Culture and Contexts: Middle Eastern Societies New York University Department of Middle Eastern Studies and Islamic Studies Spring 2016
Tuesday/Thursday 11 a.m.-12:15 p.m. SILV Room 520 Dr. Linda Sayed [email protected]
Office hours: Tuesday/Thursday 10-11 a.m. and by appointment 511 Juan Carlos Recitation Sections: Eman S. Morsi [email protected]
Office & hours: 19 University Place-B07/ Tuesday 1-3 p.m. Recitation: Wednesdays: 3:30-4:45 p.m. TISC LC1-Sect 004 4:45-6:10 p.m. SILV 506- Sect 005 Yosra Moussa [email protected]
Office & hours: 201 Kevorkian/ Tuesdays 12:45-1:45 p.m. & Wednesday 11:15-12:15 p.m. Recitation: Wednesdays: 8:00-9:15 a.m. GODD B04-Sect 002 9:30-10:45 a.m. TISC LC6- Sect 003
Course Description The aim of the course is to introduce students to major intellectual, political, social and cultural institutions and issues of the modern Middle East that have profoundly affected the region in the nineteenth and twentieth century. The emphasis throughout will be to identify the ways in which specific events and long-term processes have informed social and political realities in the contemporary Middle East. We will focus on important events, movements and ideas that shaped the history of the Middle East from the Ottoman and Egyptian reforms, through the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, to the creation of modern states. The second half of the course will deal with contemporary issues ranging from the Arab-Israeli conflict, the impact of the Iranian Revolution, the emergence of Islamic movements, and the recent “Arab Spring.” In addition, the class will be based on various types of readings ranging from primary documents, historical narratives, and historiography, to works of fiction. This is intended to familiarize students with the craft of historical work and the process of creating the historiographies of the Modern Middle East. One of the main objectives of this course is to introduce students to cultures different from their own by using primary sources of various genres ranging from historical documents to literature to travel logs. Students will be exposed to a myriad of topics and modes of analysis to better understand how people of that culture better understand, experience, and imagine their lives.
Course Objectives After completing this course students will be able to: • Demonstrate a solid foundation in modern Middle Eastern and North African culture and history. • Place current events in the Middle East in a broader historical perspective. • Comprehend different historical methodologies. • Conduct advanced-level research. • Create, sustain, and present an argument based on that research in well-written essays. Required Texts William Cleveland and Martin Bunton. A History of the Modern Middle East. New York: Westview Press, 2013. Edward Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979) (Available as pdf) Ghassan Kanafani’s “Men in the Sun,” In Men in the Sun & Other Palestinian Stories (Available as pdf) Waguih Ghali, Beer in the Snooker Club. (Vintage International, 2014) Etel Adnan’s Sitt Marie Rose, translated by Georgina Kleege (Sausalito, C.A.: Post Apollo Press, 1999). Rashid Khalidi, Resurrecting Empire: Western Footprints and America’s Perilous Path in the Middle East (Beacon Press, 2005) (Available as pdf) All other readings and primary sources will be posted on NYU classes or found online. Course Requirements 1) Attendance and Participation (15%) I expect you to complete all readings prior to coming to class, and you must be prepared to both answer and pose questions about them. I will call on you! The grade will be calculated as follows. Attendance and participation in weekly recitations is mandatory and will comprise the majority of your participation grade. Your grade is based on four components: Attendance, Participation, Engagement and Contribution. All four aspects will be accounted for in your attendance and participation grade. More than three unexcused absences from lecture and recitation may result in a failing grade for the course. If you have an emergency situation (documented illness, serious accidents, funerals) and cannot make it to class, please let us know at least three hours before class (me for lectures or your teaching assistant for recitation sections).
2) Quizes (10%) There will be announced and unannounced quizzes throughout the semester on the readings to test your preparation for class and knowledge of the readings. Quiz grades will be factored into your class preparation grade. No make up quizes will be granted. 3) Responses Based on Primary Documents (10%) Students are required to write two responses based on the primary sources. The two assignments will be 3-4 pages each. The assignment is noted on the class schedule (Feb. 24 and April 6) . Guidelines provided below. 4) Midterm Exam (15%) The exam will take place Thursday March 10th. 5) Papers (20%) Students will be required to write 2 papers (4-5 pages each) based on two literature texts. The first one is due March 23th and the second paper is due April 20st. Guidelines for paper are presented below. 6) Film Review (10%) Students are required to submit one film critique of 4-5 pages. Guidelines presented below. Hard copies are due on the date listed. No exceptions. 7) Final Exam (20%) Tentative Date: Thursday, May 10th. *** You must complete ALL the assignments in order to pass the course. I will ONLY give make-up exams and extensions on papers in cases of serious and documented emergencies. Late Policy All assignments are expected on time and submitted during the session. This means you can not email assignments after class. Anytime after the collection date is considered late. Late submissions are penalized a grade letter or 10% of the grade. Be punctual! Laptop policy The usage of laptops is NOT permitted. While in class wi-fi should be turned off and no internet accessed on all electronical devises. Academic Integrity Plagiarism will not be tolerated. If you submit any work with your name affixed to it, I assume that work is your own and that all sources are indicated and documented in the text (with quotations and/or citations). All cases of plagiarism will be submitted to the Director of Undergraduate Studies. For information on what plagiarism is, how to avoid it, and how to cite your sources see the link at: http://library.nyu.edu/research/subjects/bus-int/data/scpstutorial.html
*Please note that the schedule is subject to change at any time* PART I
Jan. 26 (T)
Introduction to the course
Jan. 28 (TH)
The Middle East and North Africa 101 Required reading:
1) Roderic H. Davison, “Where is the Middle East?” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 38, p.
665 -675. July 1960. http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/fora38&id=675&collect ion=journals 2) Rashid Khalidi, “The Middle East as a Framework of Analysis: Re-
Mapping a Region in the Era of Globalization,” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 18, no. 1 (1998): 74-80. http://novact.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/The-‘Middle-East’-as-aframework-for-analysis-Remapping-a-region-in-the-era-of-GlobalizationRashid-Khalidi.pdf 3) Lockman, Zachary. "In the Beginning." In Contending Visions of the Middle East. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 7-37. ISBN: 9780521629379. Feb. 2 (T)
Orientalism Required reading: 1) Edward Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), pp. 1-28. 2) Description de l'Égypte at http://descegy.bibalex.org/index1.html. 3) Linda Nochlin, “The Imaginary Orient” in the Politics of Vision: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Art and Society (New York: Harper, 1989) 4) Stuart Hall, “The West and the Rest: Discourse and Power,” pp. 184-222. In-class viewing of clips from Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People, directed by Sut Jhally (Northampton, M.A.: Media Education Foundation, 2006).
Primary Source for the week: 1) `Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti, Napoleon in Egypt: Al-Jabarti’s Chronicle of the French Occupation, 1798, translated by Shmuel Moreh (Princeton, N.J: Markus Wiener Publishing, 1993), pp. 19-33, 83- 97.
THE MIDDLE EAST FROM 1800 TO WWI: EUROPEAN ENCROACHMENT AND LOCAL RESPONSES
Feb. 4 (TH)
Historical Background: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 3, “The Ottoman and Safavid Empires: A New Imperial Synthesis,” pp. 34-55. 2) Watch Part III (“The Ottomans”) of the PBS documentary Islam: Empire of Faith (2001) (53 mins). Available in the library. It may also be watched on YouTube.
• Not required, but highly recommended: Watch Part I (“The Prophet Muhammad and the Rise of Islam”) of the PBS documentary Islam: Empire of Faith (2001) (54 mins) and Part II (“The Awakening”) of the PBS documentary Islam: Empire of Faith (2001), on the expansion of Islam (53 mins). It may be watched on YouTube.
Quiz 1. One or more maps and several questions based on the material we covered thus far. Feb. 9 (T)
The Middle East in the Nineteenth Century Required reading: 1) Cleveland, chs. 4 and 5, “Forging a New Synthesis: The Pattern of Reforms, 1789-1849” and “The Ottoman Empire and Egypt During the Era of the Tanzimat,” pp. 56-94.
Primary sources for week: 1)Commercial Convention (Balta Liman): Britain and the Ottoman Empire. 2) The Hatt-i Sharif of Gulhane. 3) Rifa`a al-Tahtawi, The Extraction of Gold or an Overview of Paris, selections. • Optional film critique of Arabian Nights due in class. (Feb. 10)
Feb. 11 (TH)
Feb. 16 (T)
The British in Egypt; Iran between Britain and Russia Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 6, “Egypt and Iran in the Late 19th Century,” pp. 95-108. 2) Evelyn Baring Cromer, Modern Egypt (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1908), vol. 2, part IV, pp. 123-167. The Question of Modernity Required reading: 1) Cleveland, chs. 7 and 8, “The Response of Islamic Society” and “The Era of the Young Turks and the Iranian Constitutionalists” pp. 109-136. Quiz 2.
Primary Sources for the Week: First Response on these sources 1) Primary source: Muhammad `Abdu, The Theology of Unity, selections. 2) Primary source: The d’Arcy Oil Concession. 3) Primary source: The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence. 4) Primary source: The Balfour Declaration. 5) Primary source: The Treaty of Sèvres. 6) Primary source: The Sykes-Picot Agreement.
WORLD WAR I AND ITS AFTERMATH
Feb. 18 (TH)
The Great War, the Arab Revolt, and Post-War Settlements Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 9 “World War I and the End of the Ottoman Order,” pp. 137-158.
Begin Preparing First Response on these Primary Sources • MUST WATCH Lawrence of Arabia.
Feb. 23 (T)
Continuation of World War I and Discussion of Lawrence of Arabia.
Feb. 24 (W)
First Response on Primary Sources Due
Feb. 25 (TH)
Authoritarian State-Building: Turkey and Iran post WWI Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 10 and ch.14, “Authoritarian Reform in Turkey and Iran” and “Democracy and Authoritarianism: Turkey and Iran,” pp. 159-178; 255-279.
• Optional film critique of A Dangerous Man: Lawrence After Arabia due in class. (Feb. 25)
Mar. 1 (T)
Arabism, Arab Nationalism, and Islamism Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 11”The Arab Struggle for Independence: Egypt, Iraq and TransJordan from the Interwar Era to 1945,” pp. 179-200.
Primary Sources for Week: 1) Selections from Sati’ al-Husri 2) Primary source: The Resolution of the Syrian General Congress at Damascus, 2 July 1919. Mar. 3 (TH)
Mar. 8 (T) Mar. 10 (TH)
The French Mandates: Syria and Lebanon Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 12 “The Arab Struggle for Independence: Syria, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia from the Interwar Era to 1945,” pp. 201-220. Review for the midterm exam. MIDTERM EXAM
SPRING RECESS Mar. 22 (T)
Zionism and the Palestine Mandate Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 13 “The Palestine Mandate and the Birth of the State of Israel,” pp. 221-251.
Primary Sources for week: A Solution to the Jewish Question, by Theodor Herzl. Eleven Planets in the Last Andalusian Sky, by M. Darwish. Mar. 23 (W): Mar. 24 (TH)
First paper due in class. Response paper to Ghassan Kanafani’s “Men in the Sun,” Men in the Sun & Other Palestinian Stories, pp. 21-74. In-class screening and discussion of documentaries on Zionism and the Palestine Mandate
• Eyal Sivan, Jaffa, the Orange’s Clockwork Screening PART IV
THE POST-INDEPENDENCE MIDDLE EAST, 1945TODAY: SELECTED TOPICS
Mar. 29 (T)
The Nasser Era Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 15 “The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Egyptian Base,” pp. 280-300.
• In-class screening and discussion of clips from the film Nasser 56, directed by Mohamed Fadel (Seattle, W.A.: Arab Film Distribution, 1996).
• Start reading Beer in the Snooker Club by Waguih Ghali.
Primary sources for week: Second Response based on these sources 1) Jamal ‘Abd al-Nasir, Egypts Liberation, The Philosophy of the Revolution (Washington D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1955). Selections 2) Michel ‘Aflaq Choice of Texts from the Ba’th Party Founder’s Thought (Florence: Cooperativa Lavoratori, 1977. Selections Mar. 31 (TH)
Israel and the Palestinians since 1948 Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 17 “Israel and Palestinians from 1948 to the 1970s,” pp. 322-343, ch. 22 “Challenges to the Existing Order: The Palestinian Uprising and the 1991 Gulf War,” pp. 441-462, and ch. 23 “A Peace so Near, a Peace so Far: Israeli-Palestinian Relations since the 1991 Gulf War,” pp. 463-486. 3) Abu-Amr, Ziad. “Hamas: A Historical and Political Background.” Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 22, No. 4. (Summer, 1993).
Apr. 5 (T)
The Lebanese Civil War Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 16, pp. 310-314, and ch. 19, pp. 380-388. “The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Radicalization of Arab Politics,”
Apr. 6 (W)
Second Response Paper Due (Based on Sources Above)
Primary sources for week: 1) Excerpts from Etel Adnan’s Sitt Marie Rose, translated by Georgina Kleege (Sausalito, C.A.: Post Apollo Press, 1999). 2) Tigers on the Tenth Day, by Zakaria Tamer.
Apr. 7 (TH)
The Two Faces of Ba’thism: Hafez al-Asad & Saddam Husayn Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 16 “The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Radicalization of Arab Politics,” pp. 301-307, and ch. 19 “The
Consolidation of Authoritarian Rule in Syria and Iraq: The Regimes o Hafez al-Asad and Saddam Husayn,” pp. 397-421.
• Optional film critique of Waltz with Bashir due. (Apr. 7) • Optional film critique of Paradise Now due. (Apr. 7) • Optional film critique of Umm Kulthum: A Voice like Egypt due. (Apr. 7)
Apr. 12 (T)
Egypt after Nasser Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 18 “The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Radicalization of Arab Politics”, pp. 374-382; ch. 20 “The Iranian Revolution and the Resurgence of Islam,” pp. 440-448, and ch. 24 “Patterns of Continuity and Change since the 1991 Gulf War,” pp. 541-546. • In-class screening and discussion of clips from the film Al-Irhab wa-lKabab (Terrorism and Kebab), directed by Sherif Arafa (Seattle, W.A.: Arab Film Distribution, 1993).
Primary Sources for the week: Selected readings of Ali Shari’ati and Ayatollah Khomeini and discussion of Persepolis • Optional film critique of West Beirut due. (Apr. 13) • Optional film critique of The Yacoubian Building due. (Apr. 13) Apr. 14 (TH)
The Iranian Revolution Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 14, pp. 267-279, ch. 18, The Iranian Revolution and the Resurgence of Islam,” pp. 347-368, and ch. 24“Patterns of Continuity and Change since the 1991 Gulf War,” pp. 494-500. 2) Keddie, Nikki. “Iranian revolutions in Comparative Perspective.” In The Modern Middle East: A Reader, edited by Albert Hourani, Philip Khoury, and Mary C. Wilson, 615-637. New York: IB Tauris, 2005. In-class screening and discussion of clips from the film Persepolis, directed by Marjane Satrapi and Vincent Paronnaud (Culver City, C.A: Sony Pictures, 2007). • Watch all of Persepolis.
Apr. 19 (T)
The Politics of Oil and the Gulf Wars Required reading: 1) Cleveland, ch. 12 “The Arab Struggle for Independence: Syria, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia from the Interwar Era to 1945,” pp. 214-217, ch. 20 “The
Arabian Peninsula in the Petroleum Era,” pp. 393-413, ch. 22 “Challenges to the Existing Order: The Palestinian Uprising and the 1991 Gulf War,” pp. 445-462, and 2) Rashid Khalidi, Resurrecting Empire, Introduction Apr. 20 (W)
Second paper on Beer in the Snooker Club due in class.
Apr. 21 (TH)
Catch-up day-U.S. and the Middle East (pp. 505-521)
Apr. 26 (T)
The “Arab Spring” Cleveland, ch. 26 “The 2011 Arab Uprisings,” pp. 522-540. Video clips from Arab Spring.
Primary Sources for week: Selections from Journey to Tahrir: Ahmad Shokr, “The Eighteen Days of Tahrir” pp. 41-46, and Jessica Winegar “Taking Out the Trash: Youth Clean Up Egypt After Mubarak” pp.64-69 in Journey to Tahrir.
• Optional film critique of Three Kings due in class (Apr. 27) • Optional film critique of Children of Heaven due in class. (Apr. 27) Apr. 28 (TH)
Beyond the “Arab Spring”? 1) Nadia Marzouki, “From People to Citizens in Tunisia,” Middle East Report 259(Summer 2011), 16-19. http://www.merip.org/mer/mer259/peoplecitizens-tunisia 2) Mohammad Ali Kadivar, “A New Oppositional Politics: The Campaign Participants in Iran’s 2013 Presidential Elections,” Jadaliyya, June 22, 2013; http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/12383/a-new-oppositionalpolitics_the-campaign-participa 3) Hugh Roberts, “The Revolution that Wasn’t,” London Review of Books 35,17 (September 12, 2013), http://www.lrb.co.uk/v35/n17/hugh-roberts/therevolution-that-wasnt
4)Kheder Khaddour and Kevin Mazur, “The Struggle for Syria’s Regions,” Middle East Report 269(Winter 2013); http://www.merip.org/mer/mer269/struggle-syrias-regions 5)Sadik J. Al-Azm, “Syria in Revolt: Understanding the Unthinkable War,” Boston Review, August 18, 2014; http://bostonreview.net/world/sadik-alazm-syria-inrevolt?utm_source=Sailthru&utm_medium=email&utm_term=*Mideast%2 0Brief&utm_campaign=2014_The%20Middle%20East%20Daily_8.20.14 Possible Film Screening: “Return to Homs” (Syria, 2011 protests and subsequent armed conflict) https://archive.org/details/TheReturnToHoms “Shouting in the Dark” (Bahrain; 2011 uprising):
Tunisia, Year Zero” (Tunisia, first post-Ben Ali election, Islamist political parties) May 3 (T)
Women and Activism 1) Mounira M. Charrad, ‘State and Gender in the Maghrib,” in Women and Power in the Middle East, Suad Joseph and Susan Slymovics (eds.), (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001), 61-71. 2) Lila Abu-Lughod, “Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and Its Others,” American Anthropologist 104, 3 (September 2002), 783-790. 3) Fatemeh Sadeghi, “Foot Soldiers of the Islamic Republic’s Culture of Modesty,” Middle East Report 250(Spring 2009), 50-55. • Optional film critique of Syriana due in class. (May 4) • Optional film critique of My Country, My Country due. (May 4) • Optional film critique of The Lemon Tree due. (May 4)
May 5 (TH)
Possible Review for the final exam
FINAL EXAM: Thursday, May 12th
PAPER GUIDELINES-LITERARY CRITIQUES All papers should be 4-5 pages typed, double-spaced, 12-point font, 1-inch margins with proper citation. Outside sources are not necessary. The criteria for grading is based on four components: 1) Citation and Structure 2) Analysis 3) Address question and textual support 4) Character development First Paper: Ghassan Kanafani’s Men in the Sun Examine how Men in the Sun speaks of the plight of the Palestinians. How is this a reflection of Nakba? Does Kanafani’s Men in the Sun constitute as resistance literature? Pick one character as a source of analysis.
Second Paper: Waguih Ghali’s Beer in the Snooker Club How does Waguih Ghali critique the Nasser Era? Choose one character to analyze a particular segment of this society. How does it reflect the social and political malaise of Egyptian society? What critique is it making?
FILM CRITIQUE GUIDELINES The purpose of this assignment is to give you an additional opportunity to deepen your knowledge and understanding of the topics we cover in class. The eleven feature films and the two documentaries have been carefully selected to help you to achieve that goal. The critiques are usually due one week after the relevant lecture(s), so that you may have acquired the historical background necessary to fully understand the film. Thus, for example, the review of A Dangerous Man: Lawrence After Arabia is due on February 25, one week after the lecture on WWI and the Arab Revolt on February 18. While enjoyable, this is a serious assignment, and it will be evaluated seriously. It is essential that you take notes as you watch each film. I will assess the quality of your argument and your use of evidence, organization, grammar, spelling, and format. Please note that the critiques will not be accepted past their deadlines, which are clearly stated on the syllabus. All the films, except for Arabian Nights, are on reserve in the library, and most may also be rented from Netflix and/or iTunes. They are, in the order in which they are due: 1) Arabian Nights. Directed by John Rawlins. Universal City, C.A.: Universal Studios Home Entertainment, 2007. Originally released in 1942. Note: Not in the library as of 9/5/2011, but has been ordered. It may be rented from Netflix. You must watch this version of Arabian Nights (there are others). Due on February 10. 2) A Dangerous Man: Lawrence After Arabia. Directed by Christopher Menaul. Troy, M.I.: Distributed by Anchor Bay Entertainment, 1998. Originally aired in 1992. Due on February 25. 3) Umm Kulthum: A Voice like Egypt. A documentary directed by Mical Goldman. Seattle, W.A.: Arab Film Distribution, 1996. Due on April 7. 4) Waltz with Bashir. Directed by Ari Folman. Culver City, C.A.: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2009. Due on April 7. 5) Paradise Now. Directed by Hany Abu-Assad. Burbank, C.A.: Warner Home Video, 2005. Due on April 7. 6) West Beirut. Directed by Ziad Doueir. New York: New Yorker Video, 1998. Due on April 13. 7) The Yacoubian Building. Directed by Marwan Hamid. Culver City, C.A.: Strand Releasing Home
Video, 2007. Due on April 13. 8) Children of Heaven. Directed by Majid Majidi. Burbank, C.A.: Distributed by Buena Vista Home Entertainment. Due on April 27. 9) Three Kings. Directed by David Russell. Burbank, C.A.: Warner Home Video, 2000. Due on April 27. 10) My Country, My Country. A documentary directed by Laura Poitras. New York: Zeitgeist Films, 2006. Due on May 4. 11) Syriana. Directed by Stephen Gaghan. Burbank, C.A.: Warner Bros., 2006. Due on May 4. 12) The Lemon Tree. Directed by Eran Riklis. New York: IFC Films, 2009. Due on May 4. The critiques should contain, in this order: 1) 2) 3) 4)
Summary. In no more than one paragraph, provide a succinct summary of the film. Thesis. What point is the film trying to make? What is the purpose of the film? Examples. Use 3 specific examples to show how the thesis is demonstrated in the film. Evaluation. Does the thesis of the film convince you? Why/Why not? Are there any weaknesses in the thesis? Use at least one specific example. 5) Lesson. Did you learn anything new from the film about one or more topics we have been studying this semester? If so, what? 6) Recommendation. Would you recommend this film? Why/Why not? Formatting: • • • • •
Length: Between 1,000 to 1,250 words (4-5 pages). Write the word count at the end of your paper. Papers should be double-spaced with 1” margins. Use Times New Roman, 12 pt. Include page numbers. On a cover page, identify the title, director, and production date. On the same cover page, include your name, class number, section, and title, and date. Proofread carefully! Better yet, have a friend proofread the paper for you.
PRIMARY SOURCES GUIDELINE The objective of this assignment is to do a textual analysis of the primary sources given. You are expected to focus on two of the primary sources for your analysis. For the first primary source analysis, use 2 of the provided texts to reflect on the impact of WWI and the foreign arrangements in the region during this time. Examine the language of these agreements and treaties. Based on the nature and language of these texts, how have they affected the politics of the region? For the second primary source analysis, examine the two texts and the nature of Jamel Abdel Nassir and Michel ‘Aflaq vision. What are their objections? Who is their audience? What reforms are they calling for? How is the “nation” being defined in the texts?
All papers should be 3-4 pages typed, double-spaced, 12-point font, 1-inch margins with proper citation. Outside sources are not necessary. The criteria for grading is based on three components: 1) Citation and Structure 2) Address question 3) Textual Analysis