Coal.Global An exhibition of the Ruhr Museum Essen
Director Heinrich Theodor Grütter Concept and project management Ulrike Stottrop Co-concept Stefan Siemer Academic/scientific team Carsten Berndt, Ute Eickelberg, Heidi Feldt, Michael Lorenz, Udo Scheer, Jens Scholten, Christoph Schurian Research Tansel Dogan, Ajoy Konar, Joanna Koczor, Jie Mao, Nguyen Thi Hoai Nga, Sergey Ponomarev Exhibition design Atelier Ursula Gillmann, Basel Media jangled nerves, Stuttgart Design of brochure Karsten Moll Copyright Foundation Ruhr Museum, 1. Edition 6/2012 – for internal use only –
Coal.Global Fossil coal is one of the world’s oldest sources of energy. Although it was formed millions of years ago, it is only 180 years since the exploitation for industrial purposes began. And it is still a fuel with a future. A scenario published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) foresees that, up to 2035, fossil fuel – oil, coal, and natural gas – will make up the lion’s share (74%) of global energy consumption. Electricity production alone will amount to 55%. And global reserves of coal are much larger than those of oil and natural gas. Fossil coal seems to be available in such rich amounts that there are still no agreed international standards by which reserves and resources can be calculated. Nevertheless, regarding the geological timesscale the solar power transformed by plants into biomass over millions of years will be exhausted within a few generations and the landscape of mining areas will be altered in geological dimensions. The exploitation of coal reserves all over the world entails the creation of global markets and streams of raw coal. In this process production has become decoupled from consumption and former producers have long since become consumers. If coalmining was the motor behind the massive industrialisation in the 19th century and the rise of the west, so, in the 20th century, we are now witnessing how coal is becoming a model for the global flow of raw materials and the creation of new industrial centres. Within a close connection of natural and cultural history the exhibition aims to examine and question the role of coal in the creation of a hitherto globally dominant model of present-day society based on the burning of fossil fuels. To what extent can we transfer this model from Europe to other countries? Will the wealth derived from coal resources lead to industrial development and prosperity in the new coal countries? What are the consequences for the environment and social cohesion, say, when coal mining gorges away farmland and leads to massive migration and urbanisation? Will states distribute the wealth from coal in a socially acceptable way? Above all, are new deposits of coal still formed?
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The Exhibition Site At the centre of the exhibition is the Earth, the planet of raw materials, an interactive globe on which statistics, maps, films and interviews can be called up. The niches and cabinets display various themes which, in their totality, illustrate the many different aspects of coal. Visitors will travel around the world to contemporary coalfields from Indonesia to Spitsbergen, and from Wyoming to Siberia. Here they will have fascinating encounters with all types of »coal people« and will experience the variety and asynchrony of the world of coal. On the one hand, hypermodern mining and gigantic technology embedded in highly rational, globally synchronised production and transportation chains, on the other hand a seemingly atavistic form of mining based on the (self-) exploitation of pit workers with massive consequences for people and the environment. It has been a great challenge to collect and select the right exhibits to make up a global view of the present situation in the world of coal. Here new media
Colliery and coking plant Zollverein aerial photo 2005
play an important role. Alongside photos and films visitors can also find classical three-dimensional exhibits: selected fossils, coal from all over the world, mining tools and mementos belonging to people working in the industry. All these throw up associations with people’s diverse experiences of “black gold“.
Staircase of the Ruhr Museum in the coal washing plant (from above) Coal washing plant at the UNESCO world cultural heritage Zollverein
The Exhibition Team The exhibition has been conceived by a team of scholars from the Ruhr Museum under the leadership of Ulrike Stottrop. The team has been advised and supported by a huge number of international scientists, geologists, palaeontologists, sociologists, historians and experts from the world of business. Major international coal industry and coal trade associations as well as the IndustriALL Global Union have also agreed to cooperate. The exhibition has been designed by the renowned designer Professor Ursula Gillmann from Basel in Switzerland. She was recently responsible for the new permanent exhibition in the Basel Historical Museum. The audiovisual media in the exhibition have been produced by “jangled”, a firm based in Stuttgart. The firm also designed the media for the Ruhr Museum and the Visitor Centre Ruhr which has welcomed more than 3 million visitors since it was opened in the Cultural Capital Year, RUHR 2010. A catalogue will be published to accompany the exhibition. We are also planning a large programme of related events including talks, film programmes and symposia. In 2013 the Zollverein Foundation is planning to make »Coal.Global« a major theme throughout all the Zollverein sites.
The Exhibition At the centre of the exhibition is the Earth, the planet of raw materials, an interactive globe on which statistics, maps, films and interviews can be called up. The niches and cabinets display various themes which, in their totality, illustrate the many different aspects of coal. Visitors will travel around the world to contemporary coalfields from Indonesia to Spitsbergen, and from Wyoming to Siberia. Here they will have fascinating encounters with all types of »coal people« and will experience the variety and asynchrony of the world of coal. On the one hand, hypermodern mining and gigantic technology embedded in highly rational, globally synchronised production and transportation chains, on the other hand a seemingly atavistic form of mining based on the (self-) exploitation of pit workers with massive consequences for people and the environment. It has been a great challenge to collect and select the right exhibits to make up a global view of the present situation in the world of coal. Here new media play an important role. Alongside photos and films visitors can also find classical three-dimensional exhibits: selected fossils, coal from all over the world, mining tools and mementos belonging to people working in the industry. All these throw up associations with people’s diverse experiences of “black gold“.
View from the entrance into temporary exhibition Coal.Global, design Studio Gillmann
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Layout thematic sub-groups of the coal.global exhibition, design Studio Gillmann
The exhibition themes Unimaginable Long Period –Coal from Millions of Years For scientists the resource coal and associated rocks allow a detailed view into the history of our planet. Such stores of knowledge are used by geologist and palaeontologists as starting points for different types of reconstruction. Which biological substances generated coal? Which were the first life-forms to be able to survive on land? We still do not know when the first photosynthetic organisms permanently settled in a terrestrial habitat. It is highly probable that this occurred sometime during the Silurian after the oxygen content in the primordial atmosphere assembled a shield of ozone to protect the Earth from the ultra-violet rays of the sun. With the help of international loans of plant fossils from the Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary, examples of the biological producers of coal will be presented. Using particularly impressive objects
Tongue shaped fern ‘Glossopteris, Permian, New Soouth Wales (Australia) Collection of the Ruhr Museum
Cuticles of a fern leaf, Institute for Paleo-Botany, University of Münster
from the collection of the Ruhr Museum we shall reveal the plant principles and biological structures which enabled them to take root on land so successfully in the course of the Earth’s history. It is fascinating to observe the methods and materials used by palaeobotanical scholars in their research work. Plant cuticles, layers of wax which protect the tissue cells of plants from drying out, have an astounding potential for preservation. One thousand times magnified microscopic images of plant debris bring the sunken forests in close-up before the eye and reveal the characteristic cell patterns of different types of plant species, even including their breath openings, hairs and glands. Whereas palaeobotanists look for their answers in remnants of fossils, molecular biologists, biochemists and engineers study plants which are still living today. In doing so they aim to replicate the process of photosynthesis and use it as a highly effective potential source of energy.
Planet of coal – coalfields of the Earth Whether biomass decays or accumulates in swamps and moors to later become peat, brown coal or bituminous coal depends on whether the subsoil subsides. Here, alongside photosynthesis, the planet Earth brings a further decisive driving force into play to create coal: plate tectonics. The rigid outermost crust of the planet, the lithosphere, is a mosaic of many different individual plates which move over the molten mantle, either colliding, scraping past each other or drifting apart. Collisions were decisive in forming coal reservoirs like those in the Ruhrgebiet and the Appalachians (USA) with their slanting to steeply dipping, irregular and relatively thin seams. In contrast the coalfields and coal basins of South Africa and India, the huge Tunguska basin in Siberia and the majority of the coal reservoirs in China were created in large basins of continental plates on the crust of the Earth. Thanks to an extremely slow and long-lasting rate of subsidence huge seams were generated which stretched over gigantic areas.
Reconstruction of a Carboniferous Forrest, Picture from Stan Oplustil, Institute of Geology, Prague
Whereas the largest seams in the Ruhrgebiet just about reach 2.5m thickness, in other places like the Powder River Basin in Wyoming, seams can reach up to 30 metres and be mined with opencast methods. More than sixty countries
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mine domestic coal to satisfy their hunger for energy, extracting it either in deep or opencast mining depending on the geological conditions. An animation on the movement of the continents beginning in the Carbon, the first major geological period of the creation of coal around 300 million years ago, shows how further major coal reservoirs of Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary age were generated due to the platel drift into their present position . Maps of main coal fields and shipment ports of major export countries, and of the brown coal and bituminous coal areas in European coalmining countries give visitors an impression of the economic importance of coal as an energy source. A global inventory of coal shows lumps of coal from fields in individual countries and from different periods of the Earth’s history.
Process of Coalification: Lignite, high volatile coal, medium volatile coal, low volatile coal, Collection of the Ruhr Museum.
Continental drift – Cretaceous – snap shot from animated computer graphics, 2010
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Regions of bituminous coal in China and coal lading ports
Coal samples from Chinese coal fields, Collection of the Ruhr Museum
Coal Countries – Where Coal is Produced The country which produces by far the greatest amount of coal is China: followed by the USA, EU, India, Australia, Russia, Indonesia, South Africa, Poland and Kazakhstan. The ten top exporting countries are Australia, Indonesia, Russia, Columbia, South Africa, the USA, China, Canada, Vietnam, and Kazakhstan . The ten largest importers are Japan, China, South Korea, India, Taiwan, Germany, Great Britain, Spain, the USA and Italy. Because of its lower energy content brown coal is not suitable for export and, with very few exceptions, is consumed locally. Whereas at the beginning of industrialisation coal mines, processing and utilisation were regarded as an indivisible unity, nowadays mining is often decoupled from consumption. Coal mines may equally well be situated near industrial areas as in god-forsaken deserts and Siberian wastelands. Satellite pictures show the gigantic of mining and its huge extent of encroachment into the landscape. Highly sophisticated technical transport infrastructures are the precondition for exploiting new coal reservoirs. A new concept has arisen in the industry: “landscapes of energy”, as they are called by the American geographer Martin J. Pasqualetti. Such “landscapes” not only change the natural landscape but also the way in which people live and work together. Interactive maps and picture sequences enable visitors to discover more about the subject and grasp the extent of the problem Satellite photo Garzweiler, North-Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) 2011 from a birds-eye perspective of the “coalscapes”.
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Satellite photo La Loma, Cesar (Colombia) 2005
Satellite photo Goonyella, Queensland (Australia) 2010
Satellite photo Tanjung Enim, Selatan Province Sumatra (Indonesia) 2007
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Satellite photo Grootegeluk, Limpopo province (South Africa) 2007
Satellite photo Haerwusu Mine, Inner Mongolia (China) 2006 18
Coal on the world market – from producers to consumers A world map of coal streams reveals the global production activities, trade and consumption. All three elements are linked in a central theme to make up a panorama of the path of coal from the mines to the consumer. Today it is possible to discern three different types of market in the global trade in coal. Dominated by major steel companies in Japan, India and China, coking coal is globally traded in only a few countries, Australia being at the top of the table. A completely different picture emerges when we consider steam coal and coal for power stations. Here there are two different markets: one in the Pacific Asian region, the other in the Atlantic European area. Each of them has its own predominant producing and consumer countries. The state has control over the mineral resources in almost every country, and licenses mining activities to domestic and foreign companies. Lots of companies all over the world are active in the lucrative business of mining. That said, around 30% of total production is in the hands of a few globally active raw material companies, some of which like BHP Billiton, Rio Tinto and Xstrata are amongst the top-selling companies in the world. They compete with large companies solely specialising in coal like Peabody Energy or China Shenhua Energy based in Hong Kong. But alongside these major national and multina-
Main bituminous coal trade streams by sea transport 2010
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Coal as part of the energy mix of Germany, France and Poland
tional concerns, smaller and indeed very small firms also play a significant role in coalmining. China, for example, has a long tradition of small and family mines. In 2001 it was estimated that these produced 70% of the country’s total production as against 30% from the large state-controlled mining companies. What makes coal such a highly desirable source of energy all over the world? Quality parameters like calorific values, sulphur and ash content vary considerably between coal reservoirs, and sometimes even within individual seams. The type Chinese woman producing coal briquettes
Coal briquette production in China
of basic plant material is just as decisive in defining the quality of coal as the impurities caused by washed-in clay and sand and the level of coalification and water content. The exhibition presents a large palette of coal products, even including a self-pressed briquette made by a Chinese housewife. The part played by coal in the production of electricity varies greatly between different countries. A comparison between individual energy mixes allows conclusions to be drawn about the consumption and supply situations in different countries. Media presentations of statistics on coal in national energy mixes give an impressive picture of the differences. That said, electricity from coal is beyond the reach of the vast majority of people on Earth. Here, as in Europe up to a century ago, coal is used exclusively for cooking and heating purposes. In the global energy mix it is not simply one factor amongst many but a concrete indicator of poverty. But at the same time coal brings prosperity. More and more people, as in India, China and Indonesia, have access to electricity and hence, to a higher standard of living.
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Coal India Shenhua Grp Peabody Energy Rio Tinto Datong Coal Mining Grp Arch Coal China National Coal Grp BHP Billiton RWE Power Anglo American Xstrata SUEK Shanxi Coking Coal Grp PT Bumi Resources Consol Energy Kuzbassrazrezugol Kompania We˛glowa S.A PT Adaro Indonesia Sasol Massey Energy Mitsubishi Development PT Kideco Jaya Agung Banpu Teck Drummond
production (million t)
investments (million USD)
Indien China USA UK China USA China Australien Deutschland UK Schweiz GUS China Indonesien USA GUS Polen Indonesien Südafrika USA Japan Indonesien Thailand Canada USA
431 254 221 140 125 114 109 105 100 96 95 87 78 63 54 46 42 41 37 34 28 24 21 19 27
630 1.169 261 632 k.A. 323 1.874 2.438 459 496 1.327 351 k.A. 484 544 k.A. 316 106 170 275 k.A. k.A. 82 60 k.A.
387.645 k.A. 8.300 (ges.)106.000 200.000 k.A. 56.013 12.295 5.400 (ges.)209.000 10.500 50.000 k.A. k.A. 8.827 k.A. 60.000 k.A. k.A. k.A. k.A. 7.500 k.A. 8.000 k.A.
World leading coal companies
Mining Coal – Gigantic Technology The enormous productivity in modern mining is above all dependent on the development of opencast mining and the highest possible level of mechanisation. Most of the jobs in large, modern opencast mines are occupied by a few well-trained and often highly-paid specialists. They drive bucket excavators, dragline excavators and trucks, or work at computers modeling the exploitation of the deposits. All the work processes are coordinated. In Columbia, truck drivers’ shifts in the Cerrejón opencast mine are precisely prescribed, and their routes determined and controlled by GPS systems. By contrast with opencast mining, productivity levels in deep mining are comparatively smaller despite the amount of mechanisation and rationalisation in many places. Here – with the exception of collieries using state-of-the-art
Bucket wheel excavator in an open-cast mine (Russia)
Dump truck in an open-cast mine (Indonesia)
Dump truck in an open-cast mine (USA)
Coal trains near Gladstone (Australia)
technology and maximum safety standards – coal is often mined under difficult and, above all, more dangerous conditions. These ever-present dangers define the coal miners’ solidarity and give them their particular identity. There are enormous discrepancies between the levels of modernisation in coalmines. By comparison with modern collieries, a journey around the coal mines of the world becomes a journey back in time into the history of coal mining. In the Donbass Basin in the Ukraine, for example, where coal seams can often only be reached at depths of up to 1,400 metres, the steep, narrow seams machines cannot be used and the coal has to be extracted by hand under highly dangerous conditions. Models of bucket excavators, draglines and dump trucks give visitors an impression of the level of technology in modern coal mines and clarify the work processes. Film excerpts show the variety of jobs in the industry. Thus,
River coal barge (Indosesia)
Coal bulk carrier at terminal
for example, visitors will be able to look over the shoulder of the driver of a bucket excavator in a brown coal field in the Rhine area. In addition, an inventory of helmets and shoes used by miners all over the world throws light on a global aspect of the work.
Producing Coal – People as Working Machines No matter how modern and safe global opencast and deep mining may be, when compared with gigantic technology and mechanical rationalisation people have always functioned as incomparably cheap, universally available and universally deployable mining and transport “machines”. Men, women and children can still be found working in small and family pits all over the world, often with the most primitive tools and almost completely without safety precautions. The total amount of small mining, which also includes other resources besides coal – say, copper, tin, gold and diamonds – is of huge global importance, even if reliable statistics are difficult to come by. Whereas a country like China is making huge efforts to reduce the number of small and family-run mines with often life-threatening working conditions, the number of such mines is still huge on the global scale. The World Bank estimates the number of miners who are directly active in so-called “artificial and small-scale mining” at around 20 million. These are the poor in the poorest countries whose existence depends solely on digging for resources in mostly illegal mines. Coal cycle wallahs symbolise this oft forgotten, and in the most literal sense of the word, “black” economy. India has a state-regulated coal market, but in its shadow is an utterly different world of mining, transportation and distribution. People dig for coal on private ground, , in disused mines or on the edge of abandoned opencast mines. So-called coal cycle wallahs are responsible for transporting the coal. On average they carry around 200 kilograms of coal on their bikes which they use as an inanimate packhorse, pushing them instead of pedalling. The coal cycle wallahs deliver to small households, tiny coking plants and brickworks. They can cover a round journey of approximately 30 kilometres a day. In West Bengal estimated 33,000 cyclists are on the road moving 2.5 million tons of coal a year in this fashion.
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Impressions from small scale mining in China, Mexico, Ukraine, Ghana, Senegal, India and Indonesia
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Gallery of coal workers
Coal workers– Living and Working with Coal A miners’ gallery displays the portraits of Asian, South American, European and African coal miners. The coal dust in their faces hides the lines left from a lifetime of heavy labour. Going beyond the classical mythology of manliness and heavy labour, further photos and film portraits show other people working in the coal industry: workers in opencast mines, harbour workers at a coal terminal, the captain of a bulk carrier, the driver of a coal train, a geologist, a trader and a manager. These are their faces – the face of coal. In interviews they tell of their experiences with the resource coal and how it has shaped their lives. They talk about their jobs, how many hours they have to work, and what they earn. Were their fathers also in the coal industry, or are they completely new to the work? How do they view the future for their children and would they recommend them to take a job in the mines? Regional roots and migration make up another theme. Do they come from old-established local families or have they migrated from the countryside to the coal towns? Alongside the portraits is a gallery of sentimental exhibits which throw a light on very individual, subjective attitudes to coal: objects like the figure of Skarbek, a guardian spirit cut from a lump of coal by a Polish miner, and the safety
Extinguishing coal seam fires: Hartwig Gielisch and his team (Deutsche Montan Technology) in India
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“Skarbek” figure made from coal by a Polish pitman
helmet made of bamboo belonging to a Chinese miner brought back by a mining engineer from the Ruhrgebiet. Objects like the poster of an Indian trades unionist who tells of his struggle for more pay and better safety conditions, or the very first luxury article which an agricultural worker treated himself to with his first miner’s pay. The memories and experiences associated with these objects, and the stories linked with them, give the interview statements a deeper, very individual dimension.
Moving Mountains – Consequences for People and the Environment
Digging and burning coal has changed the face of the Earth and our environment and will continue to do so. But the valuation of coal has fundamentally changed during its industrial usage in Europe over the last 150 years. Once known as “black gold” it is now no longer the sole highly appreciated energy in industry and source of prosperity but a natural source of energy whose combustion is the world’s number one climate killer. But over and above the scenario of climate change direct experiences of the effects of coalmining and its associated industries are part of everyday life, both in the good and bad sense of the word. In many of the new coal nations, mining has led to a significant improvement in people’s standard of living. Here, as once in the old coalproducing countries, it is a guarantee of better infrastructures, progress, jobs and prosperity. At the same time it destroys the living conditions of many people. In this respect we always need to take a closer look at the precise local relationships. The satellite photos in the “Coal Land“ chapter make clear the extent of the
Animal figures as protection against coal seam fires
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encroachments caused by opencast mining. Deep mining too often leaves behind a landscape full of spoil tips and subsidence. In the hilly landscape of West Virginia, for example, entire hills are destroyed (Mountain top removal) by open cast mining. And in Indonesia large areas of rainforest disappear. Open cast mining also means that people all over the world are compelled to abandon their native homes for other regions. Coalmining literally removes the ground from beneath their feet. Excerpts from documentary films relate people’s different cultural perceptions of losing their homes and reveal that those who are driven out cannot necessarily reckon with compensation as, for example, the residents who once lived in the brown coalfield areas of Germany. Spontaneous fires in coal seams near the surface of mines in India and China not only put a temporary stop to new developments and mining itself, but lead
Open-cast mine in Kalimantan (Indonesia) 2008
to severe air pollution. In turn such fires are devastating in terms of climate protection. It is estimated that the annual amount of CO2 emitted by burning seams in India is the equivalent of that produced every year by 50 million motor cars. Mine accidents are a further aspect of coalmining. News headlines are continually featuring accidents in China, the Ukraine and in Russia and fixing in our heads a distorted Eurocentric impression of backward coalmining conditions there. Germany was not the only country which suffered from coalmining disasters into the 1960s, and the collieries in the above countries are extremely different and scarcely comparable. At the end of the 1990s China still had 60,000 smaller mines employing not more than 20 miners who were often working completely without safety precautions. By the year 2000 this number had been reduced to 22,300 and at the same time many of the huge out-of-
Conical waste rock pile in Heilongjiang (China)
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Air pollution by coal seam fires, Inner Mongolia (China)
date state-owned mines had been modernised. Today they work with state-ofthe art technology and high safety standards. And the coal types are also very variable. The higher the methane content, the larger the danger of mine gas explosions. All the outlined effects of coalmining have an immense influence on the environment and the life and work of local people. If the effects are seen in a negative light this naturally leads to social and political unrest, protests and conflicts. Media reports and excerpts from documentary films make clear this spectrum of problems.
Protests of environment activists at Gladstone coal terminal (Australia)
The Future of Coal – a Survey The global consumption of coal and other fossil energy sources is rapidly rising. In 2010 the demand for bituminous coal and brown coal rose by 6.7% as against 4.6% for oil and 2.7% for gas. The demand for power in Asia, above all in China, whose proportion of global coal consumption is now around 40%, is primarily responsible for this development. The growth in the world’s population along with the rise in urbanisation and industrialisation leads us to expect that the demand for energy, especially outside Europe, will grow rather than decline in the near future. Each year the World Energy Outlook published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) presents the global consumption of coal in three scenarios up to the year 2035. Whereas the Current Policies Scenario (CPS) proceeds solely on the basis of an implementation of previously decided measures, the New Policies Scenario (NPS), assumes that governments will implement the announced measures for COÇ reduction, like the cuts in financial aid to the fossil energy economy. The 450-scenario, by contrast, takes into account an even more ambitious policy, which implements the limit of COÇ emissions of 450 ppm (parts per million)at the 2009 World climate Conference in Copenhagen. Whilst the IEA forecasts a reduction in coal consumption for Europe, it foresees an increase in other parts of the world. But these forecasts have been put into question by the availability of other sources of energy. At the moment the price asked by the other two competitors for coal – the exploitation of oil sands and the development of gas reserves by fracing – is sinking. In order to reduce pollution emissions power-station managers are at the moment pursuing three possible solutions. First, they want to reduce the level of coal consumption. In order to achieve this aim it is necessary to improve the efficiency of current power stations and introduce modern technology in new power plants. In addition it is necessary to introduce innovations to further raise efficiency levels, like drying brown coal in advance or burning coal at even higher temperatures than previously. Most of all it is necessary to develop technologies which separate the COÇ either before or after the burning process, and securely store it. This so-called “Carbon Capture and Storage“ procedure is being tried out at test sites. The core object here is a shelf with different types of coal which may be purchased by visitors. An accompanying leaflet will tell you about the economic, ecological and social »costs« of each type of coal. Animations will tell you about new and future technologies.
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Picture Credits The Exhibition Site P. 2: Peter Wieler, Essen P. 3: Ruhr Museum / Brigida Gonzalez The Exhibition P. 5 and P. 6: Atelier Gillmann, Basel Unimaginable Long Duration – Coal from Millions of Years P. 7: Thomas Wolf, Gotha P. 8: Hans Kerp, Münster P. 9: Stan Oplustil, Prag Planet of Coal – Coal Reservoirs of the World P. 10: Ruhr Museum / jangled nerves, Stuttgart P. 12 above: RWE Power: Weltmarkt für Steinkohle, 2007, S. 70 P. 12 below: Ruhr Museum / Dieter Philberg Coal Countries – Where Coal is Produced P. 13: Rheinbraun AG P. 14 to p. 16: google earth
Coal on the World Market – From Producer to Consumer P. 17: Jahresbericht 2010. Fakten und Trends 2010/2011, Verein der Kohleimporteure, p. 19 P. 18 left: Jie Mao P. 18 right: Jie Mao P. 18/19: IEA Coal Information 2011, IV: 165, 156, 277 Mining Coal – the Gigantic Technology P. 19 above left: Ilya Naymushin P. 19 above right: Westech/Casper StarTribune/AP P. 19 below left: David Stanway P. 19 below right: Daniel Munoz P. 22 left: Stringer P. 22 right: http://www.marinetraffic.com/ ais/shipdetails.aspx?mmsi=566173000 Producing Coal – People as Working Machines P. 24 line 1 and line 2 left: Bodo Goerlich P. 24 line 2 middle: Reuters P. 24 line 2 right: Victor Maruschenko P. 24 line 3 : Victor Maruschenko P. 24 line 4 : Victor Maruschenko P. 24 line 5 : Victor Maruschenko
P. 25 line 1 left: Finbarr O’Reilly P. 25 line 1 middle: Normand Blouin P. 25 line 1 right: Bodo Goerlich P. 25 line 2 left: Bodo Goerlich P. 25 line 2 middle and right: Fritz Hoffmann P. 25 line 3 left: Fritz Hoffmann P. 25 line 3 middle: Bodo Goerlich P. 25 line 3 right: Ajoy Konar P. 25 line 4: Hartmut Gielisch P. 25 line 5 left and middle: Dadang Tri P. 25 line 5 right: Baudouin Koenig
Moving Mountains – Consequences for People and Environment P. 29: Hartwig Gielisch P. 30: Baudouin Koenig P. 31: Fritz Hoffmann P. 32 above left and right: Bodo Goerlich P. 32 below: Reuters
Coal Workers – Living and Working with Coal P. 26 line 1 left: Nguyen Thi Hoai Nga P. 26 line 1 middle and right: Ina Fassbender P. 26 line 2 left: Alexander Khudoteply P. 26 line 2 middle: Phil Noble P. 26 line 2 right: Fritz Hoffmann P. 26 line 3 left: Daniel Munoz P. 26 line 3 middle: Henry Romero P. 26 line 3 right: Fredy Builes P. 26 line 4 left: Viktor Maruschenko P. 26 line 4 middle: Bodo Goerlich P. 26 line 4 right: Tomasz Tomaszewski P. 26 line 5 left: Sergey Ponomarev P. 26 line 5 middle and right: Osman Orsal P. 27: Hartmut Gielisch P. 28: Stefan Siemer
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