Country report: Czech Republic

 Country report: Czech Republic Magda Faltova, Pavla Hradecna 1. Methodology The study provides in-depth analysis of the integration of RASC into t...
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Country report: Czech Republic Magda Faltova, Pavla Hradecna

1. Methodology The study provides in-depth analysis of the integration of RASC into the educational system in the Czech Republic based on the Methodological Guidelines for Best Practices Identification and Preparation of Country Reports. Over the course of collecting data on policies, stakeholders and best practices with the aim of gaining an understanding of the main strengths and weaknesses of the policies and programmes for the education of the target group, both qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted. The study is based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods reflecting the development of the legal environment, educational framework and policies concerning asylum seekers and refugees, migration flows affecting the target group and the development of available integration tools. For the most part, the study utilised qualitative approaches; however, where sufficient data was available, quantitative analyses were conducted as well. In the first stage of the study, the focus is on reviewing literature relating generally to the issues of the specific group of RASC, their access to the international protection procedures and the conditions in reception and residential centres. In the second stage of the study, the focus shifts to the problems of integration and the possibilities of children gaining access to education. Contacts with specialists and institutions were established, and activities and projects at the national and local level were explored and reviewed. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with a variety of stakeholders, such as five experts from government institutions and NGOs working in the field of RASC reception, integration, protection and access to education, two teachers and one principal from schools receiving RASC, three RASC integrated into educational system (between the ages

of fourteen and nineteen1 years old) and two parents of RASC. The relevant legal framework was closely reviewed and analysed. The study includes thorough analyses of the Constitution (Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms), the Act on Education, the Act on Asylum and other statutes and regulations. The reports of the Government of the Czech Republic’s Council for Human Rights were used for the human rights based approach. The Council advises the Government of the Czech Republic on matters relating to the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. The Council monitors the upholding of the Constitution of the Czech Republic, the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms and other legislation governing the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, such as the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees or the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Additionally, a number of framework materials, documents, specialised literature and empirical research (Updated Concept of the Government Policy regarding Immigrant Integration, Report on the Present Situation of Refugees and Asylum Seekers; Strategy of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Physical Education (hereinafter “the Ministry of Education”), the Framework Curriculum for Basic Education) and other framework documents were taken into consideration. The data of School Authorities on the placement of refugee students into the Education system and about compulsory school attendance as well as of the Czech School Inspection were analysed. The study draws on published and unpublished sources. It also includes current statistical data from the Czech Statistical Office, findings from the Institute for Information on Education, analysis of the latest trends, current information and historical backgrounds. A detailed list of the most relevant sources is included at the end of the publication.

One boy from Kyrgyzstan at the age of forteen, one unaccompanied minor boy former RASC from Azerbaidsian at age of nineteen and one girl from Cameroon at the age of fourteen. The significance of different language background of the interviewed RASC was taken into consideration. If the native language is Russian or any othe Slavic language the integration to Czech school system is usually shorter due to better and faster mastering of Czech language.

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integrating refugee and asylum-seeking children in the educational systems

The work depicts current methods that government authorities use in dealing with asylum seekers and refugees and it strives to establish the socio-pedagogical foundations of dealing with the integration of the target groups into society. In this respect it covers the role of the competent institutions in the light of the existing commitments. An important source for the purpose of the study was information derived from the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic’s Working Group for Multiculturalism and Education of Foreigners, which is an advisory body for the creation of equal opportunities in education within the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education. The study is focused on certain problems with ensuring the right to education and other children’s rights related to the educational process, as well as on the specific problems of refugee children and other children with special needs. Examples of good practices were being sought out and evaluated in this field. A very valuable source of information was the field work experience with the target group. The study therefore draws upon the everyday experience of the Association for Integration and Migration related to the education of asylum seekers and refugees and on the experience of other NGOs dealing with this issue. The Association for Integration and Migration has been operating since 1993 and its has furthermore sought to influence the conceptual work of legislative bodies in the field of migration and refugee rights by submitting proposals to the Government, publishing research papers, and lobbying. In 2010 another NGO, Meta, launched an informational web portal called “Inclusive school”, which is aimed at teachers working with migrants, including RASC. The various projects promoting the integration of the target group, financed from European or state funds, were also taken into account, for example the Educational Programme for the Support of Educators Working with Foreign Students (a project supported by a subsidy from the Ministry of Education. The goal of the project was to provide educators with a selection of support tools which enable the effective integration of foreign children into the Czech education system. Generally, it could be said that there is a target support for RASC through non-governmental initiatives. The study is based on the main thesis that that implementation of the right to education in its broadest

sense is one of the most significant factors on the road to integrating refugees and asylum seekers in society. An equally essential starting point for the study is the thesis that integration policy is more successful if it focuses on the potential long-term outcomes of the process. In this respect, the integration process must start immediately when the application for international protection is lodged, and not as late as upon granting international protection to the applicant.

2. Refugees and asylum seekers: general background 2.1. General information The Czech Republic (at that time as a constituent part of the Czech and Slovak Republic) was confronted with the phenomenon of migration and refugee flows shortly after the revolution in 1989, although the first refugees began to arrive in the country from the second half of 1990. The initial influx of refugees led to the need to develop asylum legislation and to set out the basics of the immigration and asylum policy. First, the not too detailed Refugee Act was adopted in 1990 (Act. No 498/1990 Coll. About refugees), which was followed by the more comprehensive Asylum Act in 1999. The Asylum Act also defined the State Integration Programme which is the conceptual policy document setting guidelines and principles for the integration of third country nationals into Czech society. This Act regulates the status of applicants for international protection and recognised refugees to this day, even though it was repeatedly amended. The Ministry of Interior, Department of Asylum and Migration Policy, is the main responsible body governing the application procedure, making decisions on international protection. The spectrum of states from which refugees have arrived in the territory of the Czech Republic has continued to expand. In the first period the majority of asylum (today International Protection) seekers were refugees from Bulgaria, Romania and the former Soviet Union. Recently, asylum seekers from Afghanistan, India, Iraq, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have become more prevalent, but there are also refugees from the countries of Eastern Europe – primarily Moldova, Russia and Ukraine.

Country report: Czech Republic The data of the Czech Statistical Office2 show that in 2010 the Czech Republic authorities registered a total of 833 applications for international protection (compared to 1,258 applications in 2009) out of which 419 were applications lodged repeatedly by the same applicant. In 2010 the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic issued in total 1,017 decisions in international protection claims. In 2010 there were 125 cases where asylum was granted and 104 cases where subsidiary protection was granted, compared to 2009 when international protection was granted in 10 per cent of the cases brought to court. The most applications for international protection were filed by nationals of the Ukraine (115 applications) as in the previous year. Nationals of Mongolia with ninety-six applications were in second place followed by nationals of Belarus with fifty-six applications, and then nationals from the Russian Federation with fifty-one applications. Foreigners of sixty different nationalities applied for international protection in the Czech Republic in 2010. Among the ten major source countries there were, furthermore, stateless persons with fifty applications, Turkey forty-nine and Kazakhstan with forty-six applications. Out of 833 applications 655 were lodged by adults (474 men and 181 women) and 178 were lodged by children (80 girls and 98 boys). Four unaccompanied minors from the Democratic Republic of Kongo, Somalia and Nigeria, three boys, one girl, all of them from age fifteen to seventeen, applied for international protection in 2010. The number of asylum seeking unaccompanied minors has been substantially decreasing. For example, thirty-four applications were lodged in 2008, twenty-three by children in the fifteen to seventeen age bracket; in 2009, only twelve new applications were lodged, from which seven were filed by children age fifteen to seventeen. In the 2008, the Czech Government adopted a resolution on the Concept of the National Resettlement Programme which outlines principles, criteria and guidelines for the resettlement of refugees.3 In 2005 fifteen Uzbek’s refugees were resettled, followed in 2007 by three families from Cuba. And between 2008

 and 2010, eighty-one Burmese refugees were resettled from Thailand and Malaysia. Immediately after their arrival they were granted international protection.4 The number of applicants has fallen in recent years, especially in connection with the entrance of the Czech Republic into the European Union and the effects of the so-called Dublin II Regulation which objective is to identify as quickly as possible the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application and to prevent abuse of asylum procedures in the form of multiple applications, the responsible country is predominantly the country of first entrance to to EU.Therefore, the burden lies on external border countries rather than on countries on the inside of the EU, such as the Czech Republic. The fact that the region is relatively stable and the related lack of geographically close potential sources of conflict and more significant refugee flows also play a significant role. The decreasing trend in the number of applicants for international protection, which has been observed since the 2004, has continued. The total number from July 1990 till October 2010 is 89,996 applications for international protection.5

2.2. International protection application procedure As regards the international protection application procedure, everybody who faces persecution in their country of origin can apply for international protection in the form of asylum or subsidiary protection after arrival in the Czech Republic. During an international protection procedure, the Ministry of Interior examines if an international protection applicant was persecuted in his/her country of origin for reasons stated in the Asylum Act. Asylum seekers shall enjoy the same rights and duties in relation to an administrative authority which is due to consider their asylum applications as Czech citizens in

See Czech Republic/ Czech Statistical Office (2010), Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2010. English version available at: http://www.czso.cz/ csu/2010edicniplan.nsf/engp/1414-10 (accessed on 04.05.2011). For detailed information see also Czech Republic, Ministry of Interior (2010), Annual Report: International protection in the Czech Republic in 2009, available at http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/annual-report-internationalprotection-in-the-czech-republic-in-2009.aspx (accessed on 04.01.2011).

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Czech Republic/ Governmental Resolution from 27.6.2008 no. 745, Concept of the National Resettlement Programme, available at: http://www.mvcr. cz/clanek/azyl-migrace-a-integrace-azyl.aspx?q=Y2hudW09OA%3d%3d.

3

For more detailed information see Asylum procedure section and institutional section

4

See Czech Republic, Ministry of Interior, Statistical Reports on International Protection Seekers and Refugees. English version available at http:// www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/statistical-reports-on-international-protection-seekers-and-refugees-86918.aspx (accessed on 03.05. 2011).

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relation to other administrative authorities. In addition, the Asylum Act stipulates that that the proceedings can be held in the applicant’s mother tongue or in another language which s/he can understand. The burden of proof is divided between the applicant and the administrative authority, but the more evidence the applicant can present in order to support his/her claim, the greater the chances that his/her application will be treated favourably. The administrative authority is obliged to accurately and completely ascertain the status of the matter, whereby the administrative authority is obliged to take an active role in obtaining supporting materials. Generally, there is a principle of individual consideration (approach) applicable to any application. Despite this, certain patterns of approach by the administrative authorities with regard to applicants from specific countries of origin can be identified. One can say that the method in which an administrative authority deals with evidence obviously remains the most significant potential problem, in that administrative authorities tend to exceed the limits of administrative discretion. Asylum-seeking children are represented during the procedure by their parents or any other legal guardians, it can be a close relative appointed by the immigration authorities in the initial stage and later on approved by the decision of the local court. Usually children younger than fifteen are not interviewed directly if the asylum application is not directly concerning them. Children older than fifteen can be interviewed more often. Each child has the right to an interpreter and legal advice. The legal guardian or parent has to be present at the interview. Decisions of the Ministry of Interior may be reviewed by a court within the prescribed time period. The timely filing of an appeal has a suspensive effect (the decision is not enforceable and the applicant is still considered an international protection seeker until the enforceable court decision), except in cases of appeals made against the decision, which renders an application unfounded or stops the proceeding. In such cases it is possible to apply to the court for acknowledgement of suspensive effect of the appeal. Generally, an appeal shall be lodged within fifteen days after being received by the applicant of the decision of the Ministry. Nevertheless, there are also deviations stipulated in the law pertaining to this fifteen-day deadline. Nevertheless, there are three particular

exceptions to the fifteen-day rule: a) when an asylum application is submitted in an administrative detention for foreigners; b) when an asylum application is refused on grounds of being manifestly unfounded; c) when an asylum application is submitted in a reception centre in a transit area of an international airport. In these three cases the appeal has to be submitted within seven days after receiving the decision. If an appeal is not filed within the specified time limit, the decision acquires legal force. Vulnerable groups of asylum seekers, such as families with children, single women, or unaccompanied minors, should not be placed in reception centres in transit areas of international airports, where a stricter regime is applied. A court can only confirm or overrule the decision of the state administrative authority; the court itself has no possibility to alter the decision. If the court overrules the decision, the case is returned to the state administrative authority and the authority is then bound by the court decision. The court considers the case from the point of its legality and legal reasoning however, cannot make a decision about international protection as such. In the case of a court decision upholding the decision of the Ministry one can resort to an extraordinary remedy, namely a cassation complaint. That must be submitted to the Supreme Administrative Court and the complainant has to be represented by an attorney. If the complaint is unfounded, the Supreme Administrative Court rejects it and the whole proceeding is over. In the opposite case, the Supreme Administrative Court returns the case to the competent regional court for further proceedings. If the cassation complaint filed has obviously brought no success, the court may dismiss it within a shortened procedure as inadmissible. The Ministry has to make a decision in ninety days; however, the time period can be repeatedly prolonged. Applicants often have to wait for a decision for a couple of months or years. The duration of the procedure at the ministry and at the court depends on variety of issues as an individual assessment of the case, the number of applicants and size of files or workload of the court; therefore, it is not possible to accurately assess the length of the procedure. If a foreigner is at an administrative detention centre, the police have a duty to inform him/her about a possibility to apply for international protection. Every foreigner can be detained for a maximum of 180 days, and if the proceedings have not been terminated in the meantime, he would be released. Unaccompanied

Country report: Czech Republic minors and children with families can be detained for a maximum of ninety days.

2.3. Conditions in refugee facilities The Ministry of the Interior operates facilities for asylum seekers and recognised refugees. There are four types of facilities: reception centres, residential centres, integration asylum centres and detentions. Foreigners are obliged to stay in reception centres for a certain period of time determined by law (for the purpose of identification, medical examination, etc), for a maximum of thirty days (or 120 days at airport reception centres). These reception centres are located in Zastávka (District Brno-venkov), and at the Prague Airport, Ruzyně. Foreigners may also apply for international protection in a facility for the detention of foreigners (Poštorná and Bělá pod Bezdězem). The Zastavka u Brna reception centre is a closed facility with free movement within the facility and restricted movement outside of it. RASC are provided classes in Czech language; however, for the time in the facility they do not attend schools. Classes of Czech language are not compulsory. The reception centre at Ruzyně, the Prague Airport, is a closed facility where RASC with families and unaccompanied minors are not placed.6 Unless there is a legal obstacle (e.g. the applicant is in a detention facility for foreigners, in prison, or in a hospital) then the applicant is transferred to a residential centre, or they can find some private accommodation on the basis of an approved application. Residential centres serve to accommodate applicants for international protection until the decision on granting international protection enters into force. Residential centres are located in the following municipalities: Havířov, District Karviná, and Kostelec nad Orlicí, District Rychnov nad Kněžnou. Applicants may leave the centre, even for longer periods of time. Should the financial condition of the asylum seeker be such that s/he cannot pay for residence in the centre, s/he will be provided with accommodation, food, and other services free of charge. If the financial conditions of the claimant permit, s/he should pay for the above

 mentioned services in whole or in part. If living in the refugee facility, RASC attend a local nearby primary school or secondary school depending on age and previous educational level. For RASC living in Kostelec nad Orlicí, a transitional class is provided by the local school directly in the facility which is attended by RASC till they reach a level of Czech language proficiency that allows them to attend local schools.7 Integration asylum centres provide transitional accommodation to foreigners with granted international protection. Integration asylum centres are located in Jaroměř, District Náchod; Havířov, District Karviná; and Ústí nad Labem – Předlice, District Ústí nad Labem (Source : Czech Statistical Office). Asylum holders have the same rights and responsibilities as Czech citizens with respect to access to the labour market and social security. Their stay in the centre is therefore authorised by a rental agreement and by compensation. Stay in these centres is limited in time; the usual maximum period of stay in these facilities is eighteen months. RASC attend local schools depending on age, knowledge of the Czech language and previous educational level. Schools near these facilities have long term experience with the integration of RASC into the educational system. Refugees arriving within the resettlement scheme are accommodated immediately after arrival in the integration asylum centres for six months. After six months transitional period they are moved to municipal housing at the territory of the Czech Republic. During RASC stay in integration centres, they were offered Czech language tuition in the amount of ten hours per week (twenty hours per week during summer holidays). When leaving integration centres, refugee children can no longer take advantage of these courses offered and thus they are left without any special language tuition apart from their regular school attendance International protection seekers can be detained for the period of 180 days according to Act no. 326/1999 Coll, on the residency of foreigners. RASC with families and unaccompanied minors can be detained for maximum of ninety days. Children and unaccompanied minors are placed only in the detention centre Bela Jezova, district Mlada Boleslav. Detainees younger than eighteen years of age or person who have been declared incompetent for the purpose of performing legal acts

Czech Republic/ Act No. 325/1999 Coll., Asylum Act, as amended. Article 72 part. 7, available at: http://portal.gov.cz/wps/portal/_s.155/701/.cmd/ad/. c/313/.ce/10821/.p/8411/_s.155/701?PC_8411_number1=325/1999&PC_8411_l=325/1999&PC_8411_ps=10#10821 (accessed on 15.11.2010).

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More information is available in part 5 of the report

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integrating refugee and asylum-seeking children in the educational systems

are placed with a close family member or with the person into whose care they have been entrusted. There is specific building where children with families and single mothers or fathers are accommodated apart from the other detainees. Unaccompanied minors are as well accommodated separately. For the stay in the detention centre the legal guardian is appointed for unaccompanied child. All detained children have access to compulsory education (compulsory education is nine years of schooling). Children who do not master Czech language are provided classes directly at the detention centre by the teacher from the nearby school. Children with Czech language skills attend nearby a local school. Transport to and from the school is provided by the detention centre. Accommodation outside of the asylum establishments must be found by each applicant for international protection him/herself. He/ she may be provided, upon request and with regard to the financial status of the applicant or his/her family, with a financial contribution of up to the amount of the subsistence minimum. Financial contribution can be provided during the proceedings on international protection for a maximum of three months. An applicant for international protection has the right to work after 365 days since the beginning of the proceedings on international protection.8 If living outside refugee facility, local school has to enrol RASC to appropriate grade depending on age, knowledge of the Czech language and previous educational level.

3. Institutional set-up, legal and policy framework 3.1. Policy overview In the Czech Republic, the integration of foreigners is regulated by several policy documents supported by legal provisions implementing EU legislation. The main responsibilities for implementing policy

documents and laws in the field of integration lie with the national ministries and their organisational branches or legal entities, specifically the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. For a better understanding of the immigrant integration framework in the Czech Republic it is necessary to distinguish the different categories of immigrants that this report is dealing with. These are asylum seekers and recognised refugees (persons with granted asylum or subsidiary protection) who are minors, and special attention will be paid from the institutional point of view to the group of unaccompanied minors in institutional care. The legal framework setting the responsibilities for the integration and reception of asylum seekers and refugees is outlined in Act no. 325/1999 Coll, Asylum Act.9 Articles 68 – 70 outline the State Integration Programme, and stipulate that the State Integration Programme is implemented in order to help refugees and subsidiary protection beneficiaries to integrate into society. It sets the right to attend courses in the Czech language free of charge, and have access to accommodation in the case of refugees. The responsibility for the implementation of the State Integration Programme lies with the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Education and Regional authorities (See bellow in the institutional part for the details.) There is no framework, policy document or legal provision introducing the integration process for persons including children seeking asylum. The position of the government concerning the integration of asylum seekers can only be deduced from the complete lack of any materials, documents or principles concerning this issue, showing how little attention is paid to this particular group of migrants. The study could only for example reach the conclusion from the explanatory memorandum to the Act no. 2/2002 Coll,10 where it is stated that this category of foreigners (asylum seekers) should concentrate solely on the protection procedure and adds that it is not suitable to enable the integration to those persons who in future will not be allowed to stay at the territory. There is a special policy document implementing the resettlement programme in the Czech Republic. In the

For more information see official webpage of the Ministry of Interior. English version available at http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/asylum-migrationintegration.aspx (accessed on 04.01.2011).

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Act no. 325/1999 Coll. on Asylum, available at: http://portal.gov.cz/wps/portal/_s.155/701/.cmd/ad/.c/313/.ce/10821/.p/8411/_s.155/701?PC_8411_ number1=325/1999&PC_8411_l=325/1999&PC_8411_ps=10#10821 (accessed on 15.11.2010)

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Avaialble at: http://www.psp.cz/sqw/text/tiskt.sqw?o=3&ct=321&ctI=o, special part to part II.

10

Country report: Czech Republic 2008 the Czech Government adopted a resolution on the Concept of the National Resettlement Programme which outlines principles, criteria and guidelines for the resettlement of refugees.11 The key governmental document dealing with the integration of foreigners in the Czech Republic is the Concept of immigrant integration.12 The target group of the concept of immigrant integration is clearly specified in the document as legally residing third country nationals, excluding asylum seekers and refugees.13 However, this document sets up tools and outcomes of the state integration policy that should effectively introduce methods of integrating all foreigners to society. Therefore, the effect of the Concept of immigrant integration is relevant for asylum seekers and refugees. The actual long term measures established by the Concept are described in the institutional part in more detail.

3.2. Institutional set-up – National level Ministry of Interior The Ministry of Interior is the key state agency dealing with all aspects of migration. The Department of asylum and migration policy (henceforth referred to as the Department) is legally responsible for the entry, stay and return of migrants in the Czech Republic.14 The integration of refugees and asylum seekers has been a fundamental part of its responsibilities since its establishment. It is the coordinate body for the Concept of immigrant integration and State Integration Programme. The responsibilities of the Department within the State Integration Programme are primarily in the field of coordination, financial distribution and provision of information to refugees and subsidiary protection beneficiaries concerning their rights set by the programme. Each refugee, after asylum or subsidiary protection is granted, obtains information in

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 writing in the language that s/he understands whereby SIP is explained.15 The Refugee Facilities Administration of the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic is the main service provider to asylum seekers and refugees. It was established on 01.01.1996, within the framework of the Ministry of Interior. It runs the Refugee reception facilities (closed reception centres for asylum seekers), Refugee facilities (accommodation centres for asylum seekers), Administrative detention facilities, Integration asylum centres (temporary housing for refugees and subsidiary protection beneficiaries) and Integration centres (centres providing regional services to third country nationals legally staying at the territory).16 Within the Refugee facilities, asylum seekers are offered basic services such as accommodation, funds for food and hygienic needs and pocket money. NGOs or local schools provide courses in the Czech language, orientation courses, and legal and social counselling and assistance within the facilities. In the Integration asylum centres (IAC) temporary housing is provided to those participants of the State Integration Program who do not have permanent housing arrangements. The maximum length of stay in the IAC is eighteen months. In justifiable cases an extension for an additional six months can be made. Accommodation is provided on the basis of a contract which stipulates several duties – one of them being attendance at compulsory Introductory Czech language courses. Unexcused absences exceeding 10 per cent of course hours lead to termination of the contract of accommodation. Refugees and subsidiary protection beneficiaries have access to the IAC. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports The Ministry of Education sets the standards and methodology for the teachers concerning teaching for foreigners. There is a central control body under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Education, Youth

Czech Republic/ Governmental Resolution from 27.6.2008 no. 745, Concept of the National Resettlement Programme, available at: http://www.mvcr. cz/clanek/azyl-migrace-a-integrace-azyl.aspx?q=Y2hudW09OA%3d%3d Czech Republic/ Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs related to Integration of Foreigners, Realisation of the concept of imigrant integration in 2009, available at: http://www.cizinci.cz/files/clanky/611/KIC_2009_Finalni_verze_23032010.pdf, (accessed on 25.12.2010).

12

For this target group the Concept of imigrant integration states that the State Integration Programme is available. No alternative for asylum seekers is offered. .

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14

Czech Republic/ Act No. 326/1999 Coll, on the Residency of Foreigners, as amended, Czech Republic/ Act No. 325/1999 Coll., Asylum Act, as amended, Czech Republic/ Act no. 283/1991 Coll. on the Police See at Czech Republic/ Ministry of Interior http://www.mvcr.cz/clanek/mezinarodni-ochrana-formou-azylu.aspx and http://www.mvcr.cz/clanek/ doplnkova-ochrana.aspx.

15

16

See at Czech Republuc/Ministry of Interior, Správa uprchlických zařízení, available at: www.suz.cz.



integrating refugee and asylum-seeking children in the educational systems

and Sports called the Czech School Inspectorate (Česká školní inspekce). It is responsible for the monitoring of schools and school facilities: their educational conditions and results, the quality of management, the efficiency of using funds and complying with binding regulations, at all levels except for higher education institutions. The Concept of immigrant integration for the year 2010 sets the specific duties of the Ministry of Interior concerning the methodology for the teachers. The duties of the Ministry of Interior stated in the Concept of immigrant integration for the year 2010 are as follow: a) prepare and distribute to school principals by 30.6.2011 guidance on the approach of teaching the Czech language to students who are third country nationals. b) ensure by 30.6.2011 an offer of systematic education of teachers concerning teaching the Czech language and improving their competences to work with immigrant children. c) prepare and provide to the government by 31.10.2011 a legal proposal of system of teaching the Czech language for third county nationals students d) provide school principals with offers of Czech language textbooks focused on children.17 The above specified measures will have an impact on RASC in their access to education and integration into society even though the Concept is focused only on non asylum-seeking and non-refugee third country nationals. Within the educational system such differentiation in the use of methodology and educational resources are not being made. The Ministry has a specific role in the State Integration Programme. Article 70 of the Asylum Act states that the State Integration Programme as regards Czech Language courses is administered by the Ministry of Education in the form of free language courses. The Ministry should, within sixty days from the enforceable decision granting asylum or subsidiary protection, offer the language courses. The courses are provided in the form of group or individual lessons. They last approximately twelve months after final examination with the certificate.18 The group courses consist of 600 teaching hours, the individual lessons

of 400 teaching hours. The courses are offered to the persons sixteen years and older even though there is no legal stipulation providing the age limit for the courses. Based on a tender administered by the Ministry of Education this tuition is currently organised and conducted by Society of Citizens Assisting Migrants (SOZE) under the new conception and methodology (since July 2007). This situation might be the result of the Minister’s Instruction no. 21 153/2000-35 from July 2000 where responsibility for language courses for refugees was delegated to the Department of Lifelong Learning (no. 35) whose target group were people aged sixteen and older. This department, however, is no longer in existence; instruction no. 21 153/2000-35 does not specify any age limit for courses within SIP and serious doubts arise on validity of this Instruction as it still refers to the old conception of the language courses with only 100/150 hrs of language tuition.19 Government Resolution no 543 from 14.5.2008 states the duty of the Ministry of Interior to provide financial resources to the Ministry of Education to cover the costs of the courses. The Centres of Minority Integration have been operating since autumn 2006 and their main aim has been to help improve the conditions for the integration of disadvantages children and minors within the education system and within society. The Centres were created with the financial support of the European Social Fund and the state budget of the Czech Republic. The Institute of Pedagogical-psychological Counselling was in charge of implementing the initiative. The project provided services to pupils and their families – to prepare for entrance to school, to meet special educational needs of individual children in the context of cultural diversity and the current social situation, to create adjustment programmes, services of tutors from among university students, to provide Czech lessons for parents of migrants pupils and also services for teachers and pedagogical staff. This project was followed by another project, which created Centres of inclusive education’s support. These Centres are aimed primary at teachers, headmasters and educational institutions. Even though RASC are a target group for the Centres, the services provided by them are more specifically focused on Roma children.

Czech Republic/ Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs related to Integration of Foreigners, Realisation of the concept of imigrant integration in 2009, available at: http://www.cizinci.cz/files/clanky/611/KIC_2009_Finalni_verze_23032010.pdf, (accessed on 25.12.2010). p.6.

17

Czech Republic/ Act No. 325/1999 Coll., Asylum Act, as amended. Article 72 part. 7, available at: http://portal.gov.cz/wps/portal/_s.155/701/.cmd/ad/. c/313/.ce/10821/.p/8411/_s.155/701?PC_8411_number1=325/1999&PC_8411_l=325/1999&PC_8411_ps=10#10821 (accessed on 15.11.2010).

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19

Bačáková, M., Access to education of refugee children in the Czech Republic – Report for UNHCR Prague office, Prague, 2009, available at: http:// www.unhcr.cz/dokumenty/report-bacakova.pdf (accessed 01.11.2011).

Country report: Czech Republic As for institutional responsibilities and providing services it is necessary to note the specific situation of unaccompanied children. There is a special facility for unaccompanied immigrant minors that was established on 01.11.2003, and is included in a system of schools and educational institutions. The facility started to operate on 15.06.2004. The facility consists of a diagnostic centre in Prague and a Children’s home with a school and the Permon Educational Institute for immigrant children in Central Bohemia. The activities of the Facility are regulated by Act No. 109/2002 Coll., with regard to ongoing amendments, on Executing Institutional or Protective Education at School Facilities and on Preventive Educational Care at Educational Facilities and by notice No. 438/2006 Coll. from August 30, 200620 (for a detailed description, please see of the section on good practices in the report). Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs Refugees and subsidiary protection beneficiaries have the same access to the labour market as Czech citizens. The employment offices provide them with assistance in finding employment. Access to state social subsidies system is ensured. The State Integration Programme encourages the Ministry to start re-qualification courses for the target group.

3.3. Institutional set-up – regional and local level The State Integration Programme as regards accommodation is realised through the Regional authorities (there are twelve regions in the Czech Republic) in the form of subsidised accommodation covered from the state budget through the Ministry of Interior. The amount of money for each region and type of accommodation is set by a government resolution.21 The state integration program provides three types of housing and it is available only to refugees; beneficiaries of subsidiary protection do not have access to it. A refugee can obtain rental housing in a municipal flat. The offer is made by the municipality in cooperation with the Ministry of Interior. The flat rental contract is concluded between the municipality and the refugee for 20 21

 a period of one year with the ability to gradually extend the contract for a total period of five years (a total of sixty months), then subsequently according to local municipal regulations. The SIP states the amount of subsidy for the development of a municipality’s infrastructure. aa) CZK 400,000.00 (about 17,000 EURO) for providing housing for one or two asylum holders (flat renters) ab) CZK 600,000.00 (about 25,000 EURO) for providing housing for three to five asylum holders (flat renters) ac) CZK 700,000.00 (about 30,000 EURO) for providing housing for six or more asylum holders (flat renters) The second option allows a refugee to seek out rental housing independently. The flat can be owned by any legal entity or natural person. A refugee then applies at the local municipality for a subsidy to help pay the net rent or a portion of it. The municipality pays the subsidy directly to the flat owner. aa) up to CZK 5,000 (about 200 EURO) per month for the payment of net rent or a portion thereof for one or two refugees ab) up to CZK 6,000 (about 250 EURO) per month for the payment of net rent or a portion thereof for three to five refugees ac) up to CZK 7,000 (about 290 EURO) per month for the payment of net rent or a portion thereof for six or more refugees b) The subsidy provided for the development of a municipality’s infrastructure is a uniform CZK 2,000 (about 85 EURO) per month. Non-governmental sector The non-governmental sector is involved in all aspects of the process of integrating asylum seekers and refugees in the Czech Republic. NGOs form an integral part of the State Integration Programme, and within its framework there is direct support for NGOs involved in integration activities. The SOZE NGO22 has been a provider for Czech language courses for several years. Integration services for asylum seekers are provided by

See UAMs facility. www.ddc.cz.

Czech Repiblic/ Government resolution from 14.5.2008 no 543 of ensuring integration of refugees and subsidiary protection beneficiaries in 2008 and following years, available at: http://kormoran.vlada.cz/usneseni/usneseni_webtest.nsf/0/E51C510873FB6582C125756A005E94D6/$FILE/ 543%20uv080514.0543.pdf.

22

See Association of citizens helping to immigrants, a non-governmental organisation providing counselling to the asylum seekers and other foreigners. www.soze.cz.

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integrating refugee and asylum-seeking children in the educational systems

the Non-governmental sector solely through its social, legal counselling and individual assistance, courses in the Czech language and assistance concerning gaining access to the labour market. The NGO sector provides individual assistance to asylum seekers and beneficiaries of international protection. The services are provided in the areas of social security, health care, social benefits and support, education and employment. RASC and RASC families are provided assistance when looking for employment, enrolment to schools, communication and cooperation with schools. Czech language courses are provided by NGOs as well as volunteers to help RASC with homework. The major source of financing is the European Refugee Fund. The main NGOs involved in the process of integration are organised in the Consortium of NGOs working with migrants in the Czech Republic (www.konsorcium-nno.cz).

4. Overview of the educational system and the education status of refugees and asylum seekers in the country According to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms every person has the right to education. Act No. 561/2004 Coll.,

on pre-school, basic, secondary, tertiary professional and other education (hereafter referred to as “the Education Act”), as amended, includes provisions regulating the education of refugees, asylum seekers as well other immigrants. Important information with respect to the issues related to the education of children of migrant backgrounds is continuously provided via the monitoring of the in elementary and secondary schools on the part of the Czech School Inspectorate.

4.1. Pre-school level RASC have the same access to pre-school education as citizens of the Czech Republic. This means for example that the amount of fees for education and school services must be the same as for citizens of the CR. The placement of a child in a pre-school facility is usually fully paid for by the parents themselves – the payments cover the care, food, and leisure activities of the children. Education in these facilities is voluntary and depends solely on the parents’ decision. Pre-school education is provided for children aged usually between three to six years age. However, the municipality or a region may establish preparatory classes of the elementary school to be attended by children during the last year prior to their

The system of education in the Czech Republic23 can be described as follows: 1) Pre-school level (nursery schools, kindergartens) 2) Elementary (basic) schools 3) Secondary schools • Gymnasia • Secondary vocational schools • Secondary training centres 4) Learning at language schools following the school leaving exam (students entitled to pass the state language exam) 5) Conservatories 6) Colleges 7) Institutions of higher education • Universities • Other undergraduate institutions 8) Special education + Other types of education (elementary art schools, language courses, adult education, re-qualification/ re-training courses) See a webpage with practical information for foreigners living in Czech Republic, available at: www.domavcr.cz (accessed on 07.11.2010). For detailed information also EURYDICE, National System Overviews on Education Systems in Europe and ongoing reforms, 2010, available at: http:// eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/national_summary_sheets/047_CZ_EN.pdf (accessed on 02.11.2010).

23

Country report: Czech Republic commencement of compulsory school attendance. The principal shall decide on the inclusion of pupils in a preparatory class upon the request of the child’s statutory representative and upon a recommendation in writing issued by the school advisory facility. This provision is not targeted specifically at refugee or asylum seekers but at pupils generally.

4.2. Elementary schools There is a legal right for all children between the age six and seventeen to attend elementary (basic) education in the Czech Republic. School attendance is compulsory for a period of nine years, however no longer than until the end of the school year when a pupil reaches seventeen years of age. If a child has not succeeded in completing the compulsory school education even within his/her seventeen years of age, s/he may apply for a comprehensive exam enabling the child to present his/her elementary school education as completed. Compulsory school attendance shall start at the beginning of the school year following the day when the child reaches six years of age, unless postponement is permitted. According to the legislation, compulsory education applies to citizens of the Czech Republic, citizens of other EU member states and their dependence, aliens who have been granted permission for permanent stay or visa for a period of time longer than ninety days, refugees and asylum seekers (according to the administrative proceedings). Compulsory school attendance is organised in elementary schools, special schools and schools of institutional and protective education system and is provided for free. Basically, RASC are specifically identified as pupils with special educational needs (together with other social-disadvantages pupils such as pupils with a family background of low socio-cultural standing, at risk of pathological social phenomena, in court-mandated institutional educational care or in a protective facility) and also together with students with health disabilities and disadvantages. Principles of the education of socially disadvantages pupils can be found in the conceptual document called The 24

25

11 Framework Education Programme for Basic Education (hereinafter “the FEPBE”).24 The FEPBE defines main educational areas consisting of one or more educational fields, cross-curricular topics, complementary educational fields etc. As the FEPBE states, in the Czech schools, the number of such pupils is on the rise. Some such pupils are able to integrate into regular schools without serious problems, while others may encounter various difficulties. From the very beginning of their schooling, in most cases the main problem in teaching pupils from a different cultural background is their lack of familiarity with the language of instruction. It is thus not only necessary to make sure that they learn the Czech language, but also that they become familiar with Czech society and its cultural habits and traditions. According to the FEPBE, the school’s long-term objective must be the integration of pupils from different cultural and socially disadvantaged backgrounds, the protection of their minority culture and the promotion of their success within the majority society. It is thus vital that, when preparing the SEP, schools be aware of the nationality, ethnicity or value system of all their pupils and to respond as flexibly as possible to their cultural differences, or to prepare an individual education plan for these pupils which meets their needs to the maximum possible extent. The successful education of socially disadvantaged pupils requires the individual or group attention, preparatory classes, the aid of an assistant teacher, smaller number of pupils per classroom, corresponding methods and forms of work, specific textbooks and materials, regular communication and feedback, cooperation with a psychologist, special education teacher – child behavioural psychologist, social worker or other specialists. In the area of elementary education the important document is also the Decree on basic education.25 According to this document, when assessing the placement to the grade of the pupil, consideration is given to his/hers knowledge of the Czech language and to the level of education attainment. This provision is valid also for refugee and asylum-seeking children. According to the same Decree,26 there is also another important provision for the target group and also

Czech Republic/ Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, the Framework Education Programme for Basic Education, available at: http://www.msmt. cz/areas-of-work/basic-education (accessed on 01.11.2010).

See Section 21 (4) of the Decree of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports No. 48/2005 Coll., on basic education and some requisites of compulsory school attendance. Section 15 (9) of the Decree of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports No. 48/2005 Coll., on basic education and some requisites of compulsory school attendance.

26

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integrating refugee and asylum-seeking children in the educational systems

for other migrant pupils. When assessing students who are not citizens of the Czech Republic and who are performing their compulsory schooling on the territory, the attainment of knowledge of Czech language is seriously considered since it affects students’ performance. In assessing these pupils from the subject of Czech language and literature at the end of three consecutive terms after the start of schooling in the Czech Republic an attainment of knowledge of Czech language is always considered. Elementary education is provided exclusively in Czech; schools are not obliged to set up special classes providing tuition of Czech language or other forms of tutorial for foreigners; except for the EU citizens which is not the case of target group of this study. The Ministry of Education annually posts calls for proposals for development programmes dealing with elementary education of refugee children. Schools educating refugee children can obtain extra funds for elementary and extracurricular education (teacher salaries, assistants of pedagogues and other noninvestment costs.27 Usually Ministry of Education announces grant programmes for basic and secondary schools, higher education institutions, civic associations, non-profit companies, and NGOs.

4.4. Secondary school Secondary schools (established by the state and the local government authorities) admit students and applicants for study in compliance with special decree.28 Migrants who prove their ability to study in the Czech language can study in secondary schools for free. Once having finished their primary education, children may pursue further education in secondary school. The assortment of secondary schools is quite wide: a student may choose among public and private schools, vocational schools, schools preparing the students for higher education (“gymnasium”), schools for children with disabilities, schools with extended languages programmes etc.

School selection is at the sole discretion of the pupil and his/her parents.29 Secondary school director decide whether entrance exams should be held or not. However, there is one provision30 in the Education Act, towards promotion of migrant’s access to the secondary school, stating that in the case of persons who are not citizens of the Czech Republic and who have had previous education abroad shall be, at their request when taking admission examinations at secondary and tertiary professional school, the admission examination of the Czech language which is a part of the admission examination shall be waived. The school shall verify knowledge of the Czech language which is necessary for education in the chosen field of education by means of an interview.

4.5. Tertiary school According to the law, condition to admission to the tertiary school is to achieve full secondary or vocational education (with some exceptions for artistic study programmes). The student of tertiary school may study for Bachelor’s, Master’s or Doctoral degrees. In theory, foreign students may study at public tertiary schools or school established by the state regardless of the type of their stay (but in the practice it is different). The condition to admission to the master’s programme is to complete a bachelor programme; the condition to admission to the doctoral programme is to complete a master’s programme. Foreign students study at tertiary schools under the same condition as Czech citizens, provided that they are able to study in Czech language. Therefore, if Czech students are not required to pay for their studies, the same conditions apply to foreign students. Foreign students wishing to study at a Czech tertiary school in another language than the Czech language must pay the tuition. At private tertiary schools, all the students are required to pay the tuition; the same conditions apply to Czech citizens and foreign alike.31

Bačáková, M., Access to education of refugee children in the Czech Republic – Report for UNHCR Prague office, Prague, 2009, available at: http:// www.unhcr.cz/dokumenty/report-bacakova.pdf (accessed 01.11.2011).

27

28

29

See Decree of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports No. 10/1997 Coll., on Admission of Students and Other Applicants for Study at Secondary Schools, as amended.

See a webpage with practical information for foreigners living in Czech Republic, available at: www.domavcr.cz (accessed on 07.11.2010). Czech Republic/ Act No. 561/2004 Coll., on Pre-school, Basic, Secondary, Tertiary Professional and other Education (the Education Act), as amended.

30

See Czech Republic/ Act No. 111/1998 Coll., the Higher Education Act. (Zákon o vysokých školách).

31

Country report: Czech Republic

5. Good practices description and analysis In this part of the report the main focus concerns the identification of good practices in the integration of RASC in the educational system in the Czech Republic. The findings of the study demonstrate that overall educational integration is not focused specifically on RASC as a specific group; rather, it is more broadly defined as integration of migrant children. Therefore, most of the identified good practices are not primarily or specifically focused on RASC. The good practices were identified and selected as a result of interviews, desk research and experience in the field. The assessment of the practices was conducted with their innovativeness, multi-dimensional approach, transferability, sustainability in mind, also taking into account their relevance to at least one of the main areas set by the Methodological guidelines, namely access to education, quality of education, enhanced protection and empowerment and participation. The good practices identified related only to the first two areas: access to education, and quality of education. Several examples of good practices in the educational integration of refugee and asylum-seeking children were identified. Almost none of the good practices are exhaustive or flawless. Some of the good practice examples are no longer being implemented due to changes in policies or laws, or due to the lack of resources. Some of the examples are very well functioning tools used by teachers and other professionals. There are some policies, concepts and institutional arrangements as well as small projects and activities at the local level that constitute good practices. All of them facilitate the efficient education of refugee and asylum-seeking children in the Czech Republic. The following section will be structured around the four main reference areas as highlighted above: access to education; quality of education; enhanced protection; and empowerment and participation. In addition to these four areas, the following section will also highlight the system of care and care facilities for unaccompanied minors. The issues of care and care facilities for unaccompanied minors are prevalent in all of the main reference areas and therefore it is important not to treat them separately but rather in its complexity. 32

13 5.1. Access and enrolment The Ministry of Education guarantees the compulsory school attendance of the children of refugees and asylum seekers, as a component of the fulfilment of commitments arising from the international conventions by which the Czech Republic is bound. The state guarantees access to compulsory education to all children irrespective of the legal status till the age of eighteen. Every elementary school has a duty to accept a child living in its geographical district and provide him/her with education. Poor knowledge of the Czech language is not considered a justifiable obstacle and does not waive the schools’ duty. However, article 16, part 6, of the Act on Education, states that every child has the right to education whose content, forms and methods correspond with his or her educational needs and possibilities. Therefore, the state enables RASC to attend the education but the schools are not often provided with tools and resources to provide education in a format which is understandable to RASC. Courses in the Czech language provided free of charge within the State Integration Program To overcome the language barrier preventing integration into society and the educational system, the Ministry of Education provides refugees and subsidiary protection beneficiaries with courses free of charge as part of the State Integration Program. For the implementation of the latter, financial resources are provided through relevant resolutions of the Government of the CR from the state budget. The State Integration Program provides for 600 course hours of group instruction in the Czech language or 400 hours of individual courses depending on the situation of individual person for one year. Children older than sixteen are provided classes in Czech apart from any education received at school. Within the classes individual approach is applied so that the needs of children are taken into consideration. In 2010 a new proposal on a methodology for initial courses targeting refugees and subsidiary protection beneficiaries was approved by the Ministry of Education.32 This document is a well prepared methodology that takes into consideration the challenges for such courses and is an important step forward in improving the quality of these language courses. Until 2010 the courses were provided by the SOZE NGO. In a 2011 tender the Ministry of Education chose new provider of the courses – the Association of teachers of Czech as a foreign language.

See at Czech Republic/ Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, http://www.msmt.cz/socialni-programy/uvodni-kurzy-pro-azylanty-a-osobypozivajici-doplnkove-1.

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Points of strength Individual targeted classes of Czech language are provided within the State integration program. The right to free classes is written into the legislation, which ensures stable and ongoing financing for the program, and every RASC older than sixteen can benefit from it. Courses are provided in the localities where RASC live, go to school, or work, and therefore it is accessible to them. This facilitates their integration into the educational system. The new methodology clearly sets the methods used, goals of the classes, and requirements for the teachers. The contents of the course, its goals and teaching materials are set based on the individual assessment of the needs and possibilities of RASC.

education. Asylum seekers can benefit from the same educational possibilities as Czech citizens however, it is at the discretion of the authorities whether the affidavit would be accepted and previous education recognised. The law does not guarantee this as right to asylum seekers. Points of strength This legal provision facilitates enrolment and access of RASC into secondary and tertiary educational institutions since their education from the country of origin is acknowledged. The recognition certificate has the same validity as a certificate issued by Czech schools.

Points of weakness

Points of weakness

Only recognised refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection benefit from the courses. Asylum-seeking children do not have access to the courses, even though the lengthy asylum procedure often allows them to stay in the Czech Republic for several years. The age limit of sixteen years is leaving younger RASC without the support of Czech language courses offered beside the regular school curricula. There is no methodology for children younger than sixteen. The fact that there is a sole provider for the courses limits flexibility throughout the territory of the Czech Republic and prevents the participation of local schools.

There is broad administrative discretion in the application of this provision to the situation of asylum seekers. During interviews with experts it was repeatedly mentioned that the practice differed depending on the region and administrative staff responsible for its implementation. Asylum-seeking children should benefit from this provision due to the lengthy asylum procedures that very often take several years.

Recognition of education obtained in the country of origin Act no. 561/2004 Coll, on Education provides in art. 108 conditions for recognition in the Czech Republic of education obtained abroad. Applicants for recognition are required to provide official translation of their school certificates proving the level of education received and the contents of courses attended. The process or recognition is complicated, and usually migrants need to provide detailed description of the content of the length of the courses attended. Cooperation with the educational institution in the country of origin is usually necessary. The legal stipulation specifically allows for refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection to prove their education by affidavit of previous education if they are unable to provide required documents. If there are any doubts the authorities can require the conducting of examinations in order to recognise prior

This section explores tools and support schemes developed and used to facilitate the integration of RASC into the educational system. Local and NGO initiatives and projects are prevalent rather than policy documents and concepts. Individual projects were evaluated and recommended during the expert interviews.

5.2. Quality of Education

RASC – children with special educational needs RASC are specifically identified as pupils with special educational needs, which is a very important example of a good practise. The principles of educating socially disadvantages pupils can be found in the FEPBE conceptual document.33 The successful education of socially disadvantaged pupils requires individual and group attention, preparatory classes, the aid of an assistant teacher, smaller number of pupils per classroom, corresponding methods and forms of school work, specific textbooks and materials,

Czech Republic/ Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, the Framework Education Programme for Basic Education, available at: http://www.msmt. cz/areas-of-work/basic-education (accessed on 01.11.2010).

33

Country report: Czech Republic regular communication and feedback, cooperation with a psychologist, special education teachers – child behavioural psychologists, social workers or other specialists. The school prepares individual educational plans for RASC (within one month once school attendance starts) in cooperation with psychologists, parents. The plan should be reviewed and changed throughout the school year. The school can hire a teacher assistant that helps RASC to become better integrated into the school environment, to support teachers during classes, to facilitate communication among pupils, among parents, the community and the school. Since 1998, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports has provided financial resources for the activities of teacher assistants. Since 2005, the financial means for teacher assistants have been included in the overall amount of financial resources sent to the regions for all pedagogical staff, without further specification of their allocation for specific activities. In connection with the shift of responsibility from the ministry to the regions, the ministry first announced developmental programmes in education for the financing of these teacher assistants already in 2006. It was set as a condition that the subsidy can only be used for financing the posts of teacher assistants filled by persons with relevant professional qualifications as prescribed in Section 20 of Act No. 563/2004 Coll., on Pedagogical Staff and on Amendments to Some Acts, as subsequently amended.34 Points of strength Due to the direct funding from the state budget the sustainability of this good practice is ensured. The individual educational plan supported by the assistant helps RASC to overcome the language and cultural barrier, so that s/he is faster integrated into the educational system. Interdisciplinary cooperation with social workers, psychologists, etc., provides RASC protection and a safe environment. As part of the responsibilities of assisting pupils with special educational needs, schools are obliged to communicate with parents. The assistant helps RASC to overcome social exclusion. Teachers are supported by the assistant and can easily manage lessons whereas RASC are able to follow and work together with the rest of class. 34

15 Points of weakness Schools are very often not aware of the fact that RASC are pupils with special educational needs. Information about the availability of funding is not widely spread. The funding system is not flexible and schools cannot apply for funding when RASC are enrolled but have to wait till a call for proposals is placed by the regional authority. Compensatory classes In the past, there were very important legal instruments regarding the education of asylum seekers, such as Instruction No. 10 149/2002-22, on the Provision of the Compulsory School Attendance of Asylum Seekers in Asylum Facilities (of 15.05.2002, effective as of 01.06.2002, published in the Journal of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the CR No. 6/2002, valid till 2005). This instruction governed, inter alia, compensatory classes only for asylum seekers. There is currently no specific instruction relating to RASC only. This group is subsumed under the general group of pupils with special educational needs. The compensatory classes can be used at the schools nearby refugee facilities where the inflow of a certain number of RASC is constant. At the local level compensatory classes are used at the local elementary school in Kostelec nad Orlici. The school implements all the policy tools and utilises the financial resources provided by the state to successfully integrate asylum-seeking children in the Czech educational system. There is a refugee accommodation centre in Kostelec nad Orlici and therefore the local school has to face consistent flows of new students from various cultural backgrounds with different educational backgrounds and with a limited knowledge of the Czech language. The school provides a compensatory Czech language class directly at the Refugee facility where children with no or insufficient knowledge of Czech language are placed for the necessary period of time. Teaching this class is very demanding since children from different age groups, cultural and language backgrounds attend it. After children attain a minimum level of knowledge of language necessary for attending elementary school, they are placed in the local school. Placement is determined by the principal of the school following proposals of the teacher of the compensatory class. There are no teaching materials

This information is taken from official webpage of the Czech Republic/ Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, The Integration of Aliens. English version available at: http://www.msmt.cz/areas-of-work/the-integration-of-aliens?highlightWords=Centre+Minority+Integration (accessed on 15.11.2010).

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integrating refugee and asylum-seeking children in the educational systems

and methodology available, therefore the teacher prepared herself worksheets and teaching techniques. The compensatory class is financed with the resources of the Ministry of Education and with the resources of the school itself. The school is also implementing projects funded by the European Refugee Fund.35 One of the projects realised in 2010 was focused on teaching materials and a methodology of teaching asylum seeking children since there is an urgent need for those. Teaching materials such as word flash cards are prepared in cooperation with children themselves and should be made available after the project is concluded. The school focuses its activities not only on the Czech language but also on the integration of asylum-seeking children into Czech society via leisure activities such as trips, after school clubs, etc. Some activities are focused on Czech children and their families when the school organises multicultural events as concerts, cooking sessions, etc.36 This local school is a very good example of a situation where policies and measures designed at the national level are well utilised and have even evolved at the local level. Points of strength The school can prepare quality curricula for children with little or no knowledge of the Czech language. RASC get individual attention and are efficiently and timely prepared for integration into the local school system. RASC do not have to attend classes which they do not understand and in which they cannot actively participate. Points of weakness The compensatory classes can be only used if there is a substantial number of RASC being enrolled into one school. It is very demanding for the teacher to be able to work with RASC of different levels of knowledge of Czech and different ages. There has been criticism of the establishment of compensatory classes due to concerns regarding the segregation of migrants by establishing special classes for this group of students, which seems to contradict the principles of inclusive education. The purpose of compensatory classes, however, is not to 35

separate newly arrived pupils from mainstream society, but to equip them with the basic means of integration, which the language of instruction undoubtedly is, and then to easily include them among their classmates by overcoming the language barrier. META – Association for the Opportunities of Young Migrants META o.s.37 – The Association for the Opportunities of Young Migrants – was established in 2004 with the aim of supporting young immigrants living in the Czech Republic. The clients of the association are young immigrants between the ages of six and thirty-nine – regardless of their legal status. Since 2006, the core activity of META has been running the Consultancy and Information Centre for Young Migrants. This is where social workers are available to clients to consult and assist them in the decision making process for further studies, job opportunities, and tackling difficulties arising from their specific social and legal status in the Czech Republic. In addition to professional social consultancy and various educational activities provided under the volunteer programme, META also offers Czech language courses lead by experienced teachers, and preparatory courses for admission exams. Since META’s target groups includes children above six years of age (school age), the activities also focus on educators. The association supports educators by looking for optimal ways for the educational integration of children with Czech as a second language. In March 2010, META launched the www.inkluzivniskola. cz information portal focused on the integration of pupils with Czech as a second language into the Czech educational system.38 The portal contains information and also methodical tools related to the education of immigrants. The portal has five sections: Migration, Organisation, Czech language, Pedagogy, and Resources and Inspiration. The Migration section contains general information about migration flows, legislation, residence statutes including RASC etc. The Organisation section is focused on the educational system of the Czech Republic, enrolment in schools, placement in appropriate classes, etc. The Czech language section concerns aspects of the teaching

See Elementary school in Kostelec and Orlici. www.zskostelec.cz.

36

See at Žadatel o mezinárodní ochranu, Informational portal related to the education of foreigners, http://www.inkluzivniskola.cz/nove-prichozi/ zadatel-o-mezinarodni-ochranu.

See META, a non-governmental organisation providing counselling to the asylum seekers and other foreigners the area of education. www.metaos.cz.

37

38

See Informational portal related to the education of foreigners. www.inkluzivniskola.cz, (accessed on 15.11.2010). This webpage is available only in Czech version.

Country report: Czech Republic and learning of Czech as a second language; for example, worksheets and methodological materials are available. The Pedagogy section explains the principles of inclusive education and multicultural approaches to education. Finally, the Resources and Inspiration section consists of examples of good practices, case studies, study materials and worksheets to be used in classroom. The portal serves as an important source of information for teachers in elementary school which integrate RASC. META also organises professional workshops for educators that focus on issues related to educating foreigners, with successive topical workshops in individual regions of the Czech Republic where other NGOs dealing with RASC – such as the Association for Integration and Migration – are also present as experts. Workshops are intended for all educational workers (teachers, educational advisors, authors of methodologies, and principals), who deal with problematic situations related to the integration of immigrant students into the school environment at the educational and organisational levels. Points of strength META as an organisation has a direct access to migrant children, including RASC, through the services that they provide to them, as their clients. Therefore META has direct access to collect primary data and information from their clients. This enables them create a very specific know-how; to develop very accurate methods and working strategies; and to organise effective and efficient workshops. Furthermore, the organisation shares its data, study material, and teaching know-how online and hence provides an invaluable support to the teachers and other educators. As such, META’s field work reflects well into their strategic and advocacy work and hence has a great appeal to their target audience – the educators and the policy makers. Points of weakness META is a NGO dependent on grants and tenders and lacking a stable source of funding. Even though META cooperates closely with many relevant bodies, schools, national and local authorities, the list is not exhaustive and it cannot supplement support and methodological guidelines that should be provided to teachers by the Ministry of Education.

17 UNHCR seminar for teachers from school receiving resettled refugees As specified above, the Czech Republic recently started to receive refugees through a resettlement program. RASC coming through the programme spend six months in transitional accommodation at Integration Asylum Centres and then they are moved to different places and schools on the territory of the Czech Republic. The experience has demonstrated that schools – especially schools in small towns or villages – are completely unprepared for RASC and are not able to efficiently integrate them into the school system.39 In 2010, UNHCR organised workshops in which teachers, headmasters, and representatives of the Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Education and NGOs took part. The aim of the workshop was to bring all the different bodies involved in the care of resettled refugees and share their experience. Teachers and headmasters from the schools that already have had experience with resettled refugees from Burma and from schools awaiting placement of RASC, participated. The exchange of knowledge and experience has been beneficial to all participants as noted during interviews conducted.

5.3. Unaccompanied minors Facility Apart from the good practices identified above, it is necessary to note the specific situation of unaccompanied minors (UAM) in the Czech Republic. This target group is subject to the same policy documents and legal provisions; however, special arrangements, institutions and practices are applied. For the understanding of the good practice concerning UAMs’ access to education, it is necessary to provide a detailed description of all processes. Although the good practice is not flawless, the methods used and institutional setup should be deemed to constitute a good practice. As a result of the cooperation of a broad range of actors, including an inter-agency working group and non-governmental non-profit organisations, which have analysed the situation of UAMs on the territory of the Czech Republic and the current issues in this field, the need for a system of specialised facilities for immigrant children has been identified. The system of the facility really started to work in 2004 – and the

Bačáková, M., Access to education of refugee children in the Czech Republic – Report for UNHCR Prague office, Prague, 2009, available at: http:// www.unhcr.cz/dokumenty/report-bacakova.pdf (accessed 01.11.2011).

39

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official name of the institution is “Facility for children of foreign nationals, diagnostic facility, children’s home with school, educational institute, educational care centre, primary and special school.” It comprises of three distinct but inter-connected facilities – Diagnostic facility in Prague 5; Children’s home with a school in Hříměždice in the Central Bohemia; and the Educational Institute for children over fifteen years of age in Prague. The system of care and access to services are not differentiated according to the children’s legal status, i.e. UAMs are placed into the diagnostic institute irrespective of their legal status – be they refugees, asylum seekers, legally or illegally staying immigrant children. UAMs up to the age of eighteen are placed into the facility by the decision of the court; however, they can stay in the facility till the age of twenty-six, if they sign the contract with the facility and continue their education. The activities of the Facility are regulated by Act No. 109/2002 Coll., on Executing Institutional or Protective Education at School Facilities and on Preventive Educational Care at Educational Facilities and by regulation No. 438/2006 Coll. The care provided to children in the Facility is the same as the care provided to Czech children in similar facilities. Nevertheless, some services needed specifically for this target group are emphasised, e.g. interpreter services, or an extended number of Czech language lessons. The diagnostic facility in Prague is responsible for a complex diagnostic procedure of UAM (Health, psychological, pedagogical, specialpedagogical and social diagnoses) that usually takes eight weeks. The Diagnostic Institute can serve up to eighteen clients and meanwhile the clients are being diagnosed, they attend elementary school with the focus on Czech language teaching which available at the facility.40 Pedagogical diagnostics consists of the identification of the educational level, abilities and knowledge of minors in every school subject. Based on this diagnostics the teachers prepare an educational plan for the particular UAM, i.e. the teachers decide on the class level that the UAM should attend (be it in primary, secondary or special school) after he/she is transferred from the Diagnostic Institute to the Children’s Home with special educational institute for children-foreigners (a Permon school in Hříměždice in the Central Bohemia). 40

See UAMs facility. www.ddc.cz.

The Children’s Home can accommodate twenty-four children. The basic unit of the facility is the so-called family group which is a group consisting of five to eight children of different sex and age. Brothers and sisters are usually placed into one group but exceptionally they could be split into several groups for educational, upbringing or health reasons. Their language and ethnic needs are also considered. Primary school fulfils diagnostic, educational, therapeutic and social tasks. In its diagnostics, the school is responsible for ascertaining the level of knowledge, skills and abilities of a child, and also knowledge of Czech and appropriate level of socio-cultural, religious, and socio-legal needs. Based on the above analysis, children are provided education which suits their intellectual and language abilities. Overcoming the language barrier belongs to primary tasks of the school. Individual educational programmes are prepared in necessary cases. Minors older than fifteen years of age are placed into the Educational institute as they come from the diagnostic facility. The Educational institute operates together with Children’s home and a family group of five to eight children fulfils the role of educational group. In the Children’s Home there is an option of following a vocational study programme which is two years long and which is adapted to the children’s language ability. The educational programme is therefore adjusted to children’s need of Czech language learning and to the need of gaining social and practical skills which are necessary for a successful life in the in the Czech Republic. Another reason for establishing the school was the expected length of children’s stay in the facility, which is about one to two and a half years. Finally, the function of the Educational Institute is to serve as a quasi boarding school for minors older than fifteen years of age. They are placed to the Educational Institute after they leave the Diagnostic Institute. As already stated at the beginning, the Educational Institute is interlinked with and operates together with the Children’s Home. Points of strength There is a specialised facility which has had long term experience working with children of migrant backgrounds (all separated children or children in

Country report: Czech Republic need of institutional care with migration background are placed to the facility). The facility has a specialised diagnostic centre which focuses on children of immigrant backgrounds. Unaccompanied RASC are placed in the secured facility with access to psychological and psychotherapeutic services. Points of weakness There are problems resulting from the geographical isolation of the facilities, which hinders the integration of UAMs into society. The Children’s home is placed two kilometres away from any village in the middle of countryside. Children attending practical school within the facility do not have any contact with the outside world. The costs for taking children to nearby towns for schools or leisure activities are very demanding. There is a need to transfer the facility to a town or city where there are better educational and entertainment options that would enable faster and more efficient integration. Another issue that needs emphasizing relates to leaving the facility. As mentioned above, UAMs can stay in the facility until the age of twenty-six and prepare for their future career or studying. However, the facility is not very well prepared for this option, since these young adults are subject to the same treatment and care as other children and therefore they do not tend to stay in the facility; therefore many of them leave sooner than they complete their education. There are also problems resulting from the fact that children of migrant backgrounds exhibiting problematic or criminal behaviour are placed in the same facility as RASC. This creates tensions among children and staff. Non-governmental organisation and UAMs Non-governmental organisations have been actively involved in assisting UAMs. There are two more examples of good practices identified at the project level. In 2004 he Association for Integration and Migration (Counselling Centre for Refugees) established a joint working group on the issue of Separated children on the territory of the Czech Republic. The members are both governmental and non-governmental organisations involved in the care for UAMs, e.g. Representatives of the facility, the Ministry of Interior, the Alliance Police Department, the Criminal Police, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Labour and

19 Social Affairs, the Ministry of Justice, social workers engaged in the socio legal protection of children from local municipalities, UNHCR, IOM, and NGOs. The working group serves as a platform for efficient communication among individual stakeholders. Practices, policies and laws are discussed within the working group, and changes in the system of care were made possible through this mean of communication. The Organisation for Aid to Refugees (OPU) is a nongovernmental organisation involved in the care for UAMs. As mentioned above, it does not provide a very efficient way of leaving the facility for its clients. There is a lack of integration of children living in the facility and lack for preparation for independent life outside of it. OPU identified the need for ensuring supported housing for young adults leaving the Facility who either have employment, are searching for employment or are attending school or any other form of education preparing them for employment. OPU runs a facility/ apartment for four young adults as transition housing before starting independent life in the Czech society. During the one year stay at the facility clients receive assistance from social workers with acquiring social skills (making contacts in society, cleaning, cooking etc.), communication skills (e.g. communication with state and local authorities, medical professionals, etc), with acquiring employment skills(searching for employment, establishing contacts with potential employers, etc.).41

6. Areas in need of change and policy recommendations During this desktop and field research, a number gaps were identified which have informed the formulation of recommendations. Therefore, this section explores the problems identified in the process of integrating RASC in the educational system of the Czech Republic. After having analysed number of concept materials, documents and specialised literature and based on empirical research, one can conclude that equal opportunities need to be created for educational achievement. Socio-cultural deficiencies in early childhood have a significant impact on one’s success at

See Organisation to Aid to Refugees, a non-governmental organisation providing counselling to asylum seekers and refugees, available at: http:// www.opu.cz/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=21&Itemid=40&lang=en

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integrating refugee and asylum-seeking children in the educational systems

school which in turn influences overall success in life. That means that we have to look for the factors that might contribute to creating equal opportunities and as well as in finding education perspectives for RASC.

have access to free Czech courses reflecting their needs and individual situation. A methodology for teaching for RASC younger than sixteen should be prepared immediately.

6.1. Access and enrolment

6.2. Quality of education

Access to education has been ensured to all RASC on the territory of the Czech Republic. The gaps were found concerning the placement of RASC to appropriate grades and schools. The main emphasises is put to the mastering of Czech language, while it is crucial that other aspects of education areas should not be omitted. Due to their limited knowledge of the Czech language RASC are often placed in lower grades than it would be appropriate for their age and previous educational experience. Schools do not provide their own testing or diagnostic procedures that would enable them to place RASC into appropriate grades. There is very limited or no cooperation between parents and schools when choosing educational facilities for RASC. Czech courses provided as part of the State Integration Programme are available only for children granted international protection older than sixteen. There is a lack of methodology, resources and teaching materials concerning RASC younger than sixteen. The New methodology proposal omits this target group only stating that the methodology for teaching children younger than sixteen is being prepared. The State Integration Program has been in place since 199442 and since then no methodology concerning children as a vulnerable group has been in place. No similar scheme is available for asylum-seeking children or children younger than sixteen.

In terms of quality of education, several problems were identified. The most pressing one is the inadequate distribution of resources to support teachers integrating RASC. In recent years, there was a further decrease in the amount of money from the state budget earmarked for the Ministry of Education on the integration of this target group. In light of this fact it might be difficult to be too demanding in requiring that this institution take a meaningfully pro-active approach to integration. However, it is necessary to realise the short-sightedness of the decision to reduce funding for integration and to fully restore the flow of funds into this field. The financing scheme provided by the Ministry of Education is very limited as to the amounts, accessibility and flexibility. Even though there are financial resources allocated to assistants for refugee children or other needs arising from the placement of these children into schools, such financial resources are not used by the latter. There is a lack of information among principals; furthermore, the grant scheme is very rigid and does not correspond to the needs of schools. Resources are allocated for the calendar year (from January till December); however, schools operate during the school year (from September till June). Furthermore, RASC students usually do not attend throughout the duration of the school year but typically start attending in the middle of it. At that time no resources are available.

Therefore it is advisable that: • Methodologies and diagnostic tools for evaluating RASC’s previous educational experience and skills should be prepared and propagated, facilitating the placement into appropriate school types and grades. • Headmasters, teachers, and social workers should closely cooperate with RASC and their parents when choosing a school for them. Parents and RASC need to be provided with information about the system of education in order to participate in the decision-making process as well. • Asylum-seeking children and asylum subsidiary protection holders younger than sixteen should

Teachers also lack any teaching, material and methodological support on how to teach and how to best approach RASC students. Furthermore, there is a limited availability of special courses and workshops for teachers which would help them with understanding RASC’s specific educational demands. Therefore it is advisable that: • The Ministry of Education should prepare more flexible funding schemes and spread relevant information among schools more efficiently. Schools should be able to apply for the resources when RASC are enrolled. • The Czech educational system should be transformed

Czech Republic, Ministry of Interior, Integrace, available at: http://www.mvcr.cz/docDetail.aspx?docid=35703&docType=&chnum=2.

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Country report: Czech Republic in the light of the fact that education is one of the main conditions of integration. Emphasis should be on increasing the preparation for school attendance, including the creation of preparatory classes, and on ensuring the support of teacher assistants, on cooperating with the child’s family, and also searching for proper pedagogical methods and means. These will, in their entirety, ensure the provision of equal rights and opportunities, including the right to education for RASC.

6.3. Enhanced protection RASC often enter the host country and its educational system following traumatic experiences. Teachers lack knowledge about the previous experience of RASC. Due to limited communication with parents, very often this information is not shared with the school. When RASC change schools (which happens very often), close cooperation between schools should be in place. Especially unaccompanied RASC have experienced serious traumas through their migration journey and therefore there should be an extra emphasis placed on the safety of their new “homes.” However, this is very difficult to achieve given the current situation in the Czech Republic: the main problem is the fact that RASC are placed in Children’s Homes which often also serve the function of being Children’s Homes for problematic/ special need children. To paint the picture more clearly, RASC who are often traumatised and in need of special care and treatment are put together into one facility, into one Children’s Home with children who show signs of violence, abuse, drug addiction, behavioural problems, etc. In the long run, this situation is unsustainable and has harmful effect on unaccompanied RASC. Therefore, it is advisable that: • Communication between RASC, parents and schools should be improved. Schools should be preparing individual educational plans and in case of RASC psychological evaluation and cooperation with psychologists should be recommended to parents.

21 • Unaccompanied RASC should not be placed in a facility where they can experience insecurity and violence. The facility for UAMs should be reorganised and moved to a locality with better access to schools and leisure activities.

6.4. Empowerment and participation The majority of the decisions concerning RASC are made about children and not with children. Children participation is relatively low in general in the Czech Republic. The voice of RASC is even less heard by the institutions since even their parents are not listened to. RASC are very often not interviewed during the asylum procedure, and their claim is considered only based on the claim of their parents. As FEPBE states, the important factor in successfully teaching pupils from culturally different and frequently also socially disadvantaged backgrounds is the teacher, who should be familiar with his pupils and their family background, be able to select an appropriate approach, and create a welcoming social atmosphere in the school and the classroom. The school must make use of instructional methods which are suitable for pupils’ diverse learning styles; and to make sure that the instructions are clearly explained and followed by the pupils; and to plan instruction on the basis of the interests, experiences and needs of pupils from various cultural, ethnic and social backgrounds. It is desirable to build on these ideas from FEPBE not just during the formulation of legislation but also in the enforcement of such legislation. RASC – and their parents – should be consulted whenever decisions concerning their situation are being made, and they should be provided all the necessary and relevant information to contribute to the decision-making process in a meaningful manner. The right of direct participation of children in decision-making processes has to be respected and encouraged not only in the formal procedures as asylum application procedure but as well in integration processes at school or vocational training.

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bibliography Czech Republic/ Act No. 325/1999 Coll., Asylum Act, as amended, available at: http://portal.gov.cz/wps/portal/_s.155/701/.cmd/ad/. c/313/.ce/10821/.p/8411/_s.155/701?PC_8411_number1=325/1999&PC_8411_l=325/1999&PC_8411_ps=10#10821 (accessed on 15.11.2010). Czech Republic/ Act No. 326/1999 Coll, on the Residency of Foreigners, as amended. Czech Republic/ Act No. 561/2004 Coll., on Pre-school, Basic, Secondary, Tertiary Professional and other Education (the Education Act), as amended. Czech Republic/ Act No. 111/1998 Coll., the Higher Education Act. Czech Republic/ Act No. 563/2004 Coll., on Pedagogical staff. Czech Republic/ Act No. 109/2002 Coll., on Executing Institutional or Protective Education at School Facilities and on Preventive Educational Care at Educational Facilities. Czech Republic/ Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms (Constitutional Act No. 2/1993 Coll.). Czech Republic/ Decree No. 438/2006 Coll. as of 30th August 2006. Czech Republic/ Decree of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports No. 48/2005 Coll., on basic education and some requisites of compulsory school attendance. Czech Repiblic/ Government resolution from 14.5.2008 no 543 of ensuring integration of refugees and subsidiary protection beneficiaries in 2008 and following years, available at: http://kormoran.vlada.cz/usneseni/usneseni_webtest.nsf/0/ E51C510873FB6582C125756A005E94D6/$FILE/543%20uv080514.0543.pdf (accessed on 15.11.2010). Czech Republic/ Governmental Resolution from 27.6.2008 no. 745, Concept of the National Resettlement Programme, available at: http://www.mvcr.cz/clanek/azyl-migrace-a-integrace-azyl.aspx?q=Y2hudW09OA%3d%3d. Czech Republic/ Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, the Framework Education Programme for Basic Education, available at: http://www.msmt.cz/areas-of-work/basic-education (accessed on 01.11.2010). Czech Republic/ Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, The State Integration Programme of the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic. Czech Republic/ Updated Concept of the Government Policy toward the Immigrant Integration. Literature and researches: ASIM, Studie týkající se zacházení s osobami se zvláštními potřebami během řízení o udělení mezinárodní ochrany, Prague 2010. Bačáková, M., Access to education of refugee children in the Czech Republic – Report for UNHCR Prague office, Prague, 2009, available at: http://www.unhcr.cz/dokumenty/report-bacakova.pdf (available 01.11.2011). Bačáková, M. (2010) Vzdělávání dětí - uprchlíků na základních a středních školách v České republice – navazující studie, Praha. Czech Republic/ Czech Statistical Office (2010), Foreigners in the Czech Republic 2010. English version available at: http://www. czso.cz/csu/2010edicniplan.nsf/engp/1414-10 (accessed on 04.05.2011). Czech Republic, Ministry of Interior (2010), Annual Report: International protection in the Czech Republic in 2009, available at http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/annual-report-international-protection-in-the-czech-republic-in-2009.aspx (accessed on 04.01.2011). Czech Republic, Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, Integrace, available at: http://www.mvcr.cz/docDetail.aspx?docid=35 703&docType=&chnum=2. Czech Republic, Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, Statistical Reports on International Protection Seekers and Refugees. English version available at http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/statistical-reports-on-international-protection-seekers-andrefugees-86918.aspx (accessed on 03.05. 2011). Czech Republuc/Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, Správa uprchlických zařízení, available at: www.suz.cz. Czech Republic/ Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs related to Integration of Foreigners, Realisation of the concept of imigrant integration in 2009, available at: http://www.cizinci.cz/files/clanky/611/KIC_2009_Finalni_verze_23032010.pdf, (accessed on 25.12.2010). EURYDICE, National System Overviews on Education Systems in Europe and ongoing reforms, 2010, available at: http://eacea. ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/national_summary_sheets/047_CZ_EN.pdf (accessed on 02.11.2010). Skalka, B. (2005) Analýza efektivity dosud realizované výuky českého jazyka pro azylanty v letech 2000 – 2004 (Analysis of the effectiveness of the realised Czech language lessons for refugees in the years 2000 – 2004), Brno: Centrum jazykového vzdělání Masarykovy university v Brně.

Country report: Czech Republic

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Uherek, Z. (2006) Analýza efektivnosti Státního integračního programu (An Analysis of the effectiveness of the State integration Programme), Prague. Žáčková, A. (2010) Přístup azylantů a osob s doplňkovou ochranou ke vzdělání v ČR, SOZE, Olomouc. Internet resources Association for Integration and Migration, a non-governmental organisation providing counselling to the asylum seekers and other foreigners. www.uprchlici.cz. Association of citizens helping to immigrants, a non-governmental organisation providing counselling to the asylum seekers and other foreigners. www.soze.cz. Centre for integration of foreigners, a non-governmental organisation providing counselling to the asylum seekers and other foreigners. www.cicpraha.cz. Centre for the Evaluation of Educational. www.czvv.cz. Czech School Inspection. www.csicr.cz. Czech Statistical Office. www.czso.cz. Elementary school in Kostelec and Orlici. www.zskostelec.cz. Informational portal related to the education of foreigners. www.czechkid.cz. Informational portal related to the education of foreigners. www.inkluzivniskola.cz. (This webpage is available only in Czech version.) Institute for Information in Education. www.uiv.cz. META, a non-governmental organisation providing counselling to the asylum seekers and other foreigners the area of education. www.meta-os.cz. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport. www.msmt.cz Ministry of Interior. www.mvcr.cz. Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs related to Integration of Foreigners. www.cizinci.cz. Organisation to Aid to Refugees, a non-governmental organisation providing counselling to asylum seekers and refugees. www. opu.cz. Practical information for foreigners living in Czech Republic. www.domavcr.cz, (accessed on 07.11.2010). Research Institute for Education. www.vuppraha.cz. UAMs facility. www.ddc.cz. UNHCR - United Nation High Commissioner for Refugees in Czech Republic. www.unhcr.cz.

List of ABBREVIATIONS SIP IAC SOZE FEPBE SEP UAM

– State Integration Program – Integration Asylum Centre – Society of Citizens Assisting Migrants – Framework Education Programme for Basic Education – School Educational Plan – Unaccompanied Minor