Contents. xi xiii. Foreword Preface

Contents Foreword Preface xi xiii CHAPTER 1 Electrically Small Multiband Antennas 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Definition of Electrically Small 1.3 Fu...
Author: Brice Dawson
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Contents

Foreword Preface

xi xiii

CHAPTER 1 Electrically Small Multiband Antennas 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Definition of Electrically Small 1.3 Fundamental Antenna Properties Definitions 1.3.1 Impedance, Efficiency, VSWR, and Gain 1.3.2 Bandwidth and Quality Factor (Q) 1.4 Fundamental Limits of Small Antennas 1.5 Special Considerations for Integrated Multiband Antennas 1.6 Fundamental Approaches to Small Integrated Antenna Design 1.6.1 The Monopole Antenna 1.6.2 The Inverted-L Antenna 1.6.3 The Inverted-F and Planar Inverted-F Antennas 1.7 Finite Ground Plane Effects on Small Antenna Performance References

1 1 2 3 3 6 10 12 16 16 17 18 22 30

CHAPTER 2 Multiband Multisystem Antennas in Handsets

33

2.1 Introduction 2.1.1 Frequencies and Systems 2.1.2 Typical Specifications 2.2 Multiband Techniques 2.2.1 Radiating and Balanced Mode Theory 2.2.2 Analysis of PIFA Slots 2.2.3 Analysis of PIFA Shorting Pins 2.3 Multisystem Techniques References

33 33 36 36 37 41 43 45 52

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viii

Contents

CHAPTER 3 Multiband Planar Wire Antennas

53

3.1 Introduction 3.2 Multiband Planar Monopole Antennas 3.2.1 Microstrip-Fed Dual-Band Monopole Antenna 3.2.2 CPW-Fed Dual-Band Monopole Antenna 3.2.3 Meandered CPW-Fed Multiband Monopole Antenna 3.3 Inverted-L Multiband Antennas 3.3.1 Modified Double Inverted-L Antenna for Multiband Operation 3.3.2 Inverted-L Antenna with a Parasitic Element for Dual-Band Operation 3.4 Inverted-F Antennas for Dual-Band Operation 3.4.1 Spiraled Inverted-F Antenna for Dual-Band Operation 3.4.2 Coupling Dual-Band Inverted-F Antenna 3.4.3 Inverted-FL Antennas with a Parasitic Inverted-L Element for Bandwidth Enhancement 3.5 T-Shaped Antennas for Multiband Operation 3.5.1 Single T-Shaped Antenna for Multiband Operation 3.5.2 Double T-Shaped Antenna for Dual-Band Operation 3.5.3 T-Shaped Antenna with a Parasitic Inverted-L Element for Bandwidth Improvement 3.6 Meandered Multiband Antennas 3.6.1 A Nonuniform Meandered Antenna with a Forked Ground Plane for Multiband Operation 3.6.2 A Compact Multiband Meandered Planar Antenna 3.7 M-Shaped Planar Monopole for Multiband Operation 3.8 Two-Strip Planar Antennas for Broadband and Multiband Operation 3.8.1 Broadband Two-Strip Antenna 3.8.2 Broadband/Dual-Frequency Two-Strip Antenna 3.9 Conclusions References

53 59 60 60 62 63 63 67 68 68 71 74 75 75 77 78 79 80 82 83 85 85 89 92 93

CHAPTER 4 Printed Multiband Fractal Antennas

95

4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Brief Background on Fractal Geometry 4.1.2 Fractals in Nature 4.1.3 Prefractals: Truncating a Fractal to Useable Complexity 4.1.4 How Fractals Can Be Used as Antennas and Why Fractals Are Space-Filling Geometries 4.1.5 The Fractal Dimensions of Box Counting, Hausdorff, and Similarity 4.2 Fractals Defined by Transformations—Self-Similar and Self-Affine Sets 4.2.1 Iterated Function Schemes: The Language of Fractals 4.2.2 Self-Affine Sets

95 95 97 99 100 101 109 109 112

Contents

4.3 Deterministic Fractals as Antennas 4.3.1 Fractals as Wire Antenna Elements 4.3.2 Fractal Patch Elements 4.3.3 Circularly Polarized Microstrip Fractal Antennas 4.4 Fractal Arrays and Fractal Volume Antennas 4.4.1 Multiband Fractal Arrays 4.5 Conclusions References

ix

113 114 125 138 141 143 147 147

CHAPTER 5 Miniaturized Integrated Multiband Antennas

151

5.1 Design Considerations for Integrated Multiband Handset Antennas 5.1.1 Hearing Aid Compatible Handsets 5.2 Effect of the Terminal on the Antenna Behavior 5.2.1 Effect of the Size of the Chassis 5.2.2 Effect of the Handset Components 5.3 Modal Analysis 5.3.1 The Theory of Characteristic Modes 5.3.2 Practical Applications Acknowledgments References

151 152 153 153 157 164 165 172 182 229

CHAPTER 6 Multiband Handset Antennas for MIMO Systems

187

6.1 Introduction 6.2 Design Considerations for MIMO Systems 6.2.1 Diversity Techniques 6.2.2 Volume Constraints: The MIMO Cube 6.3 MIMO Techniques in a Handset 6.3.1 Effect of Antenna Efficiency 6.3.2 Effect of User Presence 6.3.3 Effect of Antenna Correlation 6.4 Combined Diversity Techniques for Optimum Handset MIMO Performance

187 188 190 198 198 199 212 219 223

CHAPTER 7 Communication Performance of Mobile Devices

235

7.1 Introduction 7.2 Antenna Efficiency 7.2.1 Radiation Efficiency 7.2.2 How to Obtain the Antenna Efficiency 7.2.3 Conductive Cable Problem 7.2.4 Total Radiated Power and Total Isotropic Sensitivity 7.3 User Influence

235 241 242 242 243 246 247

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7.3.1 Experimental Setup 7.3.2 Repeatability Test 7.3.3 Variation Due to Different Users 7.3.4 Influence of Hand Position 7.3.5 Summary 7.4 Mean Effective Gain 7.4.1 Power Distribution Models 7.4.2 Single Antenna 7.4.3 Multiple Antennas 7.5 Standard Measurement Setup Using Phantoms 7.5.1 Setup for Measurements of Mobile Handset Radiation Patterns 7.5.2 Measurement Uncertainty 7.5.3 Errors Due to Insufficient Sampling Density of Radiation Pattern 7.5.4 Investigation of Phantom Type Influence on Performance 7.5.5 Uncertainty Due to Incorrect Handset Positioning on Phantom References

248 251 252 254 257 258 260 266 274 281 282 284 284 285 288 292

List of Acronyms

295

About the Editor

299

About the Authors

301

Index

307

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