CIVICUS Civil Society Index: Scoring Matrix 1. Structure

This paper was presented at the Workshop on “Measuring Empowerment: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives” held at the World Bank in Washington, DC on Febru...
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This paper was presented at the Workshop on “Measuring Empowerment: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives” held at the World Bank in Washington, DC on February 4 and 5, 2003.

CIVICUS Civil Society Index: Scoring Matrix 1. Structure Indicator 1. Breadth of citizen participation 1.1 Non-partisan political action

Description Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 Score 4 Data Source How widespread is citizen involvement in civil society? What proportion of citizens engages in civil society activities?

What percentage of people has ever signed a petition? Joined in a boycott? Attended a demonstration? Joined an unofficial strike? 1.2 Charitable giving What percentage of people donates to charity on a regular basis? 1.3 CSO membership

1.4 Volunteering

A very small minority of people (e.g. less than 10%) has ever undertaken any form of nonpartisan political action.

A minority of people (e.g. 10 to 30%) has undertaken, at least once, some form of non-partisan political action.

A large majority of people (e.g. more than 65%) has undertaken, at least once, some form of nonpartisan political action. A very small A minority of people A significant A large majority of minority of people (e.g. 10 to 30%) proportion of people people (e.g. more (e.g. less than 10%) donates to charity on (e.g. 30 to 65%) than 65%) donates to donates to charity on a regular basis. donate to charity on charity on a regular a regular basis. a regular basis. basis. What percentage of A small minority of A minority of people A majority of people A large majority of people belongs to a people (e.g. less than (e.g. 30 to50%) (e.g. 50 to65%) people (e.g. more CS association or 30%) belongs to a belongs to at least belong to at least one than 65%) belongs to organisation (as CS association or one CS association CS association or at least one CS defined in the CSI organisation. or organisation. organisation. association or questionnaire)? organisation. What percentage of A very small A small minority of A minority of people A majority of people people does unpaid minority of people people (e.g. 10 to (e.g. 30 to 50%) does (e.g. more than 50%) volunteer work on a (e.g. less than 10%) 30%) does volunteer volunteer work on a does volunteer work regular basis (at least does volunteer work work on a regular regular basis (at least on a regular basis (at once a year)? on a regular basis (at basis (at least once a once a year). least once a year). least once a year). year).

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A significant proportion of people (e.g. 30 to 65%) has undertaken, at least once, some form of non-partisan political action.

Secondary data (World Values Survey) Community survey

Secondary data Community survey

Secondary data (World Values Survey) Community survey Secondary data (World Values Survey) Community survey

1.5 Collective community action

What percentage of A small minority of A minority of people A majority of people A large majority of Community survey people has ever people (e.g. less than (e.g. 30-50%) has (e.g. between 50people (e.g. more participated in a 30%) has ever ever participated in a 65%) has, at least than 65%) has, at collective participated in a collective once, participated in least once, community action collective community action. a collective participated in a (e.g. attended a community action. community action. collective community meeting, community action. participated in a communityorganised event or a collective effort to solve a community problem or advance a community interest)? How deep/meaningful is citizen participation in CS? How frequently/extensively do people engage in CS activities?

2. Depth of citizen participation 2.1 Charitable giving How much do people who give to charity on a regular basis donate, on average(e.g. as a percentage of personal income)? 2.2 Volunteering How much time, on average, do volunteers devote to unpaid volunteer work? 2.3 CSO membership What percentage of CSO members belongs to more than one (formal or informal) organisation?

People, who donate to charity on a regular basis, contribute, on average, less than 1% of their personal income. Volunteers devote, on average, less than 2 hours/month, to volunteer work.

People, who donate to charity on a regular basis, contribute, on average, between 12% of their personal income. Volunteers devote, on average, between 2 and 5hours/month, to volunteer work.

People, who donate to charity on a regular basis, contribute, on average, between 23% of their personal income. Volunteers devote, on average, between 5- 8 hours/month, to volunteer work.

A small minority (e.g. less than 30%) of CSO members belong to more than one (formal or informal) organisation.

A minority (e.g. 30 to 50%) of CSO members belong to more than one (formal or informal) organisation.

A majority (e.g. 50 to 65%) of CSO members belong to more than one (formal or informal) organisation.

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People, who donate to charity on a regular basis, contribute, on average, over 3% of their personal income. Volunteers devote, on average, more than less than 8 hours/month, to volunteer work. A large majority (e.g. more than 65%) of CSO members belong to more than one (formal or informal) organisation.

Secondary data Community survey

Secondary data Community survey

Secondary data (World Values Survey) Community survey

3. Diversity of How diverse/representative is the civil society arena? Do all social groups participate equitably in civil society? Are any groups civil society dominant or excluded? participants 3.1 CSO membership Do CSOs equitably Significant social Significant social CSO members from CSOs equitably Secondary data represent all social groups (e.g. women, groups (e.g. women, all social groups represent all social (World Values groups (e.g. women, rural dwellers, poor rural dwellers, poor (e.g. women, rural groups. No group is Survey) rural dwellers, poor people, minorities) people, minorities) dwellers, poor noticeably under Community survey people, minorities)? are absent/excluded are clearly under people, minorities) represented. Focus groups Are any social from CSOs. represented in CSOs can be identified, but groups some groups are absent/excluded from clearly under CSOs? represented. 3.2 CSO leadership Is there diversity in Significant social Significant social CSO leaders from all CSO leadership Secondary data CSO leadership? groups (e.g. women, groups (e.g. women, social groups (e.g. equitably Focus groups Does CSO leadership rural dwellers, poor rural dwellers, poor women, rural represents all social equitably represent people, minorities) people, minorities) dwellers, poor groups. No group is all /social groups are absent/excluded are clearly under people, minorities) noticeably under (e.g. women, rural from CSO leadership represented in CSO can be identified, but represented. dwellers, poor roles. leadership roles some groups are people, minorities)? clearly under Are any social represented. groups absent/excluded from CSO leadership roles? 3.3 Distribution of How are (formal and CSOs are CSOs are largely CSOs are present in CSOs are present in Secondary data CS associations/ informal) CSOs concentrated in the limited to urban all but the most all areas of the Fact-finding organisations distributed major urban centres. areas. remote areas of the country. Focus groups throughout the country. country? Are they present in rural areas? In the most remote areas of the country? 4. Level of How well-organised is civil society? organisation 4.1 Existence of What percentage of Only a small A minority of CSOs A majority of CSOs A large majority of Secondary data CSO federations CSOs belongs to a minority of CSOs (e.g. 30 to 50%) (e.g. 50 to 70%) CSOs (e.g. more 3

CSO federations

4.2 Effectiveness of CSO federations

4.3 Self-regulation

4.4 Support infrastructure

5. Inter-relations 5.1 Communication

CSOs belongs to a minority of CSOs (e.g. 30 to 50%) federation or (e.g. less than 30%) belongs to a umbrella belongs to a federation or organisation of federation or umbrella related umbrella organisation. organisations? organisation. How effective do Such bodies either do These bodies are CSO representatives not exist or are considered to be judge existing considered to be largely ineffective. federations or completely umbrella ineffective. organisations to be? Are there efforts There are no efforts Preliminary efforts among CSOs to self- among CSOs to self- have been made by regulate? Are regulate. CSOs to self-regulate existing selfbut only a small regulatory minority of CSOs are mechanisms involved and impact effective? is, as yet, extremely Enforceable? What limited. percentage of CSOs abides by a collective code of conduct (or some other form of self-regulation)? What is the level of There is no support There is very limited support infrastructure for infrastructure for infrastructure for civil society. civil society. civil society? How many civil society/CSO support organizations exist in the country? How strong/productive are relations among civil society actors? What is the extent of There is very little There is limited communication communication communication between CS actors? between CS actors. between CS actors.

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(e.g. 50 to 70%) belongs to some form of federation/umbrella organisation.

CSOs (e.g. more Focus groups than 70%) belongs to some form of federation/umbrella organisation.

These bodies are considered to be somewhat effective.

These bodies are considered to be effective.

Focus groups

Some mechanisms for CSO selfregulation are in place but only some sectors of CSOs are involved and there is no effective method of enforcement. As a result, impact is limited.

Mechanisms for CSO self-regulation are in place and function quite effectively. A discernable impact on CSO behaviour can be detected.

Secondary data Fact-finding Focus groups Case study

Support infrastructure exists for some sectors of civil society and is expanding.

There is a welldeveloped support infrastructure for civil society.

Secondary data Focus groups

There is a moderate level of communication between CS actors.

There is a significant level of communication between CS actors.

Focus groups

5.2 Cooperation

5.3 International linkages

6. Resources 6.1 Resources

between CS actors. CS actors regularly cooperate with each other on issues of common concern. Numerous examples of cross-sectoral CSO alliances/coalitions can be identified. What proportion of Only a handful of A significant number CSOs has “elite” CS of CSOs from international actors/organisations different sectors and linkages (e.g. are have any type of different levels members of international (grassroots to international linkages. national) have networks, participate international in global events)? linkages. To what extent do civil society organisations have adequate resources to achieve their goals? How do CSO Most CSOs suffer Most CSOs have Most CSOs have the Most CSOs have a representatives from a serious inadequate and/or resources they generally describe their level resourcing problem. insecure resources. require to at least adequate/secure of (financial partially achieve resource base. organisational, their defined goals. human and/or technological) resources? Can examples of cross-sectoral CSO alliances/coalitions (around a specific issue or common concern) be identified?

CS actors do not cooperate with each other on issues of common concern. No examples of cross-sectoral CSO alliances/coalitions can be identified.

It is very rare that CS actors cooperate with each other on issues of common concern. Very few examples of cross-sectoral CSO alliances/coalitions can be identified. A limited number of (mainly nationallevel) CSOs have international linkages.

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between CS actors. CS actors on occasion cooperate with each other on issues of common concern. Some examples of crosssectoral CSO alliances/coalitions can be identified. A moderate number of (mainly nationallevel) CSOs have international linkages.

Secondary data Media review Focus groups

Secondary data Focus groups

Secondary data Focus groups

2. Environment Indicator 1. Political context 1.1. Political rights

1.2. Rule of law

1.3. Corruption

1.4. State effectiveness

Description

Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 Score 4 What is the political situation in the country and its impact on civil society? Can people participate There are severe There are some Citizens are People have the full freely in political restrictions on the restrictions on the endowed with freedom and choice processes? Are political rights of political rights of substantive political to exercise their political leaders citizens. Citizens citizens and their rights and political rights and elected through free cannot participate in participation in meaningful meaningfully and fair elections? Do political processes. political processes. opportunities for participate in people have the right political political processes. to freely organise in participation. There political parties? are minor and isolated restrictions on the full freedom of citizens’ political rights and their participation in political processes. Is there rule of law in There is general There is low There is a moderate Society is governed the country? disregard for the law confidence in and level of confidence by fair and by citizens and the frequent violations in the law. predictable rules, state. of the law by Violations of the law which are generally citizens and the by citizens and the abided by. state. state are not uncommon. What is the level of The level of The level of The level of The level of perceived corruption corruption among corruption among corruption among corruption among in the public sector? public officials is public officials is public officials is public officials is perceived to be high. perceived to be perceived to be perceived to be low. substantive. moderate. To what extent is the The state is largely The state’s ability to The state is The state is fully state able to fulfil its incapable of meet the basic needs struggling to fully capable of achieving defined functions? achieving its defined of the population is meet the basic needs its defined functions. functions. People are limited. People are of the population. People’s satisfaction disillusioned about dissatisfied with People give with government

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Data Sources Secondary data (Freedom House Political Rights Index)

Secondary data (World Bank Governance Dataset)

Secondary data (Transparency International Corruption Perception Index) Secondary data (World Bank Governance Dataset)

government’s performance in major policy areas. The state bureaucracy is incompetent to implement government policies. 1.5. Decentralisation

To what extent is decision-making authority and resources devolved to local authorities?

2. Basic freedoms & rights 2.1. Civil liberties

To what extent are basic freedoms ensured de jure and de facto?

2.2. Information rights

Decision-making authority and resources are highly centralised allowing for no meaningful governance at local levels.

government’s performance in major policy areas. The implementation of government policies through the state bureaucracy is ineffective and lacks quality. There are limited areas of local governance responsibility in policy implementation. Decision-making and budgetary powers however rest with the central government.

Are civil liberties (e.g. freedom of expression, association, assembly) ensured de jure and de facto? How acces sible are government documents to the public? Is public access to information guaranteed by law?

government a mixed rating with regard to its performance in major policy areas. The quality of the state bureaucracy is moderate.

performance in major policy areas is relatively high. The state bureaucracy is highly effective in implementing government policies.

There is substantial devolution of decision-making authority. However, local governance bodies are not equipped with the appropriate human and financial resources to work effectively and still rely largely on central government assistance.

Substantial Secondary data devolution of Fact-finding decision-making authority and resources allows for effective local-level governance.

Civil liberties are systematically violated.

There are frequent violations of civil liberties.

There are isolated or Civil liberties are occasional fully ensured in law violations of civil and in practice. liberties.

Secondary data (Freedom House Civil Liberties Index)

There are no laws guaranteeing information rights. Citizen access to government documents is extremely limited.

Citizen access to government documents is lim ited but expanding.

Legislation regarding public access to information is in place but, in practice, it is difficult to obtain

Secondary data (Privacy International Country Summaries) Fact-finding

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Government documents are broadly and easily accessible to the public.

2.3. Press freedoms

Are press freedoms ensured de jure and de facto?

Press freedoms are systematically violated.

There are frequent violations of press freedoms.

government documents. There are isolated violations of press freedoms.

Freedom of the press is fully ensured in law and in practice.

3. Socio-economic What is the socio- economic situation in the country and its impact on civil society? context Do socio-economic conditions in the Social & economic Social & economic Social & economic Social & economic country represent a barrier to the effective conditions represent a conditions conditions conditions do not functioning of civil society? serious barrier to the significantly limit somewhat limit the represent a barrier effective functioning of the effective effective to the effective civil society. More than functioning of civil functioning of civil functioning of civil four of the following society. Three or society. One or two society. None of conditions are present: four of the of the conditions the conditions 1. widespread poverty (e.g. conditions indicated are indicated is more than 40% of people indicated are present. present. live below the national present. poverty line) 2. civil war 3. pervasive ethnic/religious strife 4. severe economic crisis (e.g. external debt is more than GNP) 5. severe social crisis (e.g. due to recent or current famine, HIV/AIDS pandemic, natural disaster, etc.) 6. severe socio-economic inequities (e.g. gini index of over 40) 7. pervasive adult illiteracy (e.g. over 40%) 4. Socio-cultural To what extent are socio-cultural norms and attitudes conducive or detrimental to civil society? context

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Secondary data (Freedom House Press Freedom Index)

Secondary data (e.g. World Bank World Development Report and Social Indicators Dataset, UNDP Human Development Index and Reports, PRS Group Country Data, Uppsala University Conflict Data Project, CRED International Disaster Database)

4.1. Trust

4.2. Tolerance

4.3. Public spiritedness

5. Legal environment 5.1. CSO registration

Do members of society trust one another?

Relationships among members of society are characterised by mistrust (e.g. less than 10% of people score on the WVS trust indicator). Society is characterised by widespread intolerance. (e.g. average score on WVS-derived tolerance indicator is more than 3) There is a very low level of public spiritedness in society (e.g. average score on WVS derived public spiritedness indicator is more than 3.5)

There is widespread mistrust among members of society. (e.g. between 10% and 30% of people score on the WVS trust indicator). Society is char acterised by a low level of tolerance. (e.g. average score on WVS-derived tolerance indicator between 2 and 3) There is a low level of public spiritedness in society. (e.g. average score on WVS-derived public spiritedness indicator is between 2.5 and 3.5)

There is a moderate level of trust among members of society. (e.g. between 30% and 50% of people score on the WVS trust indicator). How tolerant are Society is members of society? characterised by a moderate level of tolerance. (e.g. average score on WVS-derived tolerance indicator between 1 and 2). Do members of There is a moderate society have a sense level of public of public spiritedness in spiritedness, that is, society. (e.g. average do they care about score on WVS how their behaviour derived public affects the fellow spiritedness indicator members of society? is between 1.5 and 2.5) To what extent is the existing legal environment enabling or disabling to civil society?

There is a high level of trust among members of society (e.g. more than 50% of people score on the WVS trust indicator). Society is characterised by a high level of tolerance. (e.g. average score on WVS-derived tolerance indicator less than 1). There is a high level of public spiritedness in society. (e.g. average score on WVS-derived public spiritedness indicator is less than 1.5)

Secondary data (World Values Survey, World Bank Social Capital Initiative) Focus groups Community survey Secondary data (World Values Survey) Community survey

Is the process for forming and registering CSOs simple, quick, inexpensive, transparent, fairly and consistently applied?

The process for forming and registering CSOs is neither quick, nor easy or inexpensive. Implementation is arbitrary and inconsistent.

The process for forming and registering CSOs is subject to obstacles in the form of delay, difficulty, or expense. Implementation is frequently unfair and inconsistent.

The law provides for a quick, easy and inexpensive registration process. Implementation is fair and consistent.

Laws Decisions by registration authorities Regulatory policies Secondary data (e.g. ICNL Database) Fact-finding Focus groups

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The law generally provides for a quick, easy, and inexpensive process for forming and registering CSOs, but imposes some obstacles that hinder the process. Implementation of the registration

Secondary data (World Values Survey) Community survey

5.2. Allowable activities

How broad/narrow are the allowable activities of CSOs?

The purposes for which CSOs may be formed are narrowly constrained. CSOs are explicitly precluded from raising funds or income; engaging in economic activities to support their purposes, or advocacy or criticism of the government.

CSOs are only allowed to engage in a narrow range of activities; or only certain forms of CSOs are permitted to engage in certain activities. Constraints on advocacy activities or economic activities are excessive or vaguely defined. 5.3. Tax laws Does the tax system The tax system The tax system is favourable to CSOs provide favourable impedes CSO burdensome to treatment that sustainability. No CSOs. Tax encourages the tax exemption or exemptions or sustainability of preference of any preferences are CSOs? kind is available for available only for a CSOs. narrow range of CSOs (e.g., humanitarian organizations) or for limited sources of income (e.g. , grants or donations). 5.4. Tax benefits for Are tax deductions or No tax deductions or Tax deductions or philanthropy credits, or other tax credits, or other tax credits, or other tax benefits, available to benefits are available benefits, are encourage individual (to individuals or available for a very

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process is subject to occasional inconsistencies or inappropriate exercises of discretion. Constraints on CSOs’ activities are minimal and clearly defined, such as, e.g., prohibitions on political campaigning; or constraints take the form of disincentives rather than prohibitions.

CSOs are permitted to engage in all legally permissible activities, including speaking freely about all matters of public interest and criticism of government, advocacy, fundraising, and economic activities.

Laws Decisions of regulatory authorities; Secondary data (e.g. ICNL Database, Johns Hopkins CNSP Legal Environment Indicators) Fact-finding Focus groups

The tax system contains some incentives favouring CSO sustainability. Only a narrow range of CSOs is excluded from tax exemptions or preferences. Exemptions or preferences are available from some taxes and some activities. Tax deductions or credits, or other tax benefits, are available for a fairly

The tax system provides favourable treatment for CSOs. Exemptions or preferences are available from a range of taxes and for a range of activities, limited only in appropriate circumstances (e.g., for public benefit organizations.) Significant tax deductions or credits, or other tax benefits, are available for a

Laws Decisions of tax authorities; Secondary data (e.g. ICNL Database, Johns Hopkins CNSP Legal Environment Indicators) Fact-finding Focus groups

Laws Secondary data (e.g. ICNL Database, Johns Hopkins

and corporate giving?

corporations) for charitable giving.

limited set of purposes or types of organisat ions.

broad set of purposes broad set of purposes CNSP Legal or types of or types of Environment organisations. organisations. Indicators) Fact-finding Focus groups 6. State-civil society relations What is the nature and quality of relations between civil society and the state? 6.1. Autonomy Can civil society The state controls CSOs are subject to The state accepts the CSOs operate freely. Secondary data exist and function civil society. frequent existence of an They are subject Media review independently of the unwarranted independent and only to reasonable Focus groups state? Are CSOs interference in their autonomous civil oversight linked to free to operate operations. society but CSOs are clear and legitimate without excessive subject to occasional public interests. government unwarranted interference? Is government government interference. oversight reasonably designed and limited to protect legitimate public interests? 6.2. Dialogue Does civil society There is no The state only seeks The state dialogues Mechanisms are in Secondary data dialogue with the meaningful dialogue to dialogue with a with a relatively place to facilitate Media review state? What are the between civil society small sub-set of broad range of CSOs systematic dialogue Focus groups terms and rules of and the state. CSOs on an ad hoc but on a largely ad between the state engagement? basis. hoc basis. and a broad and diverse range of CSOs. 6.3 Cooperation/ What is the extent The level of state Only a very limited A moderate range of The state channels Secondary data support of state resources resources channelled range of CSOs CSOs receives state significant resources (e.g. Johns Hopkins (from all levels of through CSOs is receives state resources (in the (in the form of CNSP) government, local to insignificant. resources (in the form of grants, grants, contracts, Fact-finding national) channelled form of grants, contracts, etc.). etc.) to a large range Focus groups through CSOs (in contracts, etc.). of CSOs. the form of grants, contracts, etc.)? 7. Private sectorWhat is the nature and quality of relations between civil society and the private sector? civil society relations

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7.1. Private sector attitude

7.2 Corporate social responsibility

7.3. Corporate philanthropy

Is the private sector open to dialogue and interaction with civil society? What is the stance of business associations towards other civil society actors? How developed are notions and actions of corporate social responsibility and corporate citizenship?

The private sector is generally hostile towards civil society.

The private sector is The private sector is generally indifferent generally positive towards civil society. towards civil society , but rarely supportive.

The private sector is Focus groups generally supportive of civil society .

Major companies show no concern about the social and environmental impacts of their operations.

Major companies are beginning to take the potential negative social and environmental impacts of their operations into account.

Major companies take effective measures to protect against negative social and environmental impacts.

Fact-finding Focus groups Community survey

What is the level of corporate financial support to civil society?

Corporate philanthropy is insignificant.

Major companies pay lip service to notions of corporate social responsibility. However, in their operations they frequently disregard negative social and environmental impacts. Only a very limited range of CSOs receives funding from the private sector.

A moderate range of CSOs receives funding from the private sector.

The private sector channels significant resources to a large range of CSOs.

Secondary data (e.g. Johns Hopkins CNSP) Fact-finding Focus groups

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3. Values Indicator 1. Democracy 1.1 Democracy within the CS arena

1.2 Democratic practices within CSOs

1.3 CS actions to promote democracy

Description Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 Score 4 To what extent do civil society actors and organisations practice and promote democracy? Is CS a democratic Civil society is Only a small subset of The credibility of Civil society leaders arena? Do civil dominated by a small civil society leaders civil society effectively consult society leaders number of influential consults with and leaders is based with and represent consult and represent individuals who do represents people on upon the extent to people on the ground. people on the not consult with nor the ground and which they ground? represent people on notions of credibility represent people on the ground. based on grassroots the ground. linkages are weak. However only a subset of civil society leaders meet these criteria. Do CSOs practice A large majority of A majority of CSOs A majority of A large majority of internal democracy? CSOs do not practice do not practice CSOs practice CSOs practice internal How much control internal democracy internal democracy internal democracy democracy (e.g. do members have (e.g. members have (e.g. members have (e.g. members have members have over decisionlittle/no control over little/no control over significant control significant control over making? Are leaders decision-making, decision-making, over decisiondecision-making, selected through CSOs are CSOs are making, leaders are leaders are selected democratic characterised by characterised by selected through through democratic elections? patronage, patronage, clientelism, democratic elections). clientelism, nepotism). elections). nepotism). Does CS actively CS plays no active Only a few CS actions A number of CS CS is a driving force promote democracy role in promoting or campaigns to actions and in promoting a at a societal level? democracy at the promote democracy campaigns to democratic society. societal level. No CS can be detected. Their promote democracy CS actions and actions or campaigns visibility is low and can be detected. campaigns to of any consequence in issues of democracy Broad-based support promote democracy this area can be are not attributed and/or public enjoy broad-based detected. much importance by visibility of such support and/or strong CS as a whole. initiatives, however, public visibility.

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Data Sources Focus groups

Fact-finding Focus groups

Secondary data Fact-finding Media review Focus groups

are lacking. 2. Transparency To what extent do civil society actors and organisations practice and promote transparency? 2.1 Corruption within Is there corruption There are very There are frequent There are occasional Instances of corrupt civil society within CS? frequent instances of instances of corrupt instances of corrupt behaviour within CS corrupt behaviour behaviour within CS. behaviour within CS. are very rare. within CS. 2.2 Financial Are CSOs A small minority of A minority of CSOs A small majority of A large majority of transparency of financially CSOs (e.g. less than (e.g. 30-50%) make CSOs (e.g. 50-65%) CSOs (e.g. more than CSOs transparent? What 30%) make their their financial make the ir financial 65%) make their percentage of CSOs financial accounts accounts publicly accounts publicly financial accounts makes their financial publicly available. available. available. publicly available. accounts publicly available? 2.3 CS actions to Does CS actively CS plays no active Only a few CS A number of CS CS is a driving force promote promote transparency role in demanding actions or campaigns actions and in demanding transparency at a societal level? government or demanding campaigns government and corporate government or demanding corporate transparency. No CS corporate government and transparency. CS actions or campaigns transparency can be corporate actions and of any consequence detected. Their transparency can be campaigns in this area can be visibility is low and detected. Broaddemanding state and detected. issues of government based support and/or corporate / corporate public visibility of transparency enjoy transparency are not such initiatives, broad-based support attributed much however, are lacking. and/or strong public importance by CS as visibility. a whole. 3. Tolerance To what extent do civil society actors and organisations practice and promote tolerance? 3.1 Tolerance within Is CS a tolerant CS is dominated by There are significant There are some Civil society is an the CS arena arena? intolerant forces. The forces within civil intolerant forces open arena where the expression of only a society that do not within civil society, expression of all narrow sub-set of tolerate others’ but they are isolated viewpoints views is tolerated. views. Their from civil society at (mainstream and intolerant behaviour large. alternative) is or remarks encounter actively encouraged. little protest from CS Instances of at large. intolerant behaviour

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Media review Focus groups

Focus groups

Secondary data Fact-finding Media review Focus groups

Secondary data Fact-finding Media review Focus groups

3.2 CS actions to promote tolerance

4. Non-violence 4.1 Non-violence within the CS arena

4.2 CS actions to promote nonviolence

Does CS actively promote tolerance at a societal level?

or remarks on the part of CS actors are strongly denounced by civil society at large. CS is a driving force in promoting a tolerant society. CS actions and campaigns to promote tolerance enjoy broad-based support and/or strong public visibility.

CS plays no active role in promoting tolerance at the societal level. No CS actions or campaigns of any consequence in this area can be detected.

Only a few CS A number of CS actions or campaigns actions and to promote tolerance campaigns to within society can be promote tolerance detected. Their within society can be visibility is low and detected. Broadissues of tolerance based support and/or are not attributed public visibility of much importance by such initiatives, CS as a whole. however, are lacking. To what extent do civil society actors and organisations practice and promote non -violence? Do CSOs use violent Significant massSome isolated groups Some isolated groups There is a high level means to express based groups within within CS regularly within CS of consensus within their interests in the CS use violence (such use violence (such as occasionally resort to CS regarding the public sphere? as damage to property damage to property or violent actions, but principle of nonor personal violence) personal violence) to are broadly violence. Acts of as the pr imary means express their interests denounced by CS at violence by CS of expressing their without encountering large. actors are extremely interests. protest from civil rare and strongly society at large. denounced. Does CS actively CS plays no active Only a few CS actions A number of CS CS is a driving force promote a nonrole in promoting a or campaigns to actions and in promoting a nonviolent society? For non-violent society. promote a non-violent campaigns to violent society. Civil example, does civil No CS actions or society can be promote a nonsociety actions and society support the campaigns of any detected. Their violent society can campaigns in this non-violent consequence in this visibility is low and be detected. Broad- area enjoy broadresolution of social area can be detected. issues of violence are based support and/or based support and/or conflicts? Address Some CS actions not attributed much public visibility of strong public issues of violence actually contribute to importance by CS as a such initiatives, visibility against women, societal violence. whole. however, are lacking. child abuse, violence among

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Secondary data Fact-finding Media review Focus groups

Secondary data Media review Focus groups

Secondary data Fact-finding Media review Focus groups

5. Gender equity 5.1 Gender equity within the CS arena

5.2 Gender equitable practices within CSOs

5.3 CS actions to promote gender equity

youths, etc. ? To what extent do civil society actors and organisations practice and promote gender equity? Is civil society a Women are excluded Women are largely Women are underWomen are equitably gender equitable from civil society absent from civil represented in civil represented as arena? leadership roles. society leadership society leadership leaders and members roles. positions. of CS. . Do CSOs practice gender equity? What percentage of CSOs with paid employees has policies in place to ensure gender equity? Does CS actively promote gender equity at the societal level?

A small minority (e.g. less than 20%) of CSOs with paid employees have policies in place to ensure gender equity.

A minority (e.g. 2050%) of CSOs with paid employees have policies in place to promote gender equity.

CS plays no active role in promoting gender equity at the societal level. No CS actions or campaigns of any consequence in this area can be detected. Some CS actions actually contribute to gender inequity.

Only a few CS actions or campaigns to promote gender equity at the societal level can be detected. Their visibility is low and issues of gender equity are not attributed much importance by CS as a whole.

A small majority (e.g. 50-65%) of CSOs with paid employees have policies in place to promote gender equity. A number of CS actions and campaigns to promote gender equity at the societal level can be detected. Broad-based support and/or public visibility of such initiatives, however, are lacking.

6. Poverty To what extent do civil society actors and organisations promote poverty eradication? eradication 6.1 CS actions to Does CS actively CS plays no active Only a few CS actions A number of CS eradicate poverty seek to eradicate role in eradicating or campaigns aimed at actions and poverty? poverty. No CS reducing/eradicating campaigns aimed at actions or campaigns poverty can be reducing/eradicating of any consequence detected. Their poverty can be in this area can be visibility is low and detected. Broaddetected. Some CS issues of poverty are based support and/or actions serve to not attributed much public visibility of sustain existing importance by CS as a such initiatives,

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Secondary data Media review Fact-finding Focus groups

A large majority of CSOs (e.g. more than 65%) with paid employees have policies in place to promote gender equity. CS is a driving force in promoting a gender equitable society. Civil society actions and campaigns to promote gender equity enjoy broadbased support and/or strong public visibility.

Fact-finding Focus groups

CS is a driving force in the struggle to eradicate poverty. Civil society actions and campaigns to promote poverty eradication enjoy broad-based support and/or strong public

Secondary data Fact-finding Media review Focus groups

Secondary data Fact-finding Media review Focus groups

7. Environmental sustainability 7.1 CS actions to sustain the environment

economic inequities. whole. however, are lacking. visibility. To what extent do civil society actors and organisations practice and promote environmental sustainability? Does CS activ ely seek to promote environmental sustainability?

CS plays no active role in protecting the environment. No CS actions or campaigns of any consequence in this area can be detected. Some CS actions serve to reinforce unsustainable practices.

Only a few CSO actions or campaigns aimed at protecting the environment can be detected. Their visibility is low and environmental issues are not attributed much importance by CS as a whole.

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A number of CS actions and campaigns aimed at protecting the environment can be detected. Broadbased support and/or public visibility of such initiatives, however, are lacking.

CS is a driving force in protecting the environment. Civil society actions and campaigns aimed at protecting the environment enjoy broad-based support and/or strong public visibility.

Secondary data Fact-finding Media review Focus groups

4. IMPACT Indicator 1. Influencing public policy

2. Holding state & private corporations accountable 2.1. Holding state accountable

Description Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 How active and successful is civil society in influencing public policy?

Score 4

Data Sources

How active and successful is civil society in influencing public policy? (Assessment based on three preidentified priority issue areas).

No discernable impact. No CSO action/campaigning in the identified issue areas could be detected or the defined goals of identified actions/campaigns were not achieved at all.

Impact is limited. Impact is moderate. Impact is significant. Only a low level of A moderate level of A significant level of CSO CSO CSO action/campaigning action/campaigning action/campaigning in in the identified in the identified the identified issue issue areas could be issue areas was areas was detected detected and/or the detected and/or the and/or the defined defined goals of defined goals of the goals of the identified identified identified CSO CSO actions/campaigns actions/campaigns actions/campaigns were achieved to a were only partially were fully achieved. very limited extent. achieved. How active and successful is civil society in holding the state and private corporations accountable ?

Secondary data Fact-finding Media review Focus groups

How active and successful is civil society in monitoring state performance and holding the state accountable?

Civil society makes very little or no attempt to hold the state accountable. No CS actions or campaigns of any consequence in this area can be detected. Civil society makes very little or no attempt to hold private corporations accountable. No CS actions or campaigns of any consequence in this area can be

2.2. Holding private How active and corporations accountable successful is civil society in holding private corporations accountable?

Civil society’s efforts to hold the state accountable are very limited and there is no discernable impact .

Civil society actively attempts to hold the state accountable, but impact is limited.

Civil society plays a significant role in holding the state accountable and examples of success/impact can be detected.

Secondary data Media review Focus groups

Civil society’s efforts to hold private corporations accountable are very limited and there is no discernable

Civil society actively attempts to hold private corporations accountable, but impact is limited.

Civil society plays a significant role in holding private corporations accountable and examples of success/impact can be detected.

Secondary data Media review Focus groups

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detected. 3. Responding to social interests 3.1 Responsiveness

How effectively are civil society actors responding to social concerns?

Civil society actors are out of touch with the crucial concerns of the population.

4.1 Informing/educating How active and citizens successful is civil society in informing and educating citizens on public issues?

CS makes very little or no attempt to inform or educate citizens on public issues. No CS actions or campaigns of any consequence in this area can be detected. CS plays very little or no role in building people’s- capacity for collective action.

3.2 Public Trust

4. Empowering citizens

4.2 Building capacity for collective action

impact .

Civil society actors Civil society actors Civil society actors Focus group often do not take up seek to take up the are very effective in Media review the crucial concerns crucial concerns of taking up the crucial of the population. the population. concerns of the There are frequent However, there are population. examples of social isolated examples of concerns that did not social concerns that find a voice among did not find a voice existing civil society among existing civil actors. society actors. How much are civil A small minority of A large minority of A small majority of A large majority of Secondary Data society actors trusted the population (< the population (25the population (50 – the population (> (WVS, Gallup Voice by the public? 25%) has trust in 50) has trust in civil 75%) has trust in 75%) has trust in of the people) civil society actors. society actors. civil society actors. civil society actors. Community Sample How active and successful is civil society in empowering citizens, especially traditionally marginalised groups, to shape decisions that affect their lives?

How active and successful is civil society in building the capacity of people to organize themselves, mobilize resources

Civil society’s efforts to inform or educate citizens on public issues are very limited and there is no discernable impact.

Civil society actively attempts to inform or educate citizens, but impact is limited.

Civil society plays Media review a significant role in Focus groups informing and Community survey educating citizens on public issues and examples of success/impact can be detected.

Civil society plays a limited role in building people’s capacity for collective action.

Civil society plays a moderate role in building people’s capacity for collective action.

Civil society plays a significant role in building people’s capacity for collective action.

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Focus groups Community survey

4.3 Empowering poor people

4.4. Empowering women

4.5. Building social capital

5. Meeting societal needs

and work together to solve common problems? How active and CS plays very little Civil society plays a Civil society plays a Civil society plays Secondary data successful is civil or no role in limited role in moderate role in a significant role in Fact-finding society in empowering poor empowering poor empowering poor empowering poor Media review empowering poor people. people. people. people. Focus groups people? Community survey How active and CS plays very little Civil society Civil society plays a Civil society plays Secondary data successful is civ il or no role in plays a limited moderate role in a significant role in Fact-finding society in empowering women. role in empowering women empowering women. Media review empowering empowering Focus groups women? women. Community survey To what extent does Negative Impact. No discernible Limited impact. Significant impact. Secondary data civil society build Civil society impact. Civil society Civil society does Civil society strongly Focus groups social capital among diminishes the stock does not contribute contribute contributes to Community survey its members? How of social capital in to building social moderately to building social do levels of trust, society. capital in society. building social capital in society. tolerance and public capital in society. spiritedness of members of CS compare to those of non-members How active and successful is civil society in meeting societal needs, especially those of poor people and other marginalised groups?

5.1 Lobbying for state service provision

How active and successful is civil society in lobbying the government to meet pressing societal needs?

5.2 Meeting pressing

How active and

Civil society makes very little or no attempt to lobby government to meet pressing societal needs. No CS actions or campaigns of any consequence in this area can be detected. Civil society makes

Civil society’s efforts to lobby government to meet pressing societal needs are very limited and there is no discernable impact.

Civil society actively lobbies government to meet pressing societal needs, but impact is limited.

Civil society’s

Civil society actively Civil society plays a

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Civil society plays a Media review significant role in Focus groups lobbying government to meet pressing societal needs and examples of success/impact can be detected. Focus groups

societal needs directly

successful is civil society in directly meeting pressing societal needs (through service delivery or the promotion of selfhelp initiatives)?

5.3 Meeting needs of marginalised groups

Are CSOs more effective than the state in delivering services to marginalized groups?

very little or no attempt to lobby government to directly meet pressing societal needs (through service delivery or the promotion of self-help initiatives). No CS actions or campaigns of any consequence in this area can be detected. CSOs are less effective than the state in delivering services to marginalized groups.

efforts to directly meeting pressing societal needs (through service delivery or the promotion of selfhelp initiatives) are very limited and there is no discernable impact.

attempts to directly meet pressing societal needs (through service delivery or the promotion of selfhelp initiatives), but impact is limited.

significant role in directly meeting pressing societal needs (through service delivery or the promotion of self-help initiatives) and examples of significant success/impact can be detected.

CSOs are as effective as the state in delivering services to marginalized groups.

CSOs are slightly more effective than the state in delivering services to marginalized groups.

CSOs have a track Secondary data record of being Focus groups significantly more Community survey effective than the state in delivering services to marginalized groups.

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Community survey

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