use rubbing compound to make it shine. ______ 13. What is true of the streak’s color? a. It is almost always the same as the mineral in solid form. b. It may differ from the color of the mineral in solid form. c. It may differ from the color of the mineral in liquid form. d. It is never accurate, but scientists still use it. ______ 14. What kind of streak do metallic minerals generally have? a. silver b. neutral or no streak c. dark d. very light 15. Describe the streak of most nonmetallic minerals.

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Directed Reading continued 16. What is luster?

17. What is metallic luster?

In the space provided, write the letter of the description that best matches the term or phrase.

______ 18. glassy luster ______ 19. waxy luster

a. diamond, for example b. mineral that lacks any shiny appearance

______ 20. pearly luster

c. transparent quartz and other minerals that look like glass

______ 21. brilliant luster

d. minerals such as mica

______ 22. dull or earthy luster

e. minerals that have the appearance of candle wax

23. What is cleavage in geology?

24. Where does a mineral break when it has cleavage?

25. What is fracture in minerals?

26. How do mineralogists describe a fracture?

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Directed Reading continued 27. What is hardness in mineralogy?

28. Describe an example of how hardness does NOT mean “resistance to cleavage or fracture.”

29. What is the Mohs hardness scale?

30. How do mineralogists test the hardness of an unknown mineral?

31. What are the softest and hardest minerals on the Mohs hardness scale?

32. How would you use the Mohs hardness scale to test an unknown mineral?

33. What does a diamond’s hardness result from?

34. Why does a mineral always have the same general shape?

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Directed Reading continued 35. What is the basic crystal system where three axes of equal length intersect at 90° angles?

36. What is a tetragonal crystal system?

37. What is the basic crystal system where two of the three axes of unequal length intersect at 90° angles, and the third axis is oblique to the others?

38. What is an orthorhombic crystal system?

39. What is the basic crystal system where three horizontal axes of the same length intersect at 120° angles, and the vertical axis is longer or shorter than the horizontal axes?

40. What is a triclinic crystal system?

41. What can cause the six basic crystal shapes to become more complex?

42. How would a piece of galena feel compared with a piece of quartz of the same size?

43. What is density?

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Directed Reading continued 44. On what does the density of a mineral depend?

45. What are the densities of most of the common minerals in Earth’s crust?

SPECIAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS ______ 46. What color is calcite in ordinary light? a. white b. red c. blue d. violet ______ 47. What color does calcite appear to be in ultraviolet light? a. white b. red c. blue d. violet ______ 48. Minerals with the property of fluorescence a. absorb ultraviolet light and then produce invisible light of a single color. b. reflect ultraviolet light and then produce visible light of various colors. c. reflect ultraviolet light and then produce invisible light of various colors. d. absorb ultraviolet light and then produce visible light of various colors. ______ 49. Phosphorescence is the property that causes a mineral to a. turn colors after ultraviolet light is turned on. b. bubble when it is converted to liquid form. c. grow after ultraviolet light is turned on. d. glow after ultraviolet light is turned off. ______ 50. Phosphorescence is useful in mining a. lithium, an ore of eucryptite. b. eucryptite, an ore of lithium. c. eucharite, an ore of mythium. d. kryptonite, an ore of lithium.

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Directed Reading continued ______ 51. What is a chatoyancy? a. a silky appearance some minerals display in ultraviolet light b. a silky appearance some minerals display in reflected light c. a soft appearance some minerals display in phosphorescent light d. a foggy appearance some minerals display in deflected light ______ 52. What it chatoyancy also called? a. cat-and-mouse effect b. catnip effect c. cat’s-cradle effect d. cat’s-eye effect ______ 53. What causes chatoyancy? a. loosely packed perpendicular fibers within a mineral b. closely packed perpendicular fibers within a mineral c. loosely packed parallel fibers within a mineral d. closely packed parallel fibers within a mineral ______ 54. What is asterism? a. a phenomenon in which a six-sided star shape appears when a mineral reflects light b. a phenomenon in which a five-sided star shape appears when a mineral absorbs light c. a phenomenon in which a four-sided shape appears when a mineral reflects light d. a phenomenon in which a square appears in a mineral ______ 55. What happens to light rays as they pass through transparent minerals? a. They straighten out. b. They bend. c. They are absorbed. d. They are reflected. ______ 56. What is refraction? a. the absorption of light rays as they pass from a substance, such as air, to another substance, such as a mineral b. the disappearance of light rays as they pass from a substance, such as air, to another substance, such as a mineral c. the bending of light rays as they pass from a substance, such as air, to another substance, such as a mineral d. the ending of light rays as they pass from a substance, such as rock, to another substance, such as a soil 57. Describe the property called double refraction.

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Directed Reading continued 58. What causes double refraction to occur?

59. Magnets may attract small particles of some minerals that contain what element?

60. What do bar magnets and some pieces of lodestone both have?

61. From what conditions does radioactivity result?

62. What are two examples of radioactive elements?

63. What is the most common mineral that contains uranium?

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