CROSS-CULTURAL MANAGEMENT

CROSS-CULTURAL MANAGEMENT 2nd edition RAY FRENCH Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development Contents Acknowledgements and credits List of fi...
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CROSS-CULTURAL MANAGEMENT 2nd edition

RAY FRENCH

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development

Contents Acknowledgements and credits List of figures and tables

XI

x

PART 1: SETTING THE SCENE

Chapter 1

Introduction Learning outcomes Cross-cultural management as an everyday activity The benefits of successful cross-cultural management The centrality of ethics A multi-layered subject area An emerging area Non-cultural explanations A changing world The organisation of this book

3 3 3 5 6 8 9 11 12

14

PART 2: CULTURE - USES AND LIMITATIONS

17

Chapter 2

The meaning(s) of culture Learning outcomes Introduction Defining culture: values, attitudes and behaviour Defining culture: context and communication Levelsof analysis National culture and other cultural layers Dealing with the ecological fallacy Culture change Convergence and divergence Interpreting culture profiles Is national culture still meaningful? Organisational culture National and organisational culture: similarities Linking the macro and micro levels Non-cultural explanations Conclusions

19 19 19 22 24 26 28 33 34 35 37 38 39 39 41 42 43

Chapter 3

Models of culture: traditional approaches Learning outcomes Introduction Project GLOBE: tracing the bloodline Geert Hofstede's pivotal contribution

47 47 47 49 53

Cross-cultural Management in Work Organisations

Chapter 4

f

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The Chinese Value Survey and the fifth dimension Utilising Hofstede's model of culture Criticism of Hofstede's work At the core of cross-cultural studies: Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's work Fons Trompenaars' 7-D model: practical steps for doing business Evaluating Trompenaars'work Shalom Schwartz's universal values model A potentially valuable departure Cultural differences in communication style Conclusions

55 56 58

Models of culture: developments and debates Learning outcomes Introduction Non-cultural explanations Convergence, divergence, globalisation and cross-cultural management A new domestic stage for cross-cultural management? Evaluating bipolar value-based models of culture Understanding cultures in their own terms An example of the emic approach -guanxi A time for new research methods? Senior managers as the object of study Some emerging theoretical approaches What makes us different and similar? A new interpretation Conclusions

77 77 77 78

59 61 64 66 69 69 72

80 82 85 86 88 90 93 94 100 102

PART 3: CROSS-CULTURAL SOCIAL RELATIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

105

Chapter 5

107 107 107 110 111 113 116 118 120 121 126 128 130

Culture and organisation structure Learning outcomes Introduction Classical models of structure The Chinese small business model Alternatives to bureaucracy - adapting to 'contingencies' Contingent factors Culture and the contingency approach The institutional level Do cultural values underlie organisation structure? Contemporary and emerging structures Downsizing and de-layering Conclusion: culture and structure - a complex area

Contents

Chapter 6

Intercultural communication and negotiation 133 Learning outcomes 133 Introduction 133 The need for sensitivity 134 Stereotyping revisited 135 Other barriers to intercultural communication 136 Mixed messages and non-verbal communication 139 Enhancing intercultural communication 142 Cross-cultural theory and communication 143 The crucial contribution of Hall's low- and high-context model 146 Chinese culture 147 Levels of communication 149 The key area of negotiation 151 Conclusions 156

Chapter 7

Leadership and multicultural teams Learning outcomes Introduction The traits approach The behavioural approach Implicit leadership theories The contingency approach Project GLOBE Evaluation of Project GLOBE The institutional level Gender, culture and leadership Emergingtwenty-first-century approaches to leadership Leading multicultural teams Conclusions

161 161 161 163 165 169 170 173 179 180 182 184 185 188

Chapter 8

Motivation and exchange Learning outcomes Introduction Universal needs? Self-actualisers? Is the content approach to motivation culture-bound? Positive psychology Job characteristics: a universal link to motivation? Total Quality Management Needs and job characteristics models in different cultures -some evidence How are people motivated? Orientations to work across cultures Other 'process' models of motivation

191 191 191 192 193 195 197 198 200 202 205 209

Cross-cultural Management in Work Organisations

Globalised motivational strategies Conclusions

214 214

PART 4: MANAGING ACROSS OR WITHIN CULTURES

219

Chapter 9

221 221 221

Intercultural competencies, training and ethics Learning outcomes Introduction Overcoming culture shock - the core intercultural competency? The search for effective interventions Intercultural competencies at home Is cultural awareness sufficient? Cross-cultural training: other considerations The effectiveness of cross-cultural training Repatriation The ethical dimension Ethics and the cross-cultural manager Gender issues and ethics Dealing with ethical dilemmas Non-negotiable moral issues Conclusions

223 226 228 230 232 234 234 235 237 240 241 242 244

Culture and human resource management Learning outcomes Introduction International HRM in context Levels and phases of intemationalisation Varieties of capitalism Culture and human resource management Culture and the functional areas of HRM Flexibility and work-life balance Conclusion: the effect of culture - a mixed picture?

249 249 249 250 251 255 257 260 269 270

r

Chapter 10

PART 5: LOOKING TO THE FUTURE

275

Chapter 11

277 277 277 280 283 284 286

Conclusions ' Learning outcomes Comparing cultures - enduring evidence Cultural values - some further considerations Macro-social manifestations of culture New approaches to understanding culture Cross-cultural management in 'new' forms of organisation Diversity and synergy: the future of cross-cultural management

290

Contents

Non-managerial approaches Universalism or relativism? Continuous change

291 292 293

References Index

297 319

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