Diagraming Sentences Lesson 17.1

UNIT 17 Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 Diagraming Sentences Diagraming Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates 465 ...
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UNIT

17 Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5

Diagraming Sentences Diagraming Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates

465

Diagraming the Four Kinds of Sentences

466

Diagraming Direct and Indirect Objects

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Diagraming Adjectives and Adverbs

468

Diagraming Predicate Nouns and Predicate Adjectives

469

Lesson

17.6

Diagraming Prepositional Phrases

470

Lesson

17.7

Diagraming Compound Sentence Parts

471

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Diagraming Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates

Every sentence contains a subject and a predicate. To diagram a sentence, first draw a horizontal line. Then draw a vertical line that crosses the horizontal line. To the left of the vertical line, write the simple subject. To the right of the vertical line, write the simple predicate. Use capital letters as they appear in the sentence, but do not use punctuation. Waves crash. Waves

crash

Be sure to write only the simple subject and the simple predicate in this part of the diagram. Remember that the simple predicate can include a helping verb. breakers

Exercise 1

Diagraming Sentences

The breakers are pounding the rocks. are pounding

Diagraming Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates

Diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of each sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Families arrive. They began the day early. Some people are swimming. A child has found a shell. Gwen has built a sand castle.

17.1 Diagraming Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates

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17.2

Diagraming the Four Kinds of Sentences

The simple subject and the simple predicate of the four kinds of sentences are diagramed below. Note that the location of the simple subject and the simple predicate in a sentence diagram is always the same, regardless of word order in the sentence. DECLARATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

Fishers depend upon the sea.

Do you live near the ocean?

Fishers

depend

you

Do live

IMPERATIVE

EXCLAMATORY

Read this book about the sea.

How majestic the oceans are!

(you)

Read

oceans

are

Diagraming Sentences

In an interrogative sentence, the simple subject often comes between the two parts of a verb phrase. In an imperative sentence, the word you is understood to be the simple subject.

Exercise 2

Diagraming Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates

Diagram the simple subject and simple predicate of each sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

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Have you seen an ocean? Oceans cover about seventy percent of the earth’s surface. Does our planet look like one large ocean? Think about that. How small the continents seem! The largest ocean on earth is the Pacific Ocean. Look at the map in this atlas. Does the Pacific Ocean extend to Japan? Is the Indian Ocean the smallest one? Find it on the globe.

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Diagraming Direct and Indirect Objects

The predicate of a sentence often contains an action verb and a direct object. In a sentence diagram, place the direct object to the right of the action verb. Draw a vertical line to separate the action verb from the direct object. This vertical line, however, does not cross the horizontal line. The sea contains many creatures. sea

contains

creatures

In some sentences, an indirect object comes between the action verb and the direct object. In a diagram, place the indirect object on a line below and to the right of the verb. Draw a slanted line to connect the indirect object to the verb. Coral reefs give some animals a home.

Exercise 3

Diagraming Sentences

reefs

give home animals

Diagraming Sentences

Diagram the simple subject, simple predicate, and direct object of each sentence. If the sentence contains an indirect object, diagram it too. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Sea plants get minerals from the water. Seaweeds include the long, thin kelp. Scientists have found animal life at impressive depths. Many sea animals show us their picturesque behavior. Some anemones make homes in crab shells. They attach their bodies to the shells of hermit crabs. Hermit crabs use the shells of sea snails for homes. They must protect their soft abdomens. The crabs twist their bodies into the snail shells. The Atlantic hermit crab makes itself a home in a whelk shell.

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Diagraming Adjectives and Adverbs

17.4

An adjective modifies a noun or pronoun. In a diagram, write the adjective on a slanted line beneath the noun or pronoun it modifies. Diagram possessive nouns and pronouns and the articles a, an, and the just as you would diagram other kinds of adjectives. Our new boat encountered a stormy sea. boat

encountered

sea y m or st

a

w ne ur O

An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Note how adverbs are diagramed.

We

have seen r ve st ne mo al

Exercise 4

weather nt le vio ch su

Diagraming Sentences

We have almost never seen such violent weather.

Diagraming Sentences

Diagram each sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

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Winds cause most waves. Gravity causes the tides. Earthquakes sometimes create dangerous waves. Enormous waves move quite rapidly. Ocean storms frequently cause coastal floods. A very severe flood damaged a seaside town. It rapidly leveled several wooden houses. The inhabitants fortunately escaped. Their supplies had been washed away. Most people had never seen a worse flood.

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Diagraming Predicate Nouns and Predicate Adjectives

In a sentence diagram, the direct object is placed to the right of a vertical line after the action verb. peoples

sailed

oceans the

nt cie An

Ancient peoples sailed the oceans.

Similarly, in a sentence diagram, place the predicate noun to the right of the linking verb. Draw a slanted line to separate the linking verb from the predicate noun. Phoenicians

were

explorers

e

Th

The Phoenicians were explorers.

ships were

Exercise 5

seaworthy ite qu

ese

Th

These ships were quite seaworthy.

Diagraming Sentences

Diagram a predicate adjective just as you would diagram a predicate noun.

Diagraming Sentences

Diagram each sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The ancient Greeks were seafarers. Roman ships looked graceful. Viking vessels were numerous. Historical exploration is a recent development. Jacques Cousteau became a famous explorer.

17.5 Diagraming Predicate Nouns and Predicate Adjectives

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Diagraming Prepositional Phrases

To diagram a sentence with a prepositional phrase used as an adjective, follow the model below. waves crashed shore

dly lou

ng alo

e Th

The waves along the rocky shore crashed loudly.

ky roc the

The prepositional phrase, along the rocky shore, is connected to the word that it modifies, the noun waves. The following example shows the same prepositional phrase used as an adverb. crashed ng alo

shore ky roc the

Diagraming Sentences

waves s ou orm En

Enormous waves crashed along the rocky shore.

The prepositional phrase, along the rocky shore, is connected to the word that it modifies, the verb crashed. Exercise 6

Diagraming Sentences

Diagram each sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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The floor of the ocean has remarkable features. Many mountains exist beneath the surface. These mountains below the waves include active volcanoes. Many Pacific islands are really mountains on the ocean floor. Deep trenches cut into the South Pacific floor.

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Diagraming Compound Sentence Parts

Conjunctions such as and, but, and or are used to join words, phrases, and sentences, creating compound constructions. When you diagram compound parts of a sentence, place the second part of the compound below the first. sea

The sea and its products benefit people.

e Th

benefit

and

COMPOUND SUBJECT

people

products its

eat

COMPOUND PREDICATE

creatures

Diagraming Sentences

sleep

a

Se

and

Sea creatures eat and sleep.

COMPOUND SENTENCE

creatures

are

sea me So

Some sea creatures are plentiful, but others are scarce.

plentiful but

others are

Exercise 7

scarce

Diagraming Sentences

Diagram each sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Fish and shellfish are plentiful ocean products. The undersea world lives and grows. Herring and cod are good food. The ocean is unpredictable, but it lures many travelers. The water wears many faces, and it shows different moods.

17.7 Diagraming Compound Sentence Parts

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