Contents. Preface Acknowledgments. Introduction 1

Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-02155-6 - Chemistry and the Environment Sven E. Harnung and Matthew S. Johnson Table of Contents More information...
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Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-02155-6 - Chemistry and the Environment Sven E. Harnung and Matthew S. Johnson Table of Contents More information

Contents

Preface Acknowledgments Introduction 1 The Earth 1.1 Origin of the Earth a. Big Bang b. The solar system c. The Earth 1.2 Structure of the Earth a. Classical measurements b. Internal structure of the Earth 1.3 Geological periods and dating a. Geological periods b. Radioactive dating c. Isotopic fractionation 1.4 Features of the Earth’s development a. Plate tectonics b. Chemistry mediated by water and biota c. Global chemistry of life

2 Environmental dynamics 2.1 Introduction a. Basic concepts b. Time dependence of concentration c. Field d. Transport 2.2 Fluid dynamics a. Basic properties of the flux density b. Open physicochemical systems c. Continuity equations d. Equations of motion e. Applications of the equations of motion f. Applications of the continuity equation 2.3 Chemical thermodynamics a. Basic concepts b. Phase equilibria

page xi xiii 1 4 4 4 7 10 14 14 17 21 21 23 26 31 31 34 35 37 37 37 40 43 44 45 45 49 51 54 56 65 69 70 81

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2.4 Chemical kinetics a. Basic concepts b. Description of elementary reactions c. Temperature dependence of reaction rates

3 The Spheres 3.1 The lithosphere a. Abundance of the elements b. The rock-forming minerals c. Igneous rocks d. Sedimentary rocks e. Metamorphic rocks 3.2 The hydrosphere a. Chemical composition of natural waters b. Analytical characteristics of environmental waters c. Physicochemical properties of water 3.3 The atmosphere a. Chemical composition b. Hydrosphere-atmosphere equilibria c. The physics of the atmosphere 3.4 Biota a. Chemical composition of biota b. The cell

4 Chemistry of the atmosphere 4.1 Tropospheric chemistry a. The hydroxyl radical b. Nonmethane hydrocarbons c. Tropospheric aerosols d. Henry’s law and deposition 4.2 Stratospheric chemistry a. The Chapman mechanism: Ox b. The radicals HOx c. The radicals NOx d. The radicals ClOx and coupling of the cycles e. The ozone hole f. Midlatitude ozone depletion

5 Chemistry of the hydrosphere 5.1 Acid-base chemistry a. Acid-base properties of water b. An acid and its conjugate base c. Oligovalent acids d. Polyvalent acids

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5.2 Coordination chemistry a. Complex formation b. Lewis acids and bases c. Coordination chemistry of natural waters 5.3 Electrolytic properties a. Redox chemistry of natural waters b. Aqueous solutions of electrolytes

6 Chemistry of the pedosphere 6.1 Structure of soil a. Soil profile b. Regolith and groundwater 6.2 Physics of soil water a. The saturated zone b. The vadose zone c. Flowing groundwater 6.3 Chemistry of soils a. Structure of soil minerals b. The soil solution c. Soil adsorption phenomena d. Soil colloid phenomena e. Soil organic matter

7 Global cycles of the elements 7.1 Biogeochemical cycles 7.2 Carbon a. Reservoirs of carbon b. Fluxes of carbon dioxide c. Fluxes of methane d. Anthropogenic sources of atmospheric carbon dioxide 7.3 Nitrogen a. Natural nitrogen fixation b. Industrial nitrogen fixation 7.4 Phosphorus 7.5 Sulfur a. Natural sulfur cycles b. Anthropogenic sulfur cycles 7.6 Chlorine 7.7 Aluminium and silicon

8 The chemicals industry 8.1 Introduction a. Energy b. A survey of the chemicals industry

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8.2

8.3

8.4 8.5

c. The agriculture and food industries d. Chemical production Heavy industry a. Cement b. Coal and steel c. Metals d. Pulp and paper The inorganic chemicals industry a. The electrolytic cell b. Sodium hydroxide c. Sodium carbonate d. Chlorine The biotechnology industry Sustainable synthetic chemistry: Green chemistry

9 Environmental impact of selected chemicals 9.1 Pesticides a. Insecticides b. Herbicides c. Fungicides d. Enantiomeric xenobiotics 9.2 Organochlorine compounds a. Dioxins and (polychloro)biphenyls b. Hexachlorocyclohexane, HCH, and pentachlorocyclohexene, PCCH c. Bromocyclenes 9.3 Metal compounds 9.4 Detergents a. Soaps b. Syndets c. The Gibbs isotherm 9.5 Water treatment a. Domestic water b. Industrial water c. General methods

10 The chemistry of climate change 10.1 The physics of thermal radiation a. Quantitative expressions b. Radiation theory c. Application to the Sun-Earth system 10.2 Astronomical forcing a. The insolation formula b. Time dependence of insolation c. Climate recorded in sediments and glacial ice

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10.3 Modern climate a. Causes of climate change b. Energy flux densities in the atmosphere c. Radiant forcing d. Global warming potential e. Climate sensitivity f. Climate change

Appendix 1 A1.1 A1.2 A1.3 A1.4 A1.5 A1.6 A1.7 A1.8 A1.9 A1.10

Symbols of the elements Atomic weights of the elements The international system of units, SI Nonstandard units and suffixes Transport properties Electricity General chemistry Fundamental constants α-Amino acids of proteins The Greek alphabet

Appendix 2 A2.1 Polyvalent acids A2.2 Mononuclear complexes a. Polynuclear complexes

Appendix 3 A3.1 The activity of electrolytes a. The Debye-H¨uckel limiting law

Appendix 4 A4.1 Convection

Appendix 5 A5.1 Parameters of the insolation formula, Equation 10.29 a. The 24-h mean insolation at a geographical latitude ϕ b. The ecliptic

References Name index Subject index

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