University Press Scholarship Online
You are looking at 1-10 of 14 items for: keywords : neuropathologies
Coleridge and the Doctors: 1795-1806 Neil Vickers
Published in print: 2004 Published Online: Publisher: Oxford University Press January 2010 DOI: 10.1093/ ISBN: 9780199271177 eISBN: 9780191709647 acprof:oso/9780199271177.001.0001 Item type: book
This introductory chapter outlines the two central aims of Coleridge and the Doctors. The first is to throw into relief the ideas and influences informing Coleridge's activities in ‘philosophical medicine’, the term widely used by historians of medicine to describe the numerous attempts made between roughly 1770 and 1820 to explain the progress of medicine in the light of philosophical ideas. Coleridge's exposure to philosophic medicine came through his exposure to what he would later term neuropathology (his own coinage), specifically through his exposure to the controversies that had racked Edinburgh University Medical School from the 1750s to the 1790s. The second aim is to put forward an extended speculation about how Coleridge understood his descent into ill-health from late 1800 and how he used that understanding to develop his philosophic and aesthetic ideas. A chapter by chapter summary of the whole book is provided.
Imaging Cognitive Decline in Aging: Predicting Decline with Structural Imaging Jeffrey Kaye
in Imaging the Aging Brain Published in print: 2009 Published Online: Publisher: Oxford University Press February 2010 DOI: 10.1093/ ISBN: 9780195328875 eISBN: 9780199864836 acprof:oso/9780195328875.003.0010 Item type: chapter
The focus of this chapter is predicting cognitive decline or dementia in normal older people using structural imaging. Key questions addressed include the following: What are the major methods, both clinical and imaging, that may help us to predict decline? What underlying pathologies do structural changes preceding decline suggest are developing in the brain? What is the evidence from structural studies Page 1 of 6
that anatomical changes are present before behavioral ones or precede the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia? Does imaging provide information about the pace of future decline? What are the limitations of these studies? Finally, what are the implications of structural imaging outcomes for application to the conduct of treatment studies and future research?
Frontotemporal dementia and the orbitofrontal cortex Po H. Lu, Negar Khanlou, and Jeffrey L. Cummings in The Orbitofrontal Cortex Published in print: 2006 Published Online: Publisher: Oxford University Press February 2010 DOI: 10.1093/ ISBN: 9780198565741 eISBN: 9780191723971 acprof:oso/9780198565741.003.0024 Item type: chapter
Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) manifest severe behavioral and personality alterations associated with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction. This chapter provides a review of the clinical features, neuropathology, neuroimaging, genetics, and neuropsychology of FTD as well as presenting two prototypical cases that provide a clinical picture of the disorder. Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have identified the OFC as the brain region most prominently involved in the frontalvariant of FTD. The neuroanatomy, circuitry, and functions of the OFC are summarized, emphasizing its role in emotional and social cognition. Theories involving deficits in recognition of emotional expression, decision-making, and theory of mind have been proposed to explain the mechanism underlying the clinical expression of FTD, and the OFC is intimately involved in studies examining the neural basis underlying these deficits.
Novel Approaches to the Assessment of Frontal Damage and Executive Deficits in Traumatic Brain Injury Brian Levine, Douglas I. Katz, Lauren Dade, and Sandra E. Black in Principles of Frontal Lobe Function Published in print: 2002 Published Online: May Publisher: Oxford University Press 2009 DOI: 10.1093/ ISBN: 9780195134971 eISBN: 9780199864157 acprof:oso/9780195134971.003.0028 Item type: chapter
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of frontal brain damage. This chapter describes interrelated streams of research aimed at improving the specificity of behavioral and brain imaging assessment of
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TBI. It begins with a brief review of TBI neuropathology. It then examines the cognitive and behavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury.
Brain Temperature Regulation During Normal Neural Function and Neuropathology Eugene A. Kiyatkin
in Neurovascular Medicine: Pursuing Cellular Longevity for Healthy Aging Published in print: 2009 Published Online: Publisher: Oxford University Press January 2010 DOI: 10.1093/ ISBN: 9780195326697 eISBN: 9780199864874 acprof:oso/9780195326697.003.0003 Item type: chapter
This chapter deals with brain temperature as a physiological parameter, which is determined primarily by neural metabolism, regulated by cerebral blood flow, and affected by various environmental factors and drugs. First, normal fluctuations in brain temperature that are induced by salient environmental stimuli and occur during motivated behavior at stable normothermic conditions are examined. On the basis of thermorecording data obtained in animals, the range of physiological fluctuations in brain temperature, their underlying mechanisms, and relations to body temperatures are described. The temperature dependence of neural activity and the dual “functions” of temperature as a reflection of metabolic brain activity and as a factor that affects this activity are considered. Third, pharmacological brain hyperthermia is discussed, focusing on the effects of psychomotor stimulants, highly popular drugs of abuse that increase brain metabolism, diminish heat dissipation, and may induce pathological brain overheating. The role of brain hyperthermia in leakage of the blood-brain barrier, development of brain edema, acute abnormalities of neural cells, and neurotoxicity, is also examined.
Disturbed Consciousness: New Essays on Psychopathology and Theories of Consciousness Rocco J. Gennaro (ed.)
Published in print: 2015 Published Online: May Publisher: The MIT Press 2016 DOI: 10.7551/ ISBN: 9780262029346 eISBN: 9780262330213 mitpress/9780262029346.001.0001 Item type: book
In Disturbed Consciousness, philosophers and other scholars examine various psychopathologies in light of specific philosophical theories of consciousness. The contributing authors—some of them discussing or defending their own theoretical work—consider not only how a theory of consciousness can account for a specific psychopathological condition Page 3 of 6
but also how the characteristics of a psychopathology might challenge such a theory. Thus one essay defends the higher-order thought (HOT) theory of consciousness against the charge that it cannot account for somatoparaphrenia (a delusion in which one denies ownership of a limb). Another essay argues that various attempts to explain away such anomalies within subjective theories of consciousness fail. Other essays consider such topics as the application of a model of unified consciousness to cases of brain bisection and dissociative identity disorder; prefrontal and parietal underconnectivity in autism and other psychopathologies; self-deception and the self-model theory of subjectivity; schizophrenia and the vehicle theory of consciousness; and a shift in emphasis away from an internal (or brainbound) approach to psychopathology to an interactive one. Each essay offers a distinctive perspective from the intersection of philosophy, consciousness research, and psychiatry.
The NMDA Receptor
G. L. Collingridge and J. C. Watkins (eds) Published in print: 1995 Published Online: Publisher: Oxford University Press March 2012 DOI: 10.1093/ ISBN: 9780192625021 eISBN: 9780191724701 acprof:oso/9780192625021.001.0001 Item type: book
This book comprises coverage of the NMDA receptor. The NMDA receptor is an important protein in the brain, which is involved in physiological processes such as synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity, which may underlie learning and memory. Pathological changes involving the NMDA receptors probably contribute to the development of epilepsy, acute neuronal damage such as that resulting from stroke and chronic neuropathologies such as Alzheimer's disease. There is considerable interest in the development of pharmacological agents active at NMDA receptors as new therapeutic agents. Each chapter in this book covers developments in the molecular biology and the molecular pharmacology of the NMDA receptor.
Neurodegenerative disease: With Harry Baker
James W. Fawcett, Anne E. Rosser, and Stephen B. Dunnett in Brain Damage, Brain Repair Published in print: 2002 Published Online: Publisher: Oxford University Press March 2012 DOI: 10.1093/ ISBN: 9780198523376 eISBN: 9780191724534 acprof:oso/9780198523376.003.0006 Item type: chapter
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Most dementias are associated with a widespread pattern of atrophy in the forebrain, which is most apparent as a reduction in the weight of the brain measured post-mortem. As the brain undergoes loss of cells, there is a thinning of the neocortex, and an associated flattening of the sulci on the surface of the brain and the ventricles in its depths. Dementia can come about through a number of different causes. In a series of studies in the 1950s and 1960s, Sir Martin Roth and his colleagues at the University of Newcastle undertook a systematic evaluation of the nature of the post-mortem pathology in a large series of patients dying (both with and without dementia) in a psychogeriatric hospital. These studies highlighted the fact that the cognitive disturbances of senile dementia can be associated with a number of distinct patterns of neuropathology, associated with different causes and disease processes.
Alzheimer's disease Andrew J. Larner
in Cognitive Neurology: A clinical textbook Published in print: 2008 Published Online: Publisher: Oxford University Press March 2012 DOI: 10.1093/ ISBN: 9780198569275 eISBN: 9780191724213 acprof:oso/9780198569275.003.0012 Item type: chapter
The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be possible, probable, or definite. In clinical practice, most diagnoses are of probable AD: dementia is established on the basis of clinical examination and neuropsychological testing, and there is evidence of progressive worsening of memory and other cognitive functions without disturbance of consciousness. Supportive features include impaired activities of daily living (ADL), behavioural changes, and a positive family history of similar disease, particularly if confirmed by neuropathology. Supportive investigations include a normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), normal or nonspecific electroencephalographic (EEG) changes, and cerebral atrophy on computerized tomography (CT) with progression documented by serial observation. Other features deemed consistent with probable AD include plateaus in the course of the illness, various associated behavioural features, and certain neurological signs including myoclonus and seizures. Features that make the diagnosis uncertain or unlikely include sudden onset, focal neurological findings, or seizures early in the course, though none of these excludes the diagnosis.
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Visual development following treatment of a unilateral infantile cataract Ronald G. Boothe in Infant Vision Published in print: 1996 Published Online: Publisher: Oxford University Press March 2012 DOI: 10.1093/ ISBN: 9780198523161 eISBN: 9780191724558 acprof:oso/9780198523161.003.0025 Item type: chapter
An understanding of the ways in which vision develops following treatment of an infantile cataract is of considerable interest to a broad spectrum of basic scientists and clinicians. Devising improved methods for treatment, or ideally methods for prevention, of the amblyopia that typically develops following the surgical removal of the cataract poses a significant challenge for clinicians. Psychophysicists are interested in the precise nature of the perceptual deficits that sometimes develop in these children. Neuroscientists are particularly interested in questions regarding the neuropathology in the visual pathways in the brain that correlate with reduced visual function. Developmental psychologists are intrigued by the implications this topic has for broad issues having to do with the relative importance of ‘nature versus nurture’ in guiding development. This chapter attempts to summarize some of the main findings from the literatures from all of these disciplines in order to synthesize an understanding of visual development in children being treated for infantile cataracts.
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