CONQUERING THE SPANISH VERB SYSTEM:

CONQUERING THE SPANISH VERB SYSTEM: THE YO CONNECTION NANCY T. MÍNGUEZ DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY 0 I...
3 downloads 1 Views 217KB Size
CONQUERING THE SPANISH VERB SYSTEM: THE YO CONNECTION

NANCY T. MÍNGUEZ DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY

0

INTRODUCTION

These handouts are a great tool for the student to easily comprehend how the conjugations work in Spanish. The techniques taught by this system help to quickly grasp and learn the verb types and their conjugations. By dividing the verbs into four main groups, each with its own predictable pattern and all based on the yo conjugation of the present tense, the student can make predictions about the rest of the tenses and will come to rely less on outside sources. These handouts are an incredibly useful instrument for the student to fully embrace verb conjugating naturally.

When in need of a different resource to accurately conjugate verbs immediately, the Verb Conjugator is available. At hand to conjugate over 86 verbs, it is a fast and reliable source to look up a specific verb in a particular tense instantly.

OVERVIEW

The Spanish verb system can be easily divided into four main groups, each with its own predictable pattern and all based on the yo conjugation of the present tense. Once you discover the yo conjugation, you can make predictions about the rest of the tenses and, hopefully, will need to rely less on outside sources.

1. Regular verbs (-ar and -er/-ir), like comprar, aprender, and abrir, form the largest group and are the easiest to learn. These verbs establish the general pattern of operation for all groups, and there are few, if any, irregularities. The regular verbs can be divided into two categories representing each ending group: (a) -ar and (b) -er/-ir. Each subsequent group deviates somewhat from this general pattern, with -ir verbs showing the most irregularities. 2. “Shoe” verbs (-ar/-er/-ir), or stem-changing verbs like pensar, volver, and pedir, are verbs whose present tense in both the indicative and subjunctive forms a “shoe” or “boot” pattern when the singular conjugations are listed adjacent to the plural. “Shoe” verbs can be divided into three ending categories: (a) -ar, (b) -er, and (c) -ir. Verbs in this group will not show a stem change in any other tense, except for those in Group 2C that deviate slightly from the pattern established in the other two categories in the present subjunctive and in the third person preterit. 3. “Yo -go” verbs (or “Yo -zco” verbs) are those verbs whose yo form ends in -go or -zco, such as tener, hacer, conocer, and conducir. Only -er/-ir verbs form this group—there are no -ar “yo -go” verbs. We find more irregularities in this group, but most are predictable. Almost all of these verbs (except salir and conocer) are irregular in the preterit tense. Also, the irregularities tend to be similar: all of these verbs have the same ending that differs slightly from the regular preterit, and all reflect a similar change in the 1

stem that repeats in the six conjugations. In all cases, once again, the yo form generates an irregular present subjunctive, and the irregular preterit forms generate the past subjunctive. Many “yo -go” verbs tend to have a similar pattern of irregularities in the future and conditional. 4. “-O no” verbs, or irregular verbs, are those whose yo form does not end in -o. The patterns these verbs follow are generally unpredictable and must be memorized. However, the irregularity that these verbs share—the yo form not ending in -o—draws the student’s attention to the fact that these verbs will typically not follow the normal pattern and may have many irregularities. Since there are only six verbs in this group (ser, estar, dar, ir, saber, and haber), this is not a particular problem. For each category, you’ll see a pattern represented by a model verb from each group/subgroup, determined by the group and endings (-ar, -er/-ir). On the back of each model page, you can write all verbs that are in the group and practice the conjugations as needed with one of the “blank” model charts. As you learn other verbs that “behave” like the model (see the “quick reference” for others in any particular group), you can simply add them to the back of the page and indicate any minor deviation from the norm, such as an irregular past participle or an irregular preterit form. In the end, you will have six pages with the model on the front and all other verbs in that category on the back. You’ll need to make a separate chart for each verb in Group 4, the “-o no” group. Eventually, you’ll be able to establish at a glance to which group any new verb belongs and know exactly how to use it, simply by observing the yo form of the present tense. If it is regular, then you may predict that the verb will not deviate from the regular pattern; if the yo form shows a stem change, then you may predict that it will follow the pattern of the “shoe” verbs; if the yo form ends in -go, then it will most likely follow the patterns established by the other “yo -go” verbs.

2

CONQUERING THE SPANISH VERB SYSTEM: THE YO CONNECTION

Group 1: Regular Verbs (-ar, -er/-ir) (Since -ir verbs differ ONLY in the nosotros and vosotros forms of the present indicative, it is not necessary to have a separate page for them. After the present tense, -ir verbs have the same endings as -er verbs.)

Regular verbs form the largest and most predictable group of verbs. This group establishes the basic pattern from which other groups may deviate slightly. There are very few irregularities in this group, and you should indicate any irregularities next to the verb on the list on the back of the model page—e.g., andar (irregular preterit > anduve). It is important to learn well the patterns established by the regular verbs. See “Quick Reference” for other common verbs in this group on page 14 of this handout.

Remember: Conjugate verbs in Spanish by taking the stem and affixing the proper ending for the subject and tense. The six conjugations represent first (yo), second (tú) and third (usted, él, ella) persons singular, and first (nosotros), second (vosotros), and third (ustedes, ellos) persons plural.

Conjugate reflexive verbs (e.g., lavarse) exactly the same way you would conjugate any other verb. Be sure to include the respective reflexive pronoun (me, te, se, nos, os, se), which always precedes the verb that you are conjugating—e.g., me lavo, te lavas, se lava, etc. See “Reflexive commands” on page 13 of this handout.

MODELS: COMPRAR (SHOWN),

COMER, ESCRIBIR

Present Tense Indicative Mood

Subjunctive Mood (Yo form of present indicative + opposite vowel)

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

compro compras compra

compramos compráis compran

compre compres compre

compremos compréis compren

Preterit Tense Singular

Plural

compré compraste compró

compramos comprasteis compraron

Imperfect Tense Indicative Mood

Subjunctive Mood (Formed from third person plural preterit)

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

compraba comprabas compraba

comprábamos comprabais compraban

comprara compraras comprara

compráramos comprarais compraran

Future Tense: infinitive + -é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án = compraré (I will buy), etc. Conditional Tense: infinitive + -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -íais, -ían = compraría (I would buy), etc.

3

Compound Tenses Progressive: estar (any tense, indicative or subjunctive) + present participle (stem + -ando/-iendo) = Estoy (estaba, estaré, estaría) comprando/comiendo/escribiendo (I am [was, will be, would be] buying/eating/writing) Perfect: haber + past participle (stem + -ado/-ido [some verbs are irregular—e.g., escribir > escrito]) = haber comprado/comido/escrito (to have bought/eaten/written) Present Perfect: present tense of haber + past participle (stem + -ado) = he comprado (I have bought) Indicative Mood

Subjunctive Mood

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

he comprado has ha

hemos comprado habéis han

haya comprado hayas haya

hayamos comprado hayáis hayan

Pluperfect: imperfect tense of haber + past participle = había comprado (I had bought) Indicative Mood

Subjunctive Mood

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

había comprado habías había

habíamos comprado habíais habían

hubiera comprado hubieras hubiera

hubiéramos comprado hubierais hubieran

Future Perfect: future tense (no subjunctive) of haber + past participle = habré comprado (I will have bought) Singular

Plural

habré comprado habrás habrá

habremos comprado habréis habrán

Conditional Perfect: conditional tense (no subjunctive) of haber + past participle = habría comprado (I would have bought) Singular

Plural

habría comprado habrías habría

habríamos comprado habríais habrían

4

CONQUERING THE SPANISH VERB SYSTEM: THE YO CONNECTION

Group 2A/2B: "Shoe" Verbs (-ar and -er) Since e will always change to ie, and o will always change to ue, it is not necessary to separate these verbs according to their different stem changes. See “Quick Reference” for other common verbs in these groups. Repeat same exercise for Group 2A: “Shoe” Verbs (-ar). The endings will be the same as Group 1: Regular Verbs (-ar). NOTE: There is a separate page for Group 2C: “Shoe” Verbs (-ir), since these verbs show changes that Groups 2A and 2B do not.

MODELS: 2A PENSAR / 2B VOLVER (SHOWN) e > ie o > ue

By placing the present indicative next to the subjunctive, the student can see the "shoe" pattern and how the pattern is carried into the subjunctive but disappears in the past tenses.

Present Tense Indicative Mood

Subjunctive Mood

Singular

Plural

Singular Plural (The “shoe”-pattern stem change carries over.)

vuelvo vuelves vuelve

volvemos volvéis vuelven

vuelva vuelvas vuelva

volvamos volváis vuelvan

Preterit Tense Singular (No stem change in past tenses)

Plural

volví volviste volvió

volvimos volvisteis volvieron

Imperfect Tense Indicative Mood

Subjunctive Mood

Singular

Plural

Singular Plural (Formed from third person plural preterit)

volvía volvías volvía

volvíamos volvíais volvían

volviera volvieras volviera

volviéramos volvierais volvieran

These verbs will generally be regular in future and conditional tenses.

Future Tense: infinitive + -é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án = volveré (I will return), etc. Conditional Tense: infinitive + -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -íais, -ían = volvería (I would return), etc.

5

Compound Tenses Progressive: estar + present participle (stem + -ando/-iendo) = estoy volviendo (I am returning) Present Perfect: present tense of haber + past participle (stem + -ido [volver (irregular) > vuelto]) = he vuelto (I have returned) Indicative Mood

Subjunctive Mood

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

he vuelto has ha

hemos vuelto habéis han

haya vuelto hayas haya

hayamos vuelto hayáis hayan

Pluperfect: imperfect tense of haber + past participle = había vuelto (I had returned) Indicative Mood

Subjunctive Mood

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

había vuelto habías había

habíamos vuelto habíais habían

hubiera vuelto hubieras hubiera

hubiéramos hubierais hubieran

vuelto

Future Perfect: future tense (no subjunctive) of haber + past participle = habré vuelto (I will have returned) Conditional Perfect: conditional tense (no subjunctive) of haber + past participle = habría vuelto (I would have returned) See Group 1 for the conjugations of future perfect and conditional perfect tenses.

6

CONQUERING THE SPANISH VERB SYSTEM: THE YO CONNECTION

Group 2C: "Shoe" Verbs (-ir): e > i, i

e > ie, i

o > ue, u

The verbs in this group follow the same basic “shoe” pattern as the -ar and -er verbs in Groups 2A and 2B. However, the verbs in this group change in ways that the other two groups do not and require a model of their own. Again, it is not necessary to separate the different stem changes, since e will always change to i (or ie for a few verbs), and o will always change to ue. In this group, you will see that the "shoe" pattern appears only in the indicative, but the change in the yo form is carried throughout the subjunctive, unlike Groups 2A and 2B. Also unlike 2A and 2B, there is a stem change in the preterit and in the present participle, as indicated by the second vowel in parentheses (e > i, i). See “Quick Reference” for other common verbs in this group.

MODEL:

PEDIR (e > i, i)

Indicative Mood Singular

Subjunctive Mood

Plural

Singular

Plural

Present Tense *The stem change carries over to all conjugations.

pido pides pide

pedimos pedís piden

pida pidas pida

pidamos pidáis pidan

Although the "shoe” pattern does not carry into the past tenses, observe that with all of these verbs—like verbs in all the groups—the change in the third person preterit carries over to all forms of the imperfect subjunctive. Preterit Tense **The stem changes in the third person of all verbs in this group.

pedí pediste **pidió

pedimos pedisteis ** pidieron

Imperfect Tense ***Always formed from the third person plural preterit pedía pedías pedía

pedíamos pedíais pedían

pidiera pidieras pidiera

pidiéramos pidierais pidieran

These verbs will generally be regular in future and conditional tenses. Future Tense: infinitive + -é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án = pediré (I will request), etc.

XXXX

Conditional Tense: infinitive + -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -íais, -ían = pediría (I would request), etc.

XXXX

7

Compound Tenses Progressive: estar + present participle (stem**** + -iendo) = estoy pidiendo (I am requesting); estaba pidiendo (I was requesting), etc. ****ONLY verbs in this group—and a couple in other groups (e.g., venir and poder)—will show the same stem change in the present participle as in the preterit.

Indicative Mood Singular

Plural

Subjunctive Mood Singular

Plural

Present Perfect: present tense of haber + past participle (stem + -ido) = he pedido (I have requested) he pedido has ha

hemos pedido habéis han

haya pedido hayas haya

hayamos pedido hayáis hayan

Pluperfect: imperfect tense of haber + past participle = había pedido (I had requested) había pedido habías había

habíamos pedido habíais habían

hubiera pedido hubieras hubiera

hubiéramos pedido hubierais hubieran

Future Perfect: future tense (no subjunctive) of haber + past participle = habré pedido (I will have requested) Conditional Perfect: conditional tense (no subjunctive) of haber + past participle = habría pedido (I would have requested)

8

CONQUERING THE SPANISH VERB SYSTEM: THE YO CONNECTION

Group 3: “Yo -go” Verbs The first person present tense of the verbs in this group ends with -go. There are two subgroups that affect ONLY the present tense: -go + “shoe” (verbs have a stem change in the present tense) and -go “alone” (verbs that do not have a stem change). These subgroups do not affect any of the other tenses. The “yo -go” group also includes "yo -zco" verbs like conocer and conducir since the yo form affects the subjunctive formation in the same way. The ucir verbs will have the same irregularities in the preterit tense. Typical verbs in this group are decir, poner, hacer, venir, and any derivatives thereof (e.g., imponer, intervenir, entretener, mantener, reconocer, introducir, etc.). No -ar verbs fall into this group. See “Quick Reference” for other common verbs in this group. MODELS: TENER (e > ie) HACER

Present Tense Indicative Mood

Subjunctive Mood

-go + "shoe"

-go “alone”

(Formed from yo form of present indicative)

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Singular

tengo tienes tiene

tenemos tenéis tienen

hago haces hace

hacemos hacéis hacen

tenga tengamos tengas tengáis tenga tengan

Plural

Singular

Plural

haga hagas haga

hagamos hagáis hagan

Preterit Tense These verbs tend to have irregular i-stems or u-stems but have the same endings, which are slightly different from regular verbs in the first and third person singular. The verb salir, among other verbs like conocer, is regular in this tense. Since the endings are not stressed as they are in the other groups, these verbs do not have written accents. Singular

Plural

tuve tuvimos tuviste tuvisteis tuvo **tuvieron

Singular

Plural

hice hicimos hiciste hicisteis hizo ** hicieron

Imperfect Tense All forms are regular in the indicative imperfect tense.

Indicative Mood

**Always formed from the third person plural preterit

Subjunctive Mood

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

tenía tenías tenía

teníamos teníais tenían

hacía hacías hacía

hacíamos hacíais hacían

tuviera tuvieras tuviera

tuviéramos tuvierais tuvieran

hiciera hicieras hiciera

hiciéramos hicierais hicieran

Future/Conditional Tenses: Since the conditional mirrors the future tense, any changes in the future tense will be applied to the conditional tense. These verbs tend to be slightly irregular with a d-stem or other variation; however, "yo -zco" verbs will be regular in these tenses—e.g., conoceré, conduciré, etc. tener > tendré / tendría, etc. caber > cabré, etc.

poner > pondré / pondría, etc. hacer > haré / haría, etc.

venir > vendré / vendría, etc. decir > diré / diría, etc.

9

Compound Tenses Progressive: Most of the present participles for these verbs are regular (e.g., haciendo, teniendo, conduciendo), except viniendo and diciendo, which have stem changes similar to other irregular -ir verbs. Perfect Aspect: Some past participles for these verbs are irregular, but the patterns are not predictable. hacer > hecho

BUT

tener > tenido

decir > dicho

BUT

venir > venido

10

COMMANDS Since commands are related to the subjunctive (> yo prs. + opposite vowel), most of the forms come directly from the subjunctive (see boxes).

SUBJUNCTIVE ___________________________________________________________________________________ Singular

Plural

Group 1 Regular -ar (comprar)

Regular -er/-ir (comer)

nosotros affirm./neg.

(no) compremos

informal affirm.

compra (> 3rd p. prs. ind.) comprad (> inf. drop -r, + -d)

informal neg.

no compres

no compréis

formal affirm./neg.

(no) compre

(no) compren

nosotros affirm./neg.

(no) comamos

informal affirm.

come (> 3rd p. prs. ind.)

comed (> inf. drop -r, + -d)

informal neg.

no comas

no comáis

formal affirm./neg.

(no) coma

(no) coman

____________________________________________________________________________________ Group 2 a) “Shoe” -ar (pensar) > ie

b) “Shoe” -er (volver) > ue

c) “Shoe” -ir (pedir) > i

nosotros affirm./neg.

(no) pensemos

informal affirm.

piensa (> 3rd p. prs. ind.)

pensad (> inf. drop -r, + -d)

informal neg.

no pienses

no penséis

formal affirm./neg.

(no) piense

(no) piensen

nosotros affirm./neg.

(no) volvamos

informal affirm.

vuelve (> 3rd p prs. ind.)

volved (> inf. drop -r, + -d)

informal neg.

no vuelvas

no volváis

formal affirm./neg.

(no) vuelva

(no) vuelvan

nosotros affirm./neg.

(no) pidamos

informal affirm.

pide (> 3rd p. prs. ind.)

pedid (> inf. drop -r, + -d)

informal neg.

no pidas

no pidáis

formal affirm./neg.

(no) pida

(no) pidan

__________________________________________________________________________________ Group 3 "Yo -go" (tener) irregular

nosotros affirm./neg.

(no) tengamos

informal affirm.

ten (> stem of inf.)

tened (> inf. drop -r,+ -d)

informal neg.

no tengas

no tengáis

formal affirm./neg.

(no) tenga

(no) tengan 11

__________________________________________________________________________________ Group 4 "-O no" (These verbs follow similar patterns but are not predictable; they should be memorized.)

12

REFLEXIVE COMMANDS Since commands are related to the subjunctive, most forms come directly from the subjunctive (see boxes).

SUBJUNCTIVE ___________________________________________________________________________________ Singular

Plural

Group 1 Regular -ar (lavarse)

nosotros affirm./neg.

lavémonos / no nos lavemos

informal affirm.

lávate (> 3rd p. prs. ind.)

lavaos (> inf. drop -r, NO -d)

informal neg.

no te laves

no os lavéis

formal affirm./neg.

lávese / no se lave

lávense / no se laven

Regular -er/-ir

Repeat same pattern.

____________________________________________________________________________________ Group 2 (a) Shoe -ar (acostarse) > ue

nosotros affirm./neg.

acostémonos / no nos acostemos

informal affirm.

acuéstate

acostaos

(> 3rd p. prs. ind.)

(> inf. drop -r, NO -d)

informal neg.

no te acuestes

no os acostéis

formal affirm./neg.

acuéstese

acuéstense

no se acueste

no se acuesten

(b) Shoe -er

Repeat same pattern.

(c) Shoe -ir

Repeat same pattern.

__________________________________________________________________________________ Group 3 "Yo -go" (ponerse)

nosotros affirm./neg.

pongámonos / no nos pongamos

irregular

informal affirm.

ponte (> stem of inf.)

poneos (> inf. drop -r, NO -d

informal neg.

no te pongas

no os pongáis

formal affirm./neg.

póngase

pónganse

no se ponga

no se pongan

__________________________________________________________________________________ Group 4 "-O no" (These verbs follow similar patterns but are not predictable; they should be memorized.) 13

CONQUERING THE SPANISH VERB SYSTEM: THE YO CONNECTION

QUICK REFERENCE: COMMON VERBS BY GROUP Group 1: Regular

Group 2: “Shoe”

Group 3: “Yo -go”

Group 4: “-O no"

-ar

-ar

decir > digo

dar > doy

apagar bailar bañar besar buscar cambiar caminar comprar desear encantar entrar gustar hablar lavar levantar llamar llegar llevar mandar mirar nadar pagar tomar trabajar

acostar almorzar cerrar contar despertar empezar encontrar jugar pensar recomendar recordar sentar

hacer > hago

estar > estoy

deshacer rehacer

haber > he

oír > oigo

ir > voy

poner > pongo

saber > sé

-er entender perder poder (irreg. pret.) querer (irreg. pret.) volver envolver devolver resolver revolver

disponer imponer suponer

ser > soy

salir > salgo tener > tengo detener entretener obtener retener

traer > traigo venir > vengo “Yo -zco” conocer

-er/-ir

-ir

aprender beber comer

divertir dormir morir

abrir asistir escribir prohibir recibir vivir

pedir

reconocer desconocer

conducir introducir reproducir producir traducir

despedir impedir

preferir repetir sentir servir sugerir vestir

14