CMS what is it and why is it relevant?

CMS – what is it and why is it relevant? NCNC Conference 2014 Tonje F. Gravås Senior Adviser National Unit for Lifelong Guidance, Vox 02.06.2014 • ...
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CMS – what is it and why is it relevant? NCNC Conference 2014

Tonje F. Gravås Senior Adviser National Unit for Lifelong Guidance, Vox

02.06.2014 • Side 2

I don`t pretend I have all the answers. But the questions are certainly worth thinking about. Arthur C. Clarke

What is the purpose of career guidance?

That individuals develop the skills needed to manage their careers throughout their lives.

Lifelong perspective on career guidance

Why? Because life goes on all the time!

Choices have to be made Kindergarden and Primary School

Lower Secondary School

Upper Secondary School

Universty and University Colleges

Vocational Education

Public Employment Services

Working Life


- and transitions will keep on happening

Lifelong guidance two dimensions: • The career guidance services are designed to meet the needs of all citizens, whatever age and connection to the educational system or work life.

• The careers services have a lifelong focus, meaning that the overall aim is that individuals develop skills to manage their careers throughout life.

How to manage a career troughout life?

Career Management Skills – CMS «karriereferdigheter»


CMS is rooted in the

The DOTS framework Decision-learning Opportunity awareness Transition learning Self-awareness Tony Watts & Bill Law, Schools, Careers and Community 1977


Decision-learning How to make a choice: • awareness of possible choice strategies • awareness of your decision making style • awareness of which choices might be adequate for your present situation


Opportunity awareness • awareness of the opportunities available to you • knowledge of what these opportunities might lead to • knowledge of how to grasp these opportunities

Håndtere overgangsfaser

Transition learning • To be able to handle transitional challenges, e.g. from education to work, between jobs, back to education from work or back to work from unemployment.


self-awareness • be able to identify your interests and needs • know what your skills and competences are • understand who you are • know your strengths and weaknesses

• be aware of your work life aspirations

Definition CMS refer to a range of competences which provide structured ways for individuals and groups to gather, analyze, synthesize and organize self, educational and occupational

information, as well as the skills to make and implement decisions and transitions. (ELGPN/Ronald Sultana, 2010)

CMS direct attention to the learning outcome of career guidance activities.

quick fix vs

skills for life


career guidance as an intervention

Could you please tell me: Where should I work?


career learning as shared purpose

What do I need to know to develop my career and create the life I want for myself?

CMS might change the way you do your job • Focus on here-and-now

• Long term perspective

• What`s the next step?

• How to create a career?

• Solve today’s problem

• Learning outcome

• Information

• Reflection

• Short intervention

• Longer process

A case from real life The sociologist who wanted to become an engine driver If he were to start all over again, what could you and the career services do to equip him with the skills he would need to make a better transition from education to work life?

• Decision-learning • Opportunity awareness • Transition learning • Self-awareness

Suggest a career learning activity that could support the development of one of the skills

Where does it come from?

Two EU-resolutions have: … highlighted the need for strong guidance services throughout the lifespan to equip citizens with the skills to manage their learning and careers and the transitions between and within education/training and work.

Many countries have developed a CMS framework



New Zealand


The major goal of guidance is to build the career management skills of all citizens – particularly young people who can then use these skills throughout their lifetime.

The Youth Guarantee and Lifelong Guidance ELGPN Concept Note No. 4


do you/the career services/the institution contribute to build the career management skills of your students and graduates?

CMS as part of the employability agenda?

CMS is seen as a meta-skill and necessary part of employability

A meta-skill needed to reflect on and match skills, knowledge and interests to the career opportunities available.


sustainable employability The Kirby Report 2000


career learning becomes the responsibility not only of you and the careers services, but of the institution as a whole.

CMS – mandatory and assessable Career management skills development needs to begin early in university programs and should be a mandatory and assessable component of coursework.

The graduate attributes we`ve overlooked: Enhancing graduate employability through career management skills Ruth Bridgstock, Centre for Learning Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Evidence shows… • Lifelong guidance is not one intervention, but many, and works most effectively when a range of interventions are combined. This might include careers education, one-to-one counselling, online services and a range of other possibilities. • A key aim of lifelong guidance programmes should be the development of career management skills. • Lifelong guidance needs to be holistic and wellintegrated into other support services. Understanding the Evidence for Lifelong Guidance Services: a Guide for Policy-Makers ELGPN Consept Note, Tristram Hooley

A tool for development CMS can be seen as a tool to develop better quality career services with an outcome focus and a lifelong perspective



• Career guidance is delivered separately in each sector

• A service chain across sectors. Services that build on and complement each other

• Focus is on the next step and the approximate choice

• Consistent attention to the learning outcomes of career guidance

• No common agreement on the aim of career guidance

• A common agreement that the aim of career guidance is to equip people with the skills they need to manage their careers



Want to read some more? Developing career management skills within the HE curriculum: a review and evaluation of different approaches Christina Evans, International Journal of Management Education 6, 2007 The graduate attributes we`ve overlooked: Enhancing graduate employability through career management skills Ruth Bridgstock, Higher Education Research and Development, Vol 28, No 1, March 2009 31-44 Learning career management skills in Europe: a critical review Ronald G. Sultana, Journal of Education and Work 2011, 1-24