Committee on Social Affairs, Health and Sustainable Development

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Declassified () AS/Soc (2014) PV 01add 3 April 2014 Asocpv01add_2014

Committee on Social Affairs, Health and Sustainable Development

Minutes Joint meeting of the PACE Network of Contact Parliamentarians to stop sexual violence against children and the Parliamentary Network "Women Free from Violence", on "Sexual exploitation of girls", held in Strasbourg on Wednesday, 29 January 2014

"The sexual exploitation of girls is one of the most horrendous crimes in our developed countries - but it exists and we have an important role to play to fight this scourge", said Ms Stella Kyriakides, PACE General Rapporteur on Children, at the joint meeting of the two PACE networks on 29 January 2014. She also underlined the importance of really spreading the word anywhere in national Parliaments to effect change. Finally she concluded by saying that “No matter how many times we see stories and watch films about girls and women trafficking, it always has such a huge impact. At the beginning of the film, there was a phrase saying that “Dreams do not always come true” but what we can do here is to prevent nightmares from happening or find a way to end them.” PACE General Rapporteur on Violence against women, Mr José Mendes Bota, added: "I have been working for several months now on a report on prostitution, trafficking and modern slavery in Europe. It is of utmost importance for us as parliamentarians to ensure that this issue is put high on the political agenda in our respective countries." The parliamentarians heard moving testimony from Ms Livia Anonisanu, director of a Romanian NGO, and from Ms Roshan Heiler, director of the SOLWODI counselling centre in Aachen, Germany, and were updated by Deputy Secretary General Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni on action being taken by the Council of Europe to fight this scourge. Opening of the meeting by the General Rapporteur on Children, Ms Stella Kyriakides “Dear Members of the two networks of parliamentarians involved in the fight against sexual violence against children and violence against women, Dear Colleagues, Dear Participants, It is a great honor and a pleasure for me as a General Rapporteur on Children of the PACE to co-chair this meeting with the General Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Mr Mendes Bota. 

Draft minutes approved and declassified by the Committee on Social Affairs, Health and Sustainable Development at its meeting on 8 April 2014 in Strasbourg. F – 67075 Strasbourg Cedex | e-mail: [email protected] | Tel: + 33 3 88 41 2000 | Fax: +33 3 88 41 27 33

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I would like to thank the Deputy Secretary General for being with us this afternoon and would like to thank our invited experts, Madam Heiler and Madam Anonisanu for being here with us. I would like to thank you all for joining in this joint meeting of the two networks of the PACE. As contact Parliamentarians, we all know that we are all strongly involved in our respective countries. I know that the objectives of the two networks are not an easy task for politicians but I rely, as General Rapporteur, on your determination to defend the Human Rights of children and women and especially of the vulnerable group of girls. The issue we are dealing with today, the sexual exploitation of girls, is one of the most horrendous crimes in our developed countries, but it exists and we have a role to play to fight this scourge. I would like to pay a particular tribute to my colleague Mr Mendes Bota, the General Rapporteur on Violence against Women, who has been very involved in combatting violence against women since the first day he came to this Assembly. I would like to underline his commitment to the preparation of his upcoming report on prostitution, human trafficking in Europe linked to our subject today. We all hope that this report will, as we hope will others, serve our actions in our Member States. Before giving the floor to Mr Mendes Bota, I would like to say a few words on the Network to stop sexual violence against children. The Network is a great success with 51 members to date. I take this opportunity to welcome three new members: Ms Hetto-Gaasch, Ms Maury Pasquier and Mr Gülpinar, respectively contact Parliamentarians for Luxembourg, Switzerland and Turkey. I also invite you to see the list of activities of the Network in the new printed compendium of activities of its members at national level. May I finally underline that all of the Council of Europe Member States, except the Czech Republic, have signed the Convention and 29 Member States have ratified it, that is more than half of the Member States. So thank you once again, Mr Mendes Bota for co-chairing this meeting with me.” Opening speech by the General Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Mr José Mendes Bota “It is a great pleasure to be co-chairing in total parity, a man and a woman, that is the way it should be in all meetings. Ms Deputy Secretary General, you are always present with us so it is always a big pleasure to count on your support. I would like to welcome of course all the Members who are here and my dear colleague from the Network on Children, Ms Kyriakides. When we developed the big campaign against domestic violence in 2006-2008, the PACE Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men created the informal structure of the Network of contact parliamentarians. I came to the Social Affairs Committee at the time and explained how it was working. It was a success! During the two years of that campaign, our Members organised more than 200 events. It is the example of that campaign of the Network that, now the Istanbul Convention has been adopted, we reactivate in order to promote its ratification and raise awareness on violence against women. At the same time it is a big pleasure to see that our example was replicated with great professionalism but also with great emotion and dedication by our colleagues from the Committee on Social Affairs, Health and Sustainable Development. I think this is a good example of good practices that the parliamentarians are following, not only in our Assembly but everywhere in different fields. The issue we are dealing with today, sexual exploitation of girls, is very close to my heart. As it was rightly said, as a member of the Committee on Equality and Non-Discrimination, I have been working for several months, more than one year, on a report on prostitution, trafficking and modern slavery in Europe. This report gave me the opportunity to conduct fact-finding missions in Sweden, Germany, 2

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Switzerland, the Netherlands. I realised, if that was needed, the dramatic situation experienced by victims of trafficking, including many children. It is of the utmost importance to us, as parliamentarians, to ensure that this issue is put as high as possible on the political agenda in our countries. I would also like to give you some news about the Network “Women free from Violence”. The last 25 November, Ana Birchall organised a regional conference about the Istanbul Convention in Bucharest with the participation of parliamentarians from Romania, Hungary, Republic of Moldova and Serbia. I strongly support and encourage all the colleagues to take such initiatives to raise awareness about the Istanbul Convention. We already have 9 ratifications; Andorra ratified just a few days ago. We are expecting Spain to be the next to ratify, then we will achieve ten ratifications and finally, the Convention will come into force. All the countries in which our colleagues conferences and seminars on the Istanbul Convention later on signed it or ratified it. So I am encouraging members, whose countries have not yet proceeded to the ratification of the Convention to take initiatives and organise seminars. We will support you, we will go there and we will see the results. This is how we should work. Finally, the next meeting of the Network “Women free from Violence” will take place in Vienna in March 2014”. Update on the Council of Europe ONE in FIVE Campaign and on the promotion of the Istanbul Convention by Ms Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni, Deputy Secretary General of the Council of Europe “Dear parliamentarians, Sexual exploitation of girls is a reality that affects all social groups and every country in the world. Starting 15 years ago the Council of Europe has been able to raise awareness of this grave violation of human rights and take decisive action to fight it from three different angles, and through three groundbreaking conventions: - The Lanzarote Convention: focusing on sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children; - The Istanbul Convention: focusing essentially on violence against women and girls; - The Trafficking Convention: focusing on trafficking in human beings. Together these three conventions help to protect and prevent sexual exploitation against girls in a systematic and complimentary manner and provide a robust safety-net. The Lanzarote Convention aims to eradicate all sexual exploitation and abuse of children. The Convention defines sexual exploitation of children as a criminal offence. It provides for effective, proportionate and dissuasive sanctions against prostitution, pornography, grooming and sex-tourism and also covers sexual abuse. Additional forms of sexual exploitation such as trafficking of children for sexual exploitation and forced marriage are covered by the Anti-Trafficking and Istanbul Conventions. State authorities, civil society and the private sector need to join forces to prevent sexual exploitation and sexual abuse, to protect the victims and to end impunity. In this respect the Lanzarote Convention insists on both national and international co-operation. The Convention also includes a monitoring mechanism, which we refer to as the Lanzarote Committee. This Committee has a double role. As a monitoring body it assesses the situation in the countries to identify challenges or obstacles to the effective implementation of the Convention. But it also effectively functions as an observatory of good practices and allows capacity-building. The Lanzarote Convention covers all children without any particular focus on girls or boys, but the Committee has requested the Parties to specify how measures for victims and offenders take into account gender-specific requirements. The results of this monitoring work will therefore serve to cast 3

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some light on the measures needed to prevent girls from becoming victims of sexual exploitation and abuse. The ONE in FIVE Campaign aims to promote the Lanzarote Convention and has proven an exceptional tool to challenge social tolerance of violence against children. Hundreds of initiatives have been taken in Parliaments, by governments, local authorities and cities; in the media, schools and family centres; by prominent politicians, journalists, human rights advocates, ombudspersons, NGOs, film directors, actors and singers. 20 member States are currently carrying out national campaigns and nine more States are in the planning process. Campaign materials are available in 26 languages and the TV spot "Kiko and the Hand" exists in 36 languages. I also very much look forward to the results of the Conference “Growing with children’s rights” on the implementation of the Council of Europe Strategy for the Rights of the Child 2012-2015, which will take place in Dubrovnik in March 2014. One of the Roundtable sessions will be specifically devoted to raising awareness of sexual exploitation of girls and young women. Ladies and Gentlemen, To date, 32 Council of Europe member States have signed the Istanbul Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence. Nine of these States - Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Montenegro, Portugal, Serbia, Turkey and Andorra - have also ratified it. The Convention will enter into force with 10 ratifications and we still need one more for this to happen. I am aware that several countries are working very actively towards this goal. The Austrian Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers has made entry into force of the Convention one of its priorities and I hope it will be possible to mark the entry into force of the Convention during the Ministerial Session in Vienna in May. This occasion would also mark the three-year anniversary for its opening for signature in Istanbul. I cannot stress enough the important role that parliamentarians can play in ensuring the ratification of the Istanbul Convention and its implementation. I would like to thank you all for your continued efforts to keep the Convention high on the political agendas of your governments. I am sure I can count on your Network and the unwavering support and leadership of the General Rapporteur Mr Mendes Bota to continue to be engaged in promoting the Istanbul Convention so that the two ratifications that will trigger the entry into force of this ground-breaking treaty are obtained without delay. Dear friends, Let me conclude by emphasising the importance also of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings in combating sexual exploitation of girls. This is a comprehensive treaty which applies to all victims of trafficking: children, women and men alike. A child-sensitive approach is reflected throughout the Convention, and in addition to the rights which apply to all victims of trafficking, children benefit from special rights, including the right to a legal guardian, education and assistance and a risk and security assessment before repatriation in the child's best interest. The Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA) evaluates the implementation of the Convention by the Parties and pays particular attention to the identification, assistance and protection measures for child victims of human trafficking. I look forward to the exchange of views with the expert speakers and I am sure that this event, the examples and good practices will contribute towards our ultimate goal: the protection of girls from violence and sexual exploitation in Europe and beyond! Thank you.” 4

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Hearing Presentation by Ms Livia Aninosanu, Programme Director of the NGO “Center for Partnership and Equality”, Romania The Center for Partnership and Equality is a NGO which has been integrating the principle of equal opportunities for women and men in economic, political and social fields and promoting gender equality. The organisation is very involved in the fighting of sexual exploitation of women and girls. Before her presentation, Ms Aninosanu shared an extract of a documentary on sexual exploitation of women and girls. “It is very important for me to show this movie which was produced in a bilateral project on trafficking for sexual exploitation between Romania and Italy, funded by the Social European Funding Romania”. The research project “Not only did we produce the movie during this project, but we also carried out research that sought to understand the main factors and vulnerabilities behind the phenomenon of trafficking in girls, who are becoming increasing young and numerous, as both the official and the NGOs’ statistics show in the case of Romania. We were particularly interested in this research as it was based on interviews performed with specialists who worked directly with girls and young women who are victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation in Romania and Italy. We performed around 100 interviews - 45 in Romania and 55 in Italy - with specialists who worked directly with victims of trafficking, and 26 interviews with the girls and young women who were subjected to trafficking for sexual exploitation. Therefore, the research results put into perspective the situation in the origin country (Romania) as well as in the destination country (Italy). The main idea of the project was to help respond to questions that would arise in the many meetings we have with professionals working on the issue of trafficking for sexual exploitation in destination countries. Such questions as, Who are these girls forced to provide sexual services and that we encounter in our streets or indoors? and What are their life story and background? It was also thought that this research could be a helpful tool in seeking to further implement national prevention campaigns. An increasing number of young victims Both official and NGOs’ statistics show that year upon year the number of girls who are subjected to trafficking for sexual exploitation, and who are sexually exploited, has increased. The latest statistics from the national agency against trafficking in persons show that for the period between 2012 and 2013, a higher percentage of girls (55%) than young women and women (45%) were trafficked and sexually exploited. This was reflected in our research. The professionals interviewing the girls and women have seen the number of girls increasing at a constant level. They have also observed a direct correlation between the age of the victims and the income that these girls produce for the traffickers. There appears to be increasing demand from clients for girls to be younger and younger. The agency’s statistics show one of the victims to have been as young as 7-9 years old and many girls who were exploited were shown to have been around 11 or 12 when they were recruited or started to be exploited. The main vulnerability age category is from 14 to 17 years old. A gender-related issue Another important factor that arose from the responses to the questions Who are these girls that end up being sexually exploited? was gender-related. The research shows that due to large number of issues relating to girls’ socialisation, gender is a very significant vulnerability for girls who are sexually exploited. 5

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Our research shows that many of the girls who were sexually exploited came from families that were somehow dysfunctional, from being physically abusive to almost constantly having very strongly abusive and gender-differentiated roles in the family (the husband or the father of the family holding the power and the women being submissive figures). In the majority of cases, these girls came from violent families where they did not receive the emotional and physical care they needed in order to grow up with self-esteem and the understanding of the importance of boundaries in relationships. As a result the kind of violence they had experienced in their family that had become the norm, then repeated itself in their relationship with the recruiter and the trafficker/exploiter. The research also revealed that in many cases, the “lover-boy” recruitment method was very efficient because the recruiters purported to be very emotional intelligent people. They would seduce the girls into believing that they would provide them with the care and the life free from violence that these girls had not experienced before in their families. In many of the interviews, the victims of trafficking mentioned that it was very apparent that the “loverboy” had put on his face mask of the mother or father figure; somebody who fed the victims’ emotional hunger and needs which had never been met before by the family. Sexual violence – a key factor In many stories, sexual violence was a significant factor in the girls’ vulnerability. Many of the girls had been sexually harassed or sexually abused from a very young age. Not only did they suffer from sexual abuse but, in many of the cases, unfortunately, the lack of response from the family, the community or the society played an important role. From many of the interviews with family members, it became apparent that in small communities, the best way of dealing with a daughter who had been sexually exploited was often to take steps to ensure that the rest of the community did not find out about the situation. For this reason, the communities and the families were very weak in responding to the early rape of these girls. Through this lack of response, these girls also learnt to believe that this kind of violence and the submissive attitude of women were normal and what was expected from them. The lack of sexual education and the image of women in society In our prevention campaign, we targeted the age group from 12 to 14, trying to tackle all the types of vulnerabilities present. We discovered that another important factor was the lack of sexual education. This would lead girls having no referable boundaries in order to be able to recognise, understand and then oppose their sexual abuse. The prevalence of the sexualisation of girls in society and the portrayal of girls and women in the media were also very significant factors that would make girls very vulnerable. As seen above, working in the field of trafficking and sexual exploitation of girls means addressing a lot of gender-based issues which are often overlooked.”

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Presentation by Ms Roshan Heiler, Director of the SOLWODI Counselling Centre, Germany SOLWODI (Solidarity with Women in Distress) is a charitable organisation created in October 1985 in Mombasa, Kenya. Since 1987 SOLWODI has been active in Germany where it now runs 15 counselling centres, 1 reception centre and 7 shelters for foreign women and girls who are victims of human trafficking, forced prostitution, domestic violence or forced marriages. The sexual exploitation of girls in Germany A personal view “My name is Roshan Heiler, and for the past three years I have been running the SOLWODI counselling centre in Aachen for victims of human trafficking. SOLWODI stands for Solidarity with Women in Distress, and for over 25 years it has been supporting women and girls who have fallen victim to the trafficking of human beings in Germany. We have seven shelters and fifteen counselling centres in Germany. We also have ten counselling centres in Kenya, running prevention projects, and also one counselling centre each in Rwanda, Romania and Austria. I am here today to talk about my experience with young women in the context of the trafficking of human beings for sexual exploitation. I should like to base what I have to say on my work in the streets of the city of Aachen. The city has a population of approximately 250,000 and lies just a few minutes’ drive from Germany’s borders with the Netherlands and Belgium. Across those borders, Aachen is famous not just for its wonderful cathedral and the legacy of Charlemagne, but also for having a street full of brothels right in the heart of the city, where some 200 women work in thirty brothels at all hours of the day and night. Antoniusstrasse is a street named after the patron saint of prostitutes, Saint Anthony, and it is famous as the place to find mainly young women, between the ages of 19 and 25, meaning that there is always “fresh meat”. This is reflected in the chats and on-line forums on the subject of the street amongst customers, who cross to the city in carloads at the weekend to make use of the women’s services, not infrequently while heavily under the influence of alcohol and drugs. How do we identify victims of human trafficking? One of the aspects on which SOLWODI concentrates is street work in the red light district. The aim is to identify victims of human trafficking and offer them protection. - street visit once a week; - each woman spoken to individually, with five different languages available; - each given a card in her own language bearing our telephone number and explaining the help we offer. The situation of women: - many speak no German; - they do not know Germany; - many come from Albania (so are illegally present in Germany), Romania (legal) or Nigeria. Procurers and their accomplices make sure that the women do not sit down, have no breaks, spend no money - constant mobile phone checks - and procurers constantly move them from one city to another. Sometimes the young men run after us in order to hear what we are saying to the women. The procurers want to prevent the women from having any contact with us or with other women, since their situation of exploitation could become known to those others.

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Figures Although I do not like to quote figures, as I believe they only reflect one element of the actual situation, I should still like to show you the Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (Federal Office of Criminal Investigation) figures for the girls concerned, although that office itself assumes that the actual numbers are higher, as do we. These figures are merely a selection representing the three largest groups. BKA national statistics for 2012 include: Country

Girls under 14

Girls under 17

Germany

4

31

Bulgaria

1

11

Romania

2

6

TOTAL

12

88

Source: Bundeslagebild Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), page 8 These figures have been roughly the same for the past three years. As you can see, German women are the largest group. I should like to refer now to the cases of two girls, a Romanian and a German, to show you where the problems of identification and intervention lie. One of the girls was from Romania, just 15 years old. She was picked up during a raid. The police questioned her then brought her to us. She was very disturbed and wanted no contact with her mother. Her father had died of cancer. As her mother and grandparents had been unable to cope with her, she had been placed in a children's home. A much older friend of her father's had visited her, given her presents, built up her self-esteem. She had fallen in love with him, and he had promised her a new life in Germany. She had left school, and he brought her to Germany with a passport in which her age was given as 19. Once in Germany, he suddenly said that he had no money left. If she loved him, she could work as a prostitute for a short while, until he had found another way. At first she hesitated, but then she agreed, as it was only for a short time. He took her to brothels in Frankfurt, Cologne and Aachen. She always gave him the money, which he lost at a gambling den. When she wanted to stop, he threatened to post nude photographs of her on the Internet. After a raid, she dared to confide in a police officer. She had already experienced two previous police operations. The police brought her to SOLWODI. She was extremely disturbed, had no regular sleep pattern, was afraid of going to sleep. Despite her fears, she decided to give evidence against the offender. She has benefited from German lessons and therapy, but it will still be a long time before she trusts people again. - the girl had no family link with her home country; - she was emotionally dependent on the offender, who exploited that dependence; - she had a genuine passport containing false information. Now I come to the case of a young German who turned to us and is now 25 years old. She was forced into prostitution in a flat. Her case shows the psychological consequences that prostitution may have. She had grown up with her mother, never meeting her father. When she reached puberty, she suffered from low self-esteem, had few friends, and had problems with her mother and her mother's new partner. She met a 20-year-old man on the Internet, then met him in person. He liked to be accompanied by another man, and they "ordered" men from the Internet, who came to the flat. She did not like what she was doing, but did it for fear that he would leave her if she did not do what he wanted. The man then had the idea of charging men for their visits. When she was 18, he took her to a brothel in the morning and to a club at night, so that she could choose where she preferred to work. All contracts were in her name, the telephone, Internet, car and flat were supposed to be hers. During the week she still went to 8

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school, but at weekends she was in the brothel. After 2 ½ years, she suffered a nervous breakdown, needed psychiatric treatment, and managed to get away from him by paying him. Now she is heavily in debt, with 13 mobile phone contracts, as she is in the habit of signing contracts to get expensive phones, so that she can then sell them; she constantly lapses into prostitution. She wanted to get out of her situation so went to the employment office, where she was told that it would be difficult to place her because of her past. - she has passed the "Abitur" school-leaving examination and is highly intelligent, but has not had any job training; - a customer threatened to tell her mother everything, so she told her herself, and now her mother wants nothing more to do with her. Parallels between these two cases: - at the time when they became prostitutes, both women were in a situation of strong emotional dependence on the offender, who took advantage; - both women were in difficult family situations, rejected once their mothers had found out the truth. This is not a new phenomenon, however, and it is one often described as the "lover boy method". In the case of the German girl, the teachers did not notice anything, or did not do anything, possibly because they could not recognise the signs. The "lover boy method" is very widespread, regarded by procurers as lucrative. Girls are found via the Internet, at discos or through their friends. The target group is unstable girls in difficult family situations. Difficulties In terms of intervention: There is not much that can be done while the girl is "in love", and we advise parents to stay in contact with their daughters and not to say too much against their boyfriends, as this might result in girls leaving home. A good time at which to intervene is the moment when girls first realise that their relationship with their boyfriend is not "true love", when he becomes violent, and when other women are involved. Offenders undermine girls' confidence, telling them for example that "Nobody wants you any more", "You are just filth", or "I’ll find you wherever you may go". It emerges from discussions with other counselling centres and with women from the world of prostitution that girls and very young women are in particular demand. One of the reasons for this is that customers want them to engage in unprotected sex, without condoms, on the assumption that there is less risk of sexually transmitted diseases from younger women. Prevention We play a preventive role in schools, raising awareness among pupils, but among parents and teachers as well. And we use social media. We constantly exchange with NGOs across the border in Belgium and the Netherlands, discussing new trends. Where policing is concerned, Nebedeag-Pol has been set up, holding regular meetings, and there has even, since 2013, been a monthly meeting of prosecutors from the three countries, with working groups discussing specific subjects. Our demands German legislation is amongst the most liberal on the subject of prostitution. Procurers hardly need to fear official obstacles, and young women can be forced into prostitution working under false identities in brothels; they need no health insurance, nowhere are they registered, and brothel operators often close both eyes. 9

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- There should at least be information available in brothels about ways of obtaining assistance, so that even customers could, if applicable, if they have no confidence in the police, turn to the agencies that can help. We in Aachen are currently working on an information leaflet. There are no such leaflets covering the country as a whole. - A greater effort should be made to raise awareness amongst the public, authorities and agencies that there are German victims of human trafficking as well. - There should be recognition in the criminal law of emotional dependency as a means of coercion, particularly where German victims are concerned. - There should be training for judges. - There should be more research and knowledge about the demand aspect, which is ultimately the reason why child trafficking occurs. - There should be more research into emotional dependency and the means whereby assistance organisations, parents, the police and agencies can intervene, with research findings being disseminated to the appropriate places. - Support should be available to people who have been victims of human trafficking in the past but did not go to court and are now suffering from long-term consequences. - The subject of human trafficking should be covered on every school syllabus.” Questions and answers Q: In relation to the increase of the percentage of girls and young women trapped in prostitution, you might actually want to look at the one main cause I noticed in recent years. The girls are often, in the majority of cases, being lied to and given the promise of good jobs somewhere else. In many cases, they are offered a legal contract back home but when they arrive at the country of destination, they discover that that contract never existed or is invalid and they are forced into those kind of activities they cannot get away from easily. Have you looked at this one serious cause in your studies and how to address these issues in a more tangible and pragmatic way? A (Ms Anonisanu): In our research we found three models of recruitment patterns, one being that one mentioned by you. The most common for girls was related to the lover-boy strategy but we also identified the strategy where someone is presented with a very good job, which promises to solve not only the girl’s problems but also the problems of the family. The third recruitment pattern identified was the situation in which the woman belonging to a long-term relationship like a marriage or long-term partnership is sent to prostitution by her own husband or partner. In all three cases, more and more the recruiter is a person of trust, a close person to the victim, a person who knows very well the difficulties that the girl or young woman is facing and provides her with the exact solution she needs. For instance “I hear your mother is very sick and that you need money for the treatment. Here is a wonderful job in Germany, Italy or Spain, for which you will earn a lot of money”. This happens many times, the recruiters know who they approach, and they target who they approach. A (Ms Heiler): In the three years I have worked in this field, I have never come across a case where a woman came to Germany with a contract. I have most seen the lover-boy method, where clearly the other one was a person they knew very well. 10

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A (Mr Mendes Bota): Today we heard the testimony of Camilia on a video display but in this same room, some months ago, we heard the testimony of two persons who were here with us, Iva and Mary. The stories are similar and in the end, it comes to the same type of slavery. At the beginning, the most important reason why these people are caught is to do with poverty and economic problems at home, in the family. In Germany, research shows that 80% of the prostitutes enter Germany voluntarily because they believe they have a contract, follow a lover-boy, or are pushed by their families. The problem is that once they have entered the system, they are caught and they cannot get out of it anymore and be free again, they are slaves. Ms Kyriakides mentioned that “Not all dreams come true” but to summarize the situation of sexual exploitation of these girls, I would also say “Wrong trust in bad people”. The lover-boy method is a new method of recruitment but it is not only to recruit people from abroad, it also recruits girls and women within one country. I have been in The Netherlands and have been in contact with this reality. Dutch girls are recruited by lover-boys who have special technics to give them illusions. They make promises and the girls fall in love with them. Q: If I understand correctly, the underlying issue stems from the family. These young girls have lived in violent families in which they may have experienced sexual abuse, and they therefore suffer from a lack of love and self-esteem. If we want to work on the deep root of the problem, should we not better assist these families, and better inform them to prevent girls from following the same path as those in the cases we have just heard? A (Ms Anonisanu): That kind of family intervention is very important. This is why now as part of our prevention strategy we work in small communities, in villages, dividing our time between the children up to 14 and the adults of the community. While working with children, we look at who they can trust in the community and what the pattern of the community when solving children and community issues is. We also look at the children’ needs and their sense of security inside that community and present these messages to the community. In my opinion it is not only a family matter. The social response is very important too because as long as we treat sexual violence against women and children as a marginal or normal issue, the situation will not improve. Girls will continue growing up with the message that their experience is not relevant, that the perpetrator benefits from impunity and that this kind of sexually-related crimes are not important issues in society and as such are not worth of punishment. In the case of many victims of trafficking, especially the ones who fall for the lie of a promised job or a prefect relationship with a man, the man was somehow sold to them by the society as a means to success. In many of these cases, the deep-rooted problem is the fact that we do not pay enough attention to these problems or consider them as real problems. This is why it is so important for us NGOs to have the Convention ratified and, together with the work in the family and in the society, to be able to work around these issues and to promote them much better. A (Ms Heiler): We do a lot of prevention in schools. We speak with the children because we think that they have to be educated on this topic, but also that they will build a very strong network in case a girl in the class is becoming or is potentially a victim of a lover-boy. The children are the ones who bring the information to their parents and this way they educate their parents. We also meet with teachers and parents. The German case I described in my presentation shows very much that teachers have a role to play. This girl was going to school and working as a prostitute at weekends. Somehow, this should have changed her behaviour and if the teachers could have read the signs, there may have been an opportunity to intervene. A (Mr Mendes Bota): There is something wrong in the families. There is a lack of love, communication and solidarity. Internet is not allowing this dialogue. Nowadays, at home in the families, even the young children are in their own room behind closed doors, closed minds. Each one dialogues on 11

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the internet via the social media with everybody but not with the mother or the father who is next door. So this is a problem of our society. There is no understanding because there is no place for dialogue, and if there is no place for dialogue, there is no place for understanding and for love. This is a very complex situation. Q: The question of violence in families and how to deal with them is difficult to manage by both the police and the authorities. However, the question of the role of the police in the cases where a young girl disappears for months and nobody knows anything about her is to be questioned. These cases should be the number one priority in order to solve the case and find these girls. For instance, I have a case in my constituency in Hungary where a young girl disappeared in Austria last September and nobody, including the police or embassy, knows anything about her. How is this possible? These cases cannot be left to be managed as any other cases and should have priority like the cases of crimes against human lives. It is unacceptable not to find the guilty. A (Ms Anonisanu): Our prevention strategy includes in the community workshops, not only the parents of the children but also the main important figures of the community such as the police, the school, the kindergarten, the mayor, the social assistant, the doctor, everybody who could potentially play a role in making the community more resilient and could strengthen the protection they provide to children. As I was saying in my presentation, unfortunately they are cases where the successful way to deal with trafficking and sexual exploitation of girls at the family level is perceived as the ability to hide the situation of trafficking from everybody. Indeed, they know that when a child, a girl or a young woman was subjected to trafficking and comes back home as a victim of trafficking, the chances of exclusion from the local community are very high. A (Ms Heiler): According to my experience, the issue of trafficking is not a political priority in Germany so the police always says that they do not have enough resources and does not focus on trafficking cases. A (Mr Mendes Bota): In relation to the police, the authorities and the resources, I make it clear in my report, that we do not have statistics and research. We cannot compare what is going on in each country because in some countries, there is no regulation whereas in others every canton has its own regulation. Some countries have prohibition areas where prostitution is not allowed, others have designated areas for prostitution. How can we compare these different situations? It is not comparable. We do not have figures and for my report, obtaining figures was a big issue. For instance, what is the impact of the prostitution policy in Sweden on Human being trafficking? We have an approach of the reality but we do not have figures. Of course Interpol knows that some countries where measures have been taken are now less attractive for traffickers but it is only an approach of the reality. In Germany, everything is legal or guided by one’s own will and the police is no longer authorised to go to the brothels. It is a total failure. When looking at the legislation approved more than ten years ago in Germany, all the goals of this legislation have been missed. It was supposed to better protect the prostitutes, they are now less protected than before the law. It was supposed to fight against criminal organisations, nowadays 95% of prostitution is controlled by organised crime. It was supposed to open this economy to investigations and controls, the police is now prohibited from going to brothels. Before the law, prostitutes were subject to health controls, benefited from medical assistance, now nobody knows what is going on. The situation is ridiculous! The flat rates are huge brothels where men pay 60 or 70 Euros and can have all the flesh they want, they can have everything, including drinks. Nobody controls this so we must do something, this is outrageous! Everybody says that the law has to change, so let’s change it! Let’s, first of all, have the resources to know the phenomenon, we need to have research and figures. We need to have resources, even in Sweden where there is the Swedish model which I have sympathy for.

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However, we have to underline that every country has its reality and a different approach. What in some countries is seen as equality between men and women is seen as sexual or individual freedom in others. We have to respect the fact that every country has a different historical background and years and years of stereotypes. This has to change gradually. It is not possible that the European Union or the Council of Europe makes a general law prescribing a certain way to deal with prostitution. Even in the countries which have legalised prostitution, some measures can be taken, for instance, not to allow any legal prostitutes under the age of 21, as in The Netherlands. Finally, it is interesting to note that in Europe, the countries where prostitution is completely prohibited are also the countries where organised crime benefits most from prostitution. This shows that legislation without political will to implement has no value.

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Committee on Social, Health and Sustainable Development Commission des questions sociales, de la santé et du développement durable

List of presence Strasbourg, 29 January 2014 16th meeting of the Network of Contact Parliamentarians to stop sexual violence against children and meeting of the Parliamentary Network "Women Free from Violence" Theme: "Sexual exploitation of girls"

Chairperson / Président : Mr Valeriu GHILETCHI

Republic of Moldova / République de Moldova

Members / Membres

Alternates / Remplaçant(e)s

Mr Petrit VASILI

Albania / Albanie

Ms Monika KRYEMADHI

Ms Sílvia Eloïsa BONET PEROT

Andorra / Andorre

M. Gerard BARCIA DUEDRA

Mr Vahe HOVHANNISYAN

Armenia / Arménie

Ms Naira KARAPETYAN

Mr Franz Leonhard EßL

Austria / Autriche

Ms Angelika WINZIG

Mr Stefan SCHENNACH

Austria / Autriche

Mr Andreas SCHIEDER

Ms Sevinj FATALIYEVA

Azerbaijan / Azerbaïdjan

Mr Aydin ABBASOV

Mr Rovshan RZAYEV

Azerbaijan / Azerbaïdjan

Mr Fazil MUSTAFA

M Philippe BLANCHART

Belgium / Belgique

M. Roel DESEYN

Ms Cindy FRANSSEN

Belgium / Belgique

Mr Patrick De GROOTE

Mme Milica MARKOVIĆ

Bosnia and Herzegovina / BosnieHerzégovine

Ms Borjana KRIŠTO

Mr Desislav CHUKOLOV

Bulgaria / Bulgarie

ZZ...

Ms Siyana FUDULOVA

Bulgaria / Bulgarie

Mr Tuncher KARDZHALIEV

Mr Igor KOLMAN

Croatia / Croatie

Mr Ivan RAČAN

Ms Stella KYRIAKIDES

Cyprus / Chypre

Ms Athina KYRIAKIDOU

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Mme Daniela FILIPIOVÁ

Czech Republic / République tchèque

Ms Gabriela PECKOVÁ

Mr Pavel HOLÍK

Czech Republic / République tchèque

Mr Pavel LEBEDA

Ms Sophie LØHDE

Denmark / Danemark

Mr Martin HENRIKSEN

Mr Margus HANSON

Estonia / Estonie

Ms Ester TUIKSOO

Mr Jouko SKINNARI

Finland / Finlande

Ms Sirkka-Liisa ANTTILA

Mme Maryvonne BLONDIN

France

M. Gérard BAPT

M. Jean-Claude FRÉCON

France

M. Christophe LÉONARD

M. Denis JACQUAT

France

M. André REICHARDT

Mme Danielle AUROI

France

Mme Paola ZANETTI

Ms Guguli MAGRADZE

Georgia / Géorgie

ZZ…

Ms Doris BARNETT

Germany / Allemagne

Ms Elvira DROBINSKI-WEIß

Ms Sybille BENNING

Germany / Allemagne

Mr Tobias ZECH

Ms Herlind GUNDELACH

Germany / Allemagne

Mr Axel E.FISCHER

Mr Andrej HUNKO

Germany / Allemagne

Ms Annalena BAERBOCK

Mr Dimitrios PAPADIMOULIS

Greece / Grèce

Ms Eleni RAPTI

Mr Konstantinos TRIANTAFYLLOS

Greece / Grèce

Mr Ioannis DRAGASAKIS

Mr Márton BRAUN

Hungary / Hongrie

Mr Ferenc KALMÁR

Mr Gábor HARANGOZÓ

Hungary / Hongrie

Mr László KOSZORÚS

Mr Ögmundur JÓNASSON

Iceland / Islande

Ms Oddný HARÐARDÓTTIR

Mr Joseph O’REILLY

Ireland / Irlande

Mr Jim D’Arcy

Mr Alessandro BRATTI

Italy / Italie

Ms Eleonora CIMBRO

Ms Anna Maria BERNINI

Italy / Italie

Mr Francesco Maria AMORUSO

Ms Nunzia CATALFO

Italy / Italie

Ms Cristina DE PIETRO

Ms Laura PUPPATO

Italy / Italie

Ms Lia QUARTAPELLE PROCOPIO

M. Andris BĒRZINŠ

Latvia / Lettonie

Ms Lolita ČIGĀNE

Mr Gerold BÜCHEL

Liechtenstein

Mr Rainer GOPP

Mr Arturas SKARDŽIUS

Lithuania / Lituanie

Ms Dangutė MIKUTIENĖ

M. Marcel OBERWEIS

Luxembourg

M. Marc SPAUTZ

Mr Deo DEBATTISTA

Malta / Malte

Mr Charlò BONNICI

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Ms Liliana PALIHOVICI

Republic of Moldova / République de Moldova

Mr Valeriu GHILETCHI

M. Jean-Charles ALLAVENA

Monaco

M. Christian BARILARO

Mr Predrag SEKULIĆ

Montenegro / Monténégro

Mr Zoran VUKČEVIČ

Mr Joris BACKER

Netherlands / Pays-Bas

Mr Fred de GRAAF

Mr Tuur ELZINGA

Netherlands / Pays-Bas

Mme Khadija ARIB

Ms Ingebjørg GODSKESEN

Norway / Norvège

Mr Odd OMLAND

Mr Łukasz ZBONIKOWSKI

Poland / Pologne

Mr Henryk CIOCH

Ms Iwona GUZOWSKA

Poland / Pologne

Mr Zbigniew GIRZYŃSKI

Ms Mirosława NYKIEL

Poland / Pologne

Mr Maciej ORZECHOWSKI

Mr José MENDES BOTA

Portugal

ZZ...

Ms Maria de Belém ROSEIRA

Portugal

ZZ...

Mr Ionuţ-Marian STROE

Romania / Roumanie

Mr Ioan GHISE

Mr Marian NEACŞU

Romania / Roumanie

Mr Florin Costin PÂSLARU

Mr Cezar Florin PREDA

Romania / Roumanie

Mr Attila Béla-Ladislau KELEMEN

Ms Olga BORZOVA

Russian Federation / Fédération de Russie

Mr Igor CHERNYSHENKO

Mr Guennady GORBUNOV

Russian Federation / Fédération de Russie

Mr Valeriy SUDARENKOV

Ms Svetlana GORYACHEVA

Russian Federation / Fédération de Russie

Mr Vyacheslav TIMCHENKO

Mr Sergey KALASHNIKOV

Russian Federation / Fédération de Russie

Mr Yury SHAMKOV

M. Paride ANDREOLI

San Marino / Saint-Marin

Mr Gerardo GIOVAGNOLI

Ms Svetislava BULAJIĆ

Serbia / Serbie

Mr Vladimir ILIĆ

Mr Djordje MILIĆEVIĆ

Serbia / Serbie

Ms Vesna MARJANOVIĆ

Ms Darina GABÁNIOVÁ

Slovak Republic / République slovaque

Mr Ľuboš BLAHA

Ms Andreja ČRNAK MEGLIČ

Slovenia / Slovénie

Mr Jakob PRESEČNIK

Mr Rubén MORENO PALANQUES

Spain / Espagne

Mr Ángel PINTADO

Mme Eva PARERA

Spain / Espagne

M. Gabino PUCHE

M. Ramón JÁUREGUI

Spain / Espagne

Mr Pedro AZPIAZU

Ms Carina OHLSSON

Sweden / Suède

Mr Lennart AXELSSON

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Mr Mikael OSCARSSON

Sweden / Suède

Ms Marietta de POURBAIXLUNDIN

M. André BUGNON

Switzerland / Suisse

Mr Luc RECORDON

Mme Liliane MAURY PASQUIER

Switzerland / Suisse

Ms Urs SCHWALLER

Mr Igor IVANOVSKI

« The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia » / “L’ex-République yougoslave de Macédoine”

Mr Imer ALIU

Mr Mehmet Kasim GÜLPINAR

Turkey / Turquie

Mme Tülin ERKAL KARA

Mr Nazmi GÜR

Turkey / Turquie

Ms Mülkiye BİRTANE

Mr Ahmet Kutalmiş TÜRKEŞ

Turkey / Turquie

Mr Ömer SELVİ

Mr Volodymyr VECHERKO

Ukraine

M. Ivan POPESCU

Mr Serhiy SOBOLEV

Ukraine

Ms Olena KONDRATIUK

Mr Lev MYRYMSKYI

Ukraine

Mr Serhiy LABAZIUK

Mr Jim DOBBIN

United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni

Mr Robert NEILL

Mr Jeffrey DONALDSON

United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni

Mr Mike HANCOCK

EARL of Alexander DUNDEE

United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni

Mr John PRESCOTT

Sir Alan MEALE

United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni

Mr David CRAUSBY

Contact Parliamentarians / Parlementaires de référence Name

Country

Sílvia Eloïsa Bonet Perot

Andorre / Andorre

Naira Karapetyan

Armenia / Arménie

Gisela Wurm

Austria / Autriche

Sevinj Fataliyeva

Azerbaijan / Azerbaïdjan

Cindy Franssen

Belgium / Belgique

Dirk Van der Maelen

Belgium / Belgique

Milica Marković

Bosnia and Herzegovina / Bosnie-Herzégovine

Desislav Chukolov

Bulgaria / Bulgarie

David Tilson

Canada

Igor Kolman

Croatia / Croatie

Stella Kyriakides

Cyprus / Chypre

Daniela Filipiová

Czech Republic / République tchèque

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Lone Loklindt

Denmark / Danemark

Margus Hanson

Estonia / Estonie

Pirkko Mattila

Finland / Finlande

Denis Jacquat

France

Maryvonne Blondin

France

Chiora Taktakishvili

Georgia / Géorgie

Marlene Rupprecht

Germany / Allemagne

Eleni Rapti

Greece / Grèce

Bernadett Szél

Hungary / Hongrie

Ögmundur Jónasson

Iceland / Islande

Deidre Clune

Ireland / Irlande

Judith Oehri

Liechtenstein

Dangutė Mikutienė

Lithuania / Lituanie

Françoise HettoGaasch

Luxembourg

Deborah Schembri

Malta / Malte

Diva Hadamira Gastélum Bajo

Mexico / Mexique

Aleida Alaves Ruiz

Mexico / Mexique

Valeriu Ghiletchi

Republic of Moldova / République de Moldova

Christian Barilaro

Monaco

Zoran Vukčević

Montenegro / Monténégro

Khadija Ezzoumi

Morocco / Maroc

Pieter Omtzigt

Netherlands / Pays-Bas

Iwona Guzowska

Poland / Pologne

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Maria de Belém Roseira

Portugal

Cezar Florin Preda

Romania / Roumanie

Damian Drăghici

Romania / Roumanie

Olga Borzova

Russian Federation / Fédération de Russie

Lorella Stefanelli

San Marino / Saint - Marin

Elvira Kovács

Serbia / Serbie

Darina Gabániová

Slovak Republic / République slovaque

Andreja Črnak Meglič

Slovenia / Slovénie

Agustín Conde Bajén

Spain / Espagne

Carina Ohlsson

Sweden / Suède

Liliane Maury Pasquier

Switzerland / Suisse

Igor Ivanovski

“The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” /''L'exRépublique yougoslave de Macédoine''

Mehmet Kasim Gülpinar

Turkey / Turquie

Larysa Melnychuk

Ukraine

Jim Dobbin

United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni

Françoise Imbert

Parliamentary Assembly of Francophonie (APF) / Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie (APF)

SPECIAL GUESTS / INVITES SPECIAUX NAME / NOM Ms / Mme Livia Aninosanu..Programmes Director of the NGO “Center for Partnership and Equality”, Romania / ................................ Directrice de programmes de l’ONG « Centre pour le partenariat et l’égalité », Roumanie Ms / Mme Roshan Heiler ............................................. Director of the Solwodi Counselling Centre, Germany / ............................................................................................ Directrice du centre de conseil Solwodi, Allemagne Ms / Mme Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni ................................ Deputy Secretary General of the Council of Europe / .......................................................................................... Secrétaire Générale adjointe du Conseil de l’Europe

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OBSERVERS / OBSERVATEURS CANADA NAME / NOM Ms / Mme Stella AMBLER .................................................................................................................................... PARTNERS FOR DEMOCRACY / PARTENAIRES POUR LA DEMOCRATIE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY / L’AUTORITE PALESTIENNE NAME / NOM Ms / Mme Najat AL-ASTAL...................................... Palestinian National Council / Conseil national palestinien Mr / M. Bashar SULEYMAN .................................... Palestinian National Council / Conseil national palestinien

OTHER PARLIAMENTARIANS PRESENT / AUTRES PARLEMENTAIRES PRESENTS NAME / NOM

COUNTRY / PAYS

Mr / M. Daniel FLOREA ......................................................................................................Romania / Roumanie Ms / Mme Francine JOHN-CALAME ................................................................................... Switzerland / Suisse EMBASSIES / PERMANENT REPRESENTATIONS AND DELEGATIONS AMBASSADES / REPRESENTATIONS ET DELEGATIONS PERMANENTES NAME / NOM

COUNTRY / PAYS

Mr / M. Mark GOREY......................................................................................... United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni Ms / Mme Fatma Berin OKUR ................................................................................................... Turkey / Turquie Mr / M. Uwe PETRY ..........................................................................................................Germany / Allemagne Mr / M. Gabriel REVEL ............................................................................................................................ Monaco

SECRETARIAT OF DELEGATION OR OF POLITICAL GROUP / SECRETARIAT DE DELEGATION OU DE GROUPE POLITIQUE NAME / NOM

COUNTRY / PAYS / GROUP

Ms / Mme Gabriella MARANGOU d’AVERNAS ....................................................................... Cyprus / Chypre Ms / Mme Ana MILHEIRICO .................................................................................................................. Portugal Ms / Mme Feyza ÖZ ................................................................................................................. Turkey / Turquie ALSO PRESENT / EGALEMENT PRESENTS

NAME / NOM

COUNTRY / PAYS or ORGANISATION

Ms / Mme Emilie BANNY ............................................................................................... SOS Femmes Solidarité Ms / Mme Karmela BELINKI ........................................................................................................... INGO / OING Ms / Mme Mette BRUUSGAARD ................................................................................................... INGO / OING Ms / Mme Isabelle COLLOT .................................................................................................. Mouvement du Nid Ms / Mme Madeleine CONEIN ................................................................................................................. France Ms / Mme Renée GÉRARD ...........................................................................................................UWE /GEFDU Ms / Mme Anne GIRAULT .................................................................................................... WUCWO / UMOFC Mr / M. Michel JULIEN .................................................................................................................... INGO / OING Ms / Mme Brigitte KAUFFMANN ........................................................................................ Mairie de Strasbourg Mr / M. Thomas KAUFFMANN ........................................................................................... Mairie de Strasbourg 20

AS/Soc (2014) PV 01add

Mr / M. Yazid KNIBIEHLY ................................................................................................... Mairie de Strasbourg Ms / Mme Gilberte LAURAIN .................................................................................................................... France Ms / Mme Brigitte LE GOUIS ............................................................................................. CECIF, INGO / OING Ms / Mme Mary LILING ................................................................................................................... INGO / OING Ms / Mme Mary McHUGH............................................................................................................... INGO / OING Mr / M. Johannes REIJNDERS ...................................................................................................... INGO / OING Ms / Mme Martine SCHMELCK ...................................................................... Médecins du Monde International Ms / Mme Marie-Louise VAN WIJK ................................................................................................ INGO / OING Ms / Mme Anje WIERSINGA .......................................................................................................... INGO / OING COUNCIL OF EUROPE STAFF / SECRETARIAT DU CONSEIL DE L’EUROPE NAME / NOM

DEPARTMENT / SERVICE

Ms / Mme Marie-Josée ASSA .......................................................... Directorate General of Democracy (DGII) / ......................................................................................................... Direction générale de la Démocratie (DGII) Mr / M. Emmanuel BARON............................................................... Directorate General of Democracy (DGII) / ......................................................................................................... Direction générale de la Démocratie (DGII) Mr / M. Hallvard GORSETH......... Private Office of the Secretary General and the Deputy Secretary General / ................................................................. Cabinet du Secrétaire général et de la Secrétaire Générale adjointe Ms / Mme Regina JENSDOTTIR ..................................................... Directorate General of Democracy (DGII) / ......................................................................................................... Direction générale de la Démocratie (DGII) Ms / Mme Fanny MARCHAND ............................................................................................................................. Mr / M. Vahagn MURADYAN .................................................... Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights / .................................................................................................. Bureau du Commissaire aux droits de l'homme Ms / Mme Maria ORESHKINA ............................... Directorate General Human Rights and Rule of Law (DGI) / ................................................................................ Direction générale Droits de l'homme et État de droit (DGI) Ms / Mme Raluca POPA ................................................................... Directorate General of Democracy (DGII) / ......................................................................................................... Direction générale de la Démocratie (DGII) Mr / M. Mikaël POUTIERS ................................................................ Directorate General of Democracy (DGII) / ......................................................................................................... Direction générale de la Démocratie (DGII) Ms / Mme Gioia SCAPPUCCI .......................................................... Directorate General of Democracy (DGII) / ......................................................................................................... Direction générale de la Démocratie (DGII) The Parliamentary Assembly / l’Assemblée Parlementaire NAME / NOM Ms / Mme Nataliia LAPSHYNA ............................................................................................................................. Mr / M. Nicolas WEVELSIEP ................................................................................................................................ Committee on Social Affairs, Health and Sustainable Development / Commission des questions sociales, de la santé et du développement durable NAME / NOM Ms / Mme Tanja KLEINSORGE ................................................... Head of the Secretariat / Chef du Secrétariat Ms / Mme Aiste RAMANAUSKAITE ....................... Secretary to the Committee / Secrétaire de la commission Ms / Mme Maren LAMBRECHT-FEIGL, .................. Secretary to the Committee / Secrétaire de la commission Ms / Mme Ayşegül ELVERIS ........................ Co-Secretary to the Committee / Co-secrétaire de la commission Ms / Mme Jannick DEVAUX ............................................................................ Project manager / Chef de Projet Ms / Mme Prisca BARTHEL ............................................................... Principal Assistant / Assistante principale Ms / Mme Linda McINTOSH .............................................................................................. Assistant / Assistante

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