## Computers History How to build your own?

Computers History How to build your own? Sohaib Ahmad Khan CS101 - Topical Lecture 3131-0808-2007 What is a computer? Input Processing Output 1 ...
Computers History How to build your own?

Sohaib Ahmad Khan CS101 - Topical Lecture 3131-0808-2007

What is a computer?

Input

Processing

Output

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Earliest Computing Aids

Jacquard Loom - A mechanical device that influenced early computer design Intricate textile patterns were prized in France in early 1800s. Jacquard’s loom (1805-6) used punched cards to allow only some rods to bring the thread into the loom on each shuttle pass. http://65.107.211.206/technology/jacquard.html Slide Credit: Prof Slotterbeck, Hiram College

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Sheets of punched cards set the pattern of the weave

http://65.107.211.206/technology/jacquard.html Slide Credit: Prof Slotterbeck, Hiram College

How Can You Make Your Own Computer? Using ‘Buntas’

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The ‘Bunta’ Switch

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Two ‘Bunta’ Switches Input 1 Input 1 Input 2 Output

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Two ‘Bunta’ Switches Input 1 Input 1 Input 2 Output

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Two ‘Bunta’ Switches AND Operation Input 1 Input 1 Input 2 Output

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Other Operations with two switches OR Operation 1st 2nd number number 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1

Result 0 1 1 1

XOR Operation 1st 2nd Result number number 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

How to make your own computer  How

– Because an adder can be used to make a multiplier  To

keep things simple, lets talk BINARY

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Carry

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2nd number

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Input 1 AND Input 2

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Summary  Using

adders, I can make a large computer  I can make adders using switches  The output of one switch should be able to toggle another switch – Because I may want to use lots of switches in a cascade

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The ‘Bunta’ Argument A

computer is just a whole lot of adders put together…  I can make a an adder using ‘buntas’  Therefore, I can make a computer using ‘buntas’

Really Large ‘Bunta’ Computer: The BuntiumTM     

Pentium 4 has about 40 million switches in it Suppose I can make a ‘bunta’ bunta’ switch in a 25 cm2 area Lets put 30% overhead for interinter-connections between switches Then I need 1.3 billion cm2, or 130,000 m2 area… area… Other Ideas: I can also make a computer from water pipes and valves… valves… or light switches… switches… or… or…

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Charles Babbage 





Babbage is known as the father of modern computing because he was the first person to design a general purpose computing device. In 1822, Babbage began to design and build a small working model of an automatic mechanical calculating machine, which he called a "difference engine". Example: It could find the first 30 prime numbers in two and a half minutes.

In the Science Museum, London

Source: http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/online/babbage/page3.asp, Slide Credit: Prof Slotterbeck, Hiram College

The Analytical Engine The machine was to operate automatically, by steam power, and would require only one attendant. source: http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/on-line/babbage/page5.asp Slide Credit: Prof Slotterbeck, Hiram College

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Curta Pocket Calculators  Mechanical

Calculator that can do complex operations  Circa 1960’s  Went out of production with the advent of the electronic calculator

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Advent of Modern Computing  Vacuum

Tubes

 Transistors

ENIAC – (Electrical Numerical Integrator And Calculator), built by Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at Moore School of Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, 19411941-46 Often called the first computer (that was electronic, programmable, general purpose and digital).

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ENIAC  

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18,000 vacuum tubes and weighed 30 tons Duration of an average run without some failure was only a few hours, although it was predicted to not run at all! When it ran, the lights in Philadelphia dimmed! ENIAC Stored a maximum of twenty 1010-digit decimal numbers. Input: IBM card reader Output: Punched cards, lights

ENIAC

Programming required rewiring of the machine, Source: http://ftp.arl.army.mil/ftp/historic-computers/

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Early Microprocessor  Intel

8080, 1975, 4500 transistors

http://www.cs.washington.edu/people/faculty/lazowska/faculty.lecture/chips/8080.html

The Pentium 4, which debuted in 2000, sported 42 million transistors. Dualcore Itaniums have more than a billion. Credit: Intel

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