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GERMA G AN-SINO SYMPOSIUM O SO ON OIL SC CIENC CE AN ND SO OIL PROTEECTIO ON NO OV 17-20 1 0, 2015 2016 German-Chinesee Agricuultural Center C (DCZ)...
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GERMA G AN-SINO SYMPOSIUM O SO ON OIL SC CIENC CE AN ND SO OIL PROTEECTIO ON NO OV 17-20 1 0, 2015

2016

German-Chinesee Agricuultural Center C (DCZ) Chhinese Academ A my of Ag griculturral Sciennces (CA AAS) Finnal reportt compiled d and ediited by Dr. D Marco Roelcke, DCZ

                     

 

German-Sino Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection November 17-20, 2015

Final Report

Compiled and edited by Dr. Marco Roelcke (June 2016)

 

 

Contents page Executive Summary

1

Summarizing report by Dr. Marco Roelcke, DZC (May 2016)

3

Reports by the six invited German experts (Dec. 2015-March 2016)

37

Summarizing report by Chinese side on Symposium and S&T Platform (Jan. 2016)

63

Annexes:

73

Workshop Programme

75

Participants list German side

85

Participants list Chinese side

89

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Executive summary On November 17-18, 2015, a “German-Sino Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection” was jointly organized by the DCZ and the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). This major event was one of the activities of the DCZ during the “German-Sino Agricultural Week” (Nov. 16-19, 2015), and in a broader context, also a part of the UN-FAO “2015 International Year of Soils”. Over 130 participants (soil scientists, soil policy officers, German and Chinese agro-industry representatives, extension services, practitioners and students) attended the event on November 18. Topics dealt with in several sessions included Soil Protection Policy and Strategies, Cutting-edge Knowledge on Soil Science and Soil Protection, Transfer and Extension: Demonstration Farms in China, and Technological Solutions to Soil Protection. The Concluding Discussion Session was attended by the German Parliamentary State Secretary (BMEL) Mr. Peter Bleser and by Dr. Zhang Taolin, Vice Minister, Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), who took questions from the audience and both delivered their Topical Contributions to the Symposium. The Symposium began with a small pre-discussion round on Soil Protection attended by high-level German and Chinese scientists and interested persons on November 17th. A follow-up tour to the Huanghai State Farm in Jiangsu Province with visit fields took place November 19-20, in connection with the opening of the “Sino-German Crop Production and Agrotechnology Demonstration Park (DCALDP)”.

Fig. 1: General view of Symposium of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Nov. 18, 2015 (photo: CAAS).

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German-Sino Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection Summarizing report by Dr. Marco Roelcke, DZC.

Background, Problems in Europe and Germany The year 2015 was declared as the “International Year of Soils 2015” (IYS 2015) by the UN 68th UN General Assembly (A/RES/68/232) in December 2013, also based on the initiative of His Majesty the King Bumibhol Adulyadej of Thailand. The IYS aimed to be a platform for raising awareness of the importance of soils for food security and essential eco-system functions. A multitude of international and national events followed, such as the Global Soil Partnership, and the release of the “Status of the World's Soil Resources Report” in December 2015, etc. The idea for a “soil event” at the German-Chinese Agricultural Center was first brought forward by Mr. Klaus Supp, from the Division 624 (International Projects, Twinning) of the German Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL), during a meeting of German and Chinese officials from the BMEL, Division 624 and Division 224 (Research and Innovation), the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Department of International Cooperation and Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ) and the Agricultural Counsellor Veterinary Affairs, German Embassy, at the CAAS on March 15, 2015. Symposium preparation, Institutional involvement The German-Chinese Agricultural Center (DCZ) was formally opened by the German Minister of Agriculture Christian Schmidt and his Chinese colleague Minister Han, Changfu on March 23, 2015. Shortly thereafter, the soil topic was included in the planning of the DCZ’s work programme for 2015 between the Permanent Directors of the German and the Chinese sides, Mr. Conrad Graf von Hoyos and Mr. Yu Ge. By agreement between the Implementing Agency for the DCZ on the Chinese side, the Foreign Economic Cooperation Center (FECC) and the partner for the scientific component of the DCZ on the Chinese side (CAAS), this “soil event” was to take place at the CAAS. Since May 2015, the planned symposium was included in the draft plans for the first “German-Chinese Agricultural Week” (Deutsch-Chinesische Agrarwoche, DCAW) to be held in November 2015 in occasion of the visit by the German Parliamentary State Secretary (PStS.) (BMEL) (corresponding to a Chinese Vice Minister), Dr. Peter Bleser, to Beijing. The Division of “International Projects, Twinning” of the Department of International Cooperation of the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL), and the Division of European Affairs, Department of International Cooperation of the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) were the supervising institutions of the Symposium. The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) was the executing agency. Operationally, the Workshop was organized by the two implementing agencies of the research component of the DCZ, the German Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAAS) with its Institute of Agricultural Resources and 3   

Regional Planning (IARRP). The joint costs for holding the Symposium were equally split between DCZ (GIZ project) and the IARRP of CAAS. The German and Chinese sides were responsible for the costs for the invited German and Chinese scientific experts, respectively. The invited German company representatives covered the costs by themselves.

 

From the beginning of detailed planning of the Symposium as part of the DCAW in June 2015, a broad and comprehensive perspective on different aspects regarding soil was aimed at. The topics were to be grouped along the following five main sessions: Soil protection policy and strategies including international perspectives of soil protection, Scientific session presenting newest research results in soil science, Transfer and extension, Technological solutions, Agricultural Policy Dialogue on Soil Protection with a Discussion with ViceMinisters. Detailled organization of the Symposium was done by Dr. Marco Roelcke (DCZ) and Prof. Dr. Zhang, Bin and his co-workers, in close communication with officials in charge of research at IARRP of CAAS. Selection of participants from the German and Chinese soil science community and German, Chinese and international participants from various institutions began in July 2015. The early and positive replies by the President of the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS) as well as by the future President (starting January 2016) of the German Soil Science Society (DBG) were instrumental for inviting other renowned German and Chinese soil science experts with outstanding research experience, many of whom also reflected long-term Sino-German research collaboration in soil science and related fields. For the session on Soil protection policy and strategies including international perspectives, contacts were made with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the EU Joint Research Center (JRC) in Ispra (Italy), the EU Delegation in Beijing, the German Umweltbundesamt (UBA) (Federal Environment Agency) and the corresponding Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMUB), as well as the Chinese Union of Soil Science and Soil Protection, located at the Nanjing Institute of Soil Science (CAS). The aim was to invite the experts primarily based on their expertise, and this included some experts from institutions outside the purely agricultural political framework. For the Transfer and Extension Session, a balance between different models and approaches was aimed at, taking into account the different farm-structures and various agricultural models co-existing in China. For the Technological Solutions Session, several representatives from German agroindustry companies with long-term experiences in China, as well as a Chinese scientist on agricultural mechanization and tillage were invited. For the Concluding Discussion in presence of the German PStS. (BMEL) and the Chinese Vice Minister (MOA), it was finally agreed between the German and Chinese Ministries that these politicians at deputy-ministerial level should attend the final contributions to the Symposium, and then be participating with questions and discussion from the podium and floor in an open setting, before delivering their own topical contributions. At the suggestion of the representative from the German BMUB, a small discussion round on Soil Protection was organized during the afternoon of the first day of the Symposium (Nov. 4   

  17). The main part of the Symposium was held on Nov. 18, 2015. A follow-up tour to the “Sino-German Crop Production and Agrotechnology Demonstration Park” (DeutschChinesischer Ackerbau- und Landtechnik-Demonstrationspark, DCALDP) on the Huanghai State Farm in Jiangsu Province, coinciding with its official opening, was organized for interested participants on Nov. 19-20, 2015. Due to time constraints during the visit of PStS. Bleser during the Agricultural Week, it was decided by the MOA to hold the official inauguration of the “German-Sino Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation Platform”, which had originally been scheduled for the afternoon of Nov. 17, immediately after the Conclusion of the Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection in the afternoon of November 18, 2015. Questions and Aims The aims of the workshop were on one hand to give a multi-facetted overview over all aspects of soil science and soil protection with particular emphasis on the situation in China, to create a podium for a broad exchange between all participants from the scientific community, governmental institutions, agro-industry as well as practitioners, and on the other hand to discuss solutions and soil remediation measures as well as to create the opportunity for detailled German-Chinese exchanges, also in view of possible future collaborations. Symposium venue, participants and time plan The Symposium was held on November 17 and 18, 2015. Most of the sessions took place in the Main Building Hall at the Headquarter of CAAS, while the small discussion round on Nov. 17 and one of the parallel afternoon sessions on Nov. 18 were at the Small Meeting Hall of the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP) of CAAS. As speakers on the German side a total of seven experts for the scientific session and an expert for the Transfer and Extension Session were originally invited (see Appendix). However, due to illnesses, the President of the International Union of Soil Scientists as well as the long-term German expert from the former German-Chinese demonstration farm in Inner Mongolia could not attend. Their respective presentations were given by their colleagues instead. The German delegation was led by Prof. Dr. Georg Guggenberger, Institute of Soil Science, University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany and future (January 2016) President of the German Soil Science Society (DBG). On the Chinese side, nine experts, led by Prof. Dr. Zhang, Ganlin from the Nanjing Institute of Soil Science (ISS) of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Institute of Applied Ecology (CAS), the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), the China Agricultural University (CAU), the Nanjing Normal University, as well as from the Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, (CAS and Ministry of Water Resources, MWR), Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University took part as speakers in the different sessions. The Transfer and Extension Session included three presentations on different case studies and demonstration farms in China, while in the Technological Solutions Session three representatives from German agro-industry and a Chinese scientist on conservation tillage presented. 5   

  Due to time constraint resulting from the date and timing of the official inauguration of the “German-Sino Agricultural Science & Technology Cooperation Platform” which took place immediately after the Concluding Discussion of the Symposium on Nov. 18, the Symposium split into two parallel sessions in the afternoon of Nov. 18. The session on “Cutting-Edge Knowledge on Soil Science and Soil Protection” continued in the Meeting Hall at the IARRP, while the Sessions on “Transfer and Extension” as well “Technological Solutions to soil protection” took place in the Main Building Meeting Hall of CAAS. After a break with reorganization of the seating, the Symposium then reconvened in the Main Building Meeting Hall. For the Concluding Discussion and Wrapping up, followed by the inauguration of the “German-Sino Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation Platform” a large German delegation accompanying the German PStS. Mr. Peter Bleser, and a delegation from the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) accompanying the Chinese Vice Minister, Dr. Zhang, Taolin, joined the Symposium. Overall, the Symposium was attended by approx. 135 persons, 46 of which were from Germany or other foreign countries and 89 from China (see Participants Lists in Annex).

Detailled summary of Sessions Small discussion round on Soil Protection at IARRP, Nov. 17, 2015 This discussion round was organized by Prof. Dr. Zhang Bin (IARRP, CAAS) and Dr. Marco Roekcke (DCZ), based on a suggestion by Dr. Thomas Straßburger (BMUB). It took place in the afternoon of Nov. 17, 2015 in a meeting room of the IARRP, CAAS, from 15:30-18:30 (Fig. 2). The following scientists participated:            

Zhang, Bin (Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, CAAS) Zhang, Ganlin (Deputy Director at the Institute of Soil Science (ISS), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Nanjing Zhang, Xudong (Institute of Applied Ecology, CAS, Shenyang) Cai, Zucong (School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University) Georg Guggenberger (Institute of Soil Science, University of Hannover) Joachim Ingwersen (University of Hohenheim) Holger Lilienthal (Julius Kühn-Institute, Braunschweig) Anne Ostermann (World Agroforestry Centre East and Central Asia Region, Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS) Marco Roelcke (Science Advisor, DCZ) Christian Rumbaur (Technische Universität München, Chair of Hydrology and River Basin Management) Thomas Straßburger (Division Soil Protection and Contaminated Land, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, BMUB) Gerhard Welp (INRES – Soil Science, University of Bonn) 6 

 

The meeting provided a good opportunity for an informal get-to-know and exchange of questions and ideas between German and Chinese soil scientists prior to the Symposium proper on the following day.

 

Prof. Dr. Zhang Bin and Dr. Marco Roelcke opened the discussion round, followed by a brief self-introduction by the participants. Thereafter, the Report on the status of soil contamination in China, jointly issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) and the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR) (2014) was mentioned to the participants. http://www.mep.gov.cn/gkml/hbb/qt/201404/t20140417_270670.htm Some findings from this report were initially not made available to the public, which had led to some misleading interpretations of the results in the broad media. The report is now very well summarized in a publication in an international scientific journal by Zhao et al. (2015). The Chinese scientists were interested in receiving information from their German counterparts on the German soil protection ordinance (Bodenschutzgesetz) and regulations in agricultural management. Dr. Thomas Straßburger, BMUB, pointed out that in Germany the topic of soil has always been under the Ministry of the Environment (BMUB), frequently under joint competence between the Federal German institutions, such as the German Umweltbundesamt UBA (Federal Environment Agency, subordinate to the BMUB) or the Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe BGR (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, subordinate to the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, BMWi), and the German states (Bundesländer). In some of the German states, the soil divisions are jointly operated together with the respective Ministries of Agriculture. As concrete measures for soil protection in Germany, the Soil Protection Ordinance (Bodenschutzgesetz) deals mainly with soil contamination. In Germany, soil protection in agriculture is partly implemented through subsidies. The “Landwirtschaftskammern” are the controlling organs. Dr. Straßburger also explained to the Chinese scientists how contaminated sites were identified, and introduced the German systems of “Action, Trigger and Precaution Values” to the Chinese participants. He also mentioned that a new “Bodenzustandserhebung” (national soil status survey) was to be carried out in Germany by the Thünen Institute (TI) in 2018. For the Chinese scientists, Prof. Zhang Ganlin of the Institute of Soil Science (CAS) gave an initial institutional overview. He mentioned that in China, the Soil Division used to be located in the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) but then disappeared, and that a new Soil Division had recently been established within the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP). The Chinese MEP is in charge of recording the status of soil contamination in China and is currently preparing a “National Soil Action Plan” (tu rang shi tiao) together with the MLR. At the same time, a "Soil Pollution Prevention Act” is planned for the legislation in 2017. In the opinion of the Chinese participants in the small discussion round, this „Soil Act“ should also comprise non-pollutant based soil degradations; however, this would be a decision by the MEP.

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  Besides the MEP, the MOA (with a special program to protect soil fertility), the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR; land management) und the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) are all dealing with soil-related matters in China. The competences are clearly delineated. A special study on Soil Pollution Management commissioned by the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED) has been published in Nov. 2015. The principal investigators were from the Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences (NIES) of the MEP. During the discussion round on Nov. 17, the Chinese colleagues also pointed out that the role of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) as scientific advisory body in China in general had declined in recent years. Following these exchanges regarding the institutions, a more general discussion resulted, touching on the topics of over-fertilization, pathogen accumulation (loss of soil suppressiveness), etc. The consensus was that farmers strongly believe in the “the more the better” theory and will not take the risk of reducing fertilizer/pesticide application, just because they are told to do so. What is needed is either a very strict implementation of regulations regarding fertilizer/pesticide application or/and demonstration plots (e.g. run by innovative farmers, extension services, scientists) to give the farmers a chance to compare different management systems without risking their income.

Fig. 2: Small discussion round on soil protection at IARRP on November 17, 2015 (photo: CAAS).

The low education level of farmers in China as well as poor extension services, which frequently even have to finance themselves by the sales of fertilizers and pesticides were also given as causes for this situation. Often farmers get their information on fertilizer and pesticide use from the shops where they purchase these products. 8   

  However, a chance was seen in the trend towards farms of increasing size that are run by a better educated manager. Although this only applies to those areas in China where combining small patches of land to larger management units is feasible. Prof. Yan, Xiaoyuan from the Nanjing Institute of Soil Science, CAS (person. comm., Oct. 2014) mentioned that the main reason fertilizer application rates have been dropping in southern Jiangsu Province in recent years was that farming is now being carried out in larger units there, since many of the original farmers were leaving their land for off-farm employment, and then rented or leased out their land to larger (more specialized?) farmers or farming units. Overall, as pointed out by several of the German participants, this discussion with the Chinese scientists was very lively and conducted in an open manner with mutual trust amongst the participants. It was one of the highlights of the Soil Symposium.

Morning Plenary Session, Main Building Meeting Hall, Nov. 18, 2015 Welcome Opening Statements during the official Welcome Ceremony were delivered by Mr. Wang, Hanzhong, Vice President, CAAS, by Ms. Maja Clausen, Division Research and Innovation, BMEL, by Mr. Zhong, Luqing, Deputy Division Head, Department of Crop Production, Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), by Mr. Chen, Jinqiang, Deputy Director General, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP) of CAAS, and by Dr. Dietrich Guth, Political Director (German side) DCZ (Fig. 3). This was followed by a group photo (Fig. 4).

Fig. 3: Opening Statements during Welcome Ceremony of Soil Symposium, Nov. 18 (photo: CAAS).

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Fig. 4: Group photo during Workshop opening on November 18, 2015 (photo: CAAS).

Soil Protection Policy and Strategies Session The opening address, planned to be delivered Prof. Dr. Rainer Horn, the President of the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS) was held by Prof. Dr. Georg Guggenberger, Institute of Soil Science, University of Hannover (Fig. 5a).  On behalf of the International Union of Soil Sciences, he conveyed the best greetings of more than 60,000 soil scientists from around the world to the Symposium participants on the occasion of the Sino-German Agricultural Week in Beijing. In the text of his speech, Prof. Horn defined urgently needed soil properties and pointed out ways how to gain future certainty on how to stop hunger, to optimize soil use efficiency and to guarantee long-term soil conservation. The public awareness must be increased with the slogan “healthy soil for healthy food” or “better soil functionality results in higher resilience” which were also among the foci of this “Sino-German Agricultural Week”. The second presentation, by Prof. Dr. Xu, Minggang of the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP), CAAS, gave a detailed overview on “Arable Land Quality - Current Issues and Protection Policy in China” (Fig. 5b). These included Current Situation of Arable Land Quality in China, Technology Strategy for Improving Arable Land Quality in China, as well as Policies for Arable Land Protection in China. In the first part, Prof. Xu pointed out that there was a shortage of arable land resources, and that China had less per capita arable land compared to other countries. Moreover, the  quality of arable land is quite low, with 1/4 of total land area of difficult use for agriculture, 26% of land with soil organic matter (SOM) contents below 1%, and  70% of the total land area of low to medium yield only. In a comparison, he mentioned that the soil fertility contribution to grain yield in China was 52% for rice, wheat and maize crops in average, and that this was about 20% lower than that of Europe and America. He pointed out the serious degradation of arable land quality in China and gave the following reasons and examples: (1) thinning of tillage layer, in particular in soils of the NE of China, (2) low soil organic matter content, with an increasing regional imbalance, (3) imbalance of soil nutrients (total N, available P, available K), (4) soil 10   

  acidification and salinization, acidification being partly caused by unreasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer, (5) severe pollution of arable land, with pollutants in 16.1% of analyzed soil samples (even 19.4% for soil samples derived from agricultural soils) exceeding the stipulated Class II Standards of the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB 15618-1995), according to the joint MEP-MLR report mentioned above (Zhao et al., 2015).  For improving arable land quality in China, Prof. Xu mentioned a number of techniques and planned strategic measures, such as the enhancement of water use efficiency, the increase in SOM contents, and to economize fertilizer and irrigation water. A large data platform is to be constructed and a monitoring and early warning system for arable land quality is to be improved. The number of soil monitoring points on state level is to be increased from the current 348 to 4,060 by 2020. Finally, the improvement of laws and regulations on arable land quality, and increased investment to  build “high standard farmland” and to improve arable land quality were mentioned.

Figs. 5a and 5b: Prof. Guggenberger delivering opening address; Prof. Xu, Minggang giving presentation on arable land quality in China (photos: CAAS).

Figs. 6a and 6b: EU Agricultural Counsellor Nicolas Dandois presenting EU Soil Thematic Strategy; German BMUB Dr. Thomas Strassburger presenting soil protection in Germany (photos: CAAS).

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  The Agricultural Counsellor at the EU Delegation in Beijing, Mr. Nicolas Dandois, presented the EU Soil Thematic Strategy (Fig. 6a). Describing the overall soil situation in Europe, he mentioned that an estimated 115 million hectares or 12% of Europe’s total land area are subject to water erosion, an estimated 42 million hectares are affected by wind erosion, about 45% of European soils have low organic matter content, that the number of potentially contaminated sites in EU-25 is estimated at approximately 3.5 million, and that between 1990 and 2000, at least 2.8% of Europe’s land was subject to a change in use (mainly urban areas - soil sealing). He then presented the EU Soil Thematic Strategy (adopted in 2006), which was based on four pillars, and which, amongst others, had included a (failed) proposal for a Framework Directive on Soils, and then mentioned the Policy Report on the Implementation of the Strategy. This Report is supplemented by a reference report called "The State of Soil in Europe", issued by Joint Research Center JRC, in collaboration with European Environment Agency EEA (EU Joint Research Center, 2011) providing a comprehensive overview of the present understanding of soil resources and degradation processes. Next, Mr. Dandois presented the Sino-EU Panel on Land and Soil (SEPLS, 2013), established in 2010 at the initiative of the EU Commissioner for Research, Mr Potocnik, and the Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mr. Ding, Zhongli. The SEPLS is a formal and permanent platform operating as a scientific body whose role is to Evaluate and report scientific results for policy support, Propose priority issues for research projects, Make policy evaluation and advice, and Raise awareness to public and across sectors. Mr. Dandois next presented the “Trilemma” in Chinese land use policy (Fig. 7; SEPLS, 2013), meaning that the optimization of land use on local, regional and national levels very often encompasses complex decisions on socio-economic and ecological priorities which are usually conflicting. According to Mr. Dandois, this trilemma, between ensuring food security, ecological security and urban development can only be resolved by the integration of local characteristics into upper levels of policy making process. As research components, he mentioned the SEPLS (Scientific Analysis), the Food and Agriculture Biotechnology Task Force (a Policy dialogue between EU and CAAS), the Horizon 2020 Work Programme, and the Research and Innovation projects. He gave several examples for ongoing collaboration projects in the Framework of the “Horizon 2020” Programme, and also presented several new calls in “Horizon 2020”, such as  “Management of soil water resources in the EU and China and its impact on agro-ecosystem functions” (deadline February 2017), as an example. Dr. Thomas Strassburger, of the Unit Soil Protection and Contaminated Land, German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) gave a very good overview on Soil Protection in Germany (Fig. 6b). He first mentioned the Soil Protection Concept (1985) – a German federal paper promoting a holistic approach, but where protection of soil was addressed only indirectly through provisions dedicated to clean air, waste management or application of fertilizers and pesticides, as well as Länder (German States) provisions. This was then followed in 1999 by the Soil Protection Legislation at the Federal Level, comprising the Soil Protection Act and the Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance. At the Länder level, there are 16 Soil Protection Acts, one for each Bundesland (German State).

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Fig. 7: “Trilemma” in land use policy in China (SEPLS, 2013. From presentation by N. Dandois, Nov. 2015).

The Objective of soil policy in Germany is ‘to protect or restore the functions of the soil on a permanent sustainable basis’. Actions shall include prevention of harmful soil changes, rehabilitation of the degraded soil, remediation of contaminated sites and of waters (contaminated by such sites). The legislation covers both preventive and remedial soil protection. Special focus lies on soil contamination in order to ensure a harmonized approach for remedial action. The number of sites suspected to be contaminated amounts to 320,000, there are 19,000 contaminated sites and 32,000 remediated sites in Germany. For remediation, the principle of precaution is applied to prevent damage and risks, and distinctions are made between different types of land use. Germany has a total area of 360,000 km2 put to (intensive) use, 52.3% are under agricultural use, 30.2% under forest, 13.4% are occupied by settlement and traffic, 2.4% by water and 1.7% other use. For agricultural soil use, legislation delegates responsibility to the farming community. ‘Good Agricultural Practice’ is considered as pillar for sustainable soil management (preventive measures to avoid harmful soil changes). Its basic principle is the permanent protection of soil fertility and soil functions as a natural resource. The EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has introduced via Cross Compliance some obligations to maintain a certain level of soil quality (minimum requirements), for example to avoid soil erosion. During the discussion, Dr. Straßburger, having spent six years working on European Soil Policy at the DG Environment of the EU Commission in Brussels, was able to give an outlook on European aspects as well, which interlinked very well with the preceding presentation. 13   

  Prof. Dr. Zhang, Ganlin, Director of the State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, and Deputy Director of Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in Nanjing, gave a talk on Research Priorities for Soil Security and Sustainable Soil Use in China, as final presentation of the Soil Protection Policy and Strategies Session (Fig. 8a). He started with a historical overview of the origins of soil science in China, dating back to the China Geological Survey in 1930, and the founding of the Nanjing Institute of Soil Science in 1953. He then gave an overview of soil’s different functions and services and then listed the goals and targets in which soil is explicitly mentioned or generally related to in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) defined at the UN Sustainable Development Summit (Sept. 25-27, 2015). He also mentioned the increasing pressure on soil resources, again showing the “Trilemma in land use policy” (SEPLS, 2013; see Fig. 7). He then mentioned that arable land shortage, intensive land use and soil contamination, soil degradation and low resource use efficiency were all limiting sustainable agricultural development. Prof. Zhang, Ganlin then went on to define the research domains and priorities for a sustainable use of soil resources in the near future, consisting specifically in Soil resource inventory and modeling, Efficient use of nutrients and improvement of soil quality, Soil contamination process and remediation technology, Biotic and abiotic interactions, Precise fertilization and control of NPS pollution, and Response and mitigation of agroecosystem to global change, giving many specific examples. He concluded his presentation with a call for international collaboration on the following five major research areas: Soil data/information, Soil capacities, Soil Knowledge, Investments in soil management, and the Need of compatible soil policies for food security, ecosystem security, climate change mitigation, disaster and drought management, etc. Finally he mentioned World Soil Day (Dec. 5, 2015) as an event during the 2015 International Year of Soils.

Figs. 8a and 8b: Prof. Zhang, Ganlin on Research Priorities for Soil Security and Sustainable Soil Use in China; Prof. Zhang, Bin giving presentation about Mollisols (photos: CAAS).

Cutting-edge knowledge on soil science and soil protection session Prof. Dr. Zhang, Bin, of the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP) at CAAS, in the first presentation of the scientific session gave a detailed presentation about Mollisols (USDA soil taxonomy, equivalent to Phaeozems and Chernozems in the World Reference Base (WRB) soil taxonomy) of China (Fig. 8b). These 14   

  soils were formed under a grassland cover in semi-humid and semi-arid areas under a warmer paleo-climate, and are now distributed in the mid-latitudes (cold weather) of the globe. Mollisols in NE China cover an area of 400,000 km2 (70,000 km2 of which are typical Chernozems) in a total land area in the NE of 1.030 milion km2, and have the shortest history of agricultural use in China, ranging from 10 to 300 years. They are under threat due to temperature increase and strong agricultural intensification, leading to a strong decline in soil organic carbon (SOC). This is causing a deterioration of soil structure, nutrient and water retention. A further threat to Mollisols in China are a shallower soil depth due to loss of surface soil by water and wind erosion and subsoil compaction. Prof. Zhang then mentioned several measures to reverse these trends based on historical lessons learnt from other countries (Russia, Germany). These are based on a sustainable carbon management, including straw incorporation and erosion control, to enhance the soil’s physical and biological functionality, SOC quantity and quality dynamics, as well as landscape carbon balancing and carbon neutrality. Finally, Prof. Zhang mentioned the Sino-German Workshop on Sustainable Management of Mollisols in China held 26 to 31 July, 2014, in Harbin (Heilongjiang Province), and exhorted the participants in joining his international cooperation among multi-disciplinary teams on sustainable agricultural intensification in the Mollisol region of China.

Figs. 9a and 9b: Prof. Guggenberger presenting Impact of land use practices on soil degradation in Siberia; Prof. Jiao, Juying during presentation on vegetation restoration on Chinese Loess Plateau (photos: CAAS).

Prof. Dr. Georg Guggenberger from the Institute of Soil Science of the University of Hannover presented a case study from the Kulunda Steppe in Siberia as part of the German-Russian KULUNDA project in the BMBF’s FONA (Research for Sustainability) Programme, on the Impact of land use practices on soil degradation and chances of improvement (Fig. 9a). In the Altai Kray region, 47% of arable land is critically degraded, with wind erosion being mostly responsible for soil degradation. The most degraded areas are in the dry steppes, and a major problem is the weak adaption of agricultural technology. The soil types include Chernozems, Kastanozems and Gleyic Solonchaks. As typical issues of degradation, Prof. Guggenberger gave examples of vegetation degradation resulting in low genetical diversity, soil compaction, carbon losses, and a smaller aggregate stability due to reduction in SOC contents under intensive soil management. There was a strong relationship between SOM stocks and soil structure and thus erosion control. As options for improvement, 15   

  he presented several innovative land use techniques, mainly aiming at reducing the intensity of soil tillage, thereby increasing soil moisture content and improving soil structure. Ms. Prof. Jiao, Juying from the Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & MWR, Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University in Yangling, Shaanxi Province talked about Vegetation restoration, soil erosion and sediment yield on the Loess Plateau after “Grain for Green” (GFG) project (Fig. 9b). The Chinese Loess Plateau suffers the most severe soil erosion in the world, also causing potential flooding in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. Following the dramatic flooding of the Yangtze River in 1998 caused partly by heavy logging in its upper reaches, the nationwide GFG project was launched in 1999, to control soil and water losses and also to improve ecosystem of the Loess Plateau. The presentation investigated the status of vegetation restoration, soil erosion and sediment yield on the Loess Plateau region after about 15 years of GFG implementation. In Shaanxi Province, vegetation area was increasing and extending further to the north by about 400 km. Prof. Jiao, Yuying gave many examples for different vegetation types and succession trajectories, distinguishing between artificial revegetation vs. spontaneous colonization. She then showed many examples of soil erosion, and mentioned that areas with low erosion intensity had increased, while those with strong erosion intensity had decreased from 2000 to 2010. 70% of the intense soil erosion was caused by local rainstorms with short durations and high intensities, with human activities having become crucial issues for soil and water loss on the Loess Plateau. Prof. Jiao made a detailed comparison of sediment yield in different drainage areas and sections of the Loess Plateau between the years 1955-1969 (before erosion control) and from 2000-2010.  For the larger-scale afforestation on the Loess Plateau, the relationship between afforestation and soil water carrying capacity, and the sustainability of afforestation and ecosystem should also be considered. Overall, the comprehensive practices have achieved remarkable soil erosion control; however, soil erosion is still likely to be very severe during heavy rainstorms, especially in gully slopes. PD Dr. Gerhard Welp, Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), Division Soil Science, University of Bonn, in his presentation on Veterinary Antibiotics and Heavy Metals in Soils, showed results of a Sino-German research collaboration project on “Recycling of organic residues from agricultural and municipal origin in China”, co-funded by the German BMBF and the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) (Fig. 10a). China is the largest antibiotics producer and consumer in the world, with 46% of production used in livestock industries (year 2007). The use of antibiotics leads to high concentrations in animal manures, and causes antibiotic resistance traits in manure, manure-amended soils, and downstream waters and sediments. In addition, heavy metals (HM, Copper (Cu), Zink (Zn)) and even Arsenic (As) are added to swine feed for growth promotion and disease control, often in excessive amounts. While antibiotics in soil suffer biological transformation and degradation, heavy metals in soils undergo no such transformations. A case study of a pilot pig farm in Shunyi District of Beijing, which has an animal density of 10-15 livestock units (LU) per hectare (ha-1) (1 LU = 500 kg), was presented (Heimann et al., 2015; Ostermann et al., 2014). Soil samples were taken from 24 sites in 6 depths down to 2 m, and on two non-agricultural hotspots (lagoon and riverbed), down to 4 m. The antibiotics classes Sulfonamides, Tetracyclines and Fluoroquinolones, and the metals Cu, Zn and As were determined. The results showed that all sites that received pig manure contained antibiotics, 16   

  in partly very high concentrations. Leaching of sulfonamides, partly of tetracyclines, but not of fluoroquinolones was observed. For copper, 4 of the 24 plots investigated (17%) exceeded the “Natural background value” (35 mg kg-1 Cu) of the Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB 15618-1995) (National Environmental Protection Bureau, 1995), while the “Second Criterion” (>100 mg kg-1 at soil pH >6.5) was not reached. This means that for Cu (as for Zn) there was no influence on crop growth and human health. In a lysimeter experiment (Ostermann et al., 2015), a small part of labelled 65Cu was leached to a depth of 40 cm after 53 days, showing this is an ongoing and long-lasting problem. The scientist therefore proposed not to use antibiotics and heavy metals as growth promoters, and that a risk assessment for different soils was strongly needed. He also mentioned that moreover, antibiotics and HM are linked via resistance genes, adding an extra urgency to the problem.

Figs. 10a and 10b: PD Dr. Gerhard Welp giving presentation on Veterinary antibiotics and heavy metals in soils; Prof. Dr. Cai, Zucong and Dr. Holger Lilienthal chairing Session on Cutting-edge Knowledge on Soil Science and Soil Protection (photos: CAAS).

The Session on Cutting-edge Knowledge on Soil Science and Soil Protection continued as parallel session in the afternoon. Prof. Dr. Cai, Zucong of the School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University presented Mechanisms and application of Reductive Soil Disinfestation (RSD), a new method to control soil-borne diseases (Fig. 10b). There has been a rapid increase in vegetable-harvested area in China since 1978. Most greenhouses could only be consecutively cropped for 3-4 years before severely suffering from soil-borne diseases. In particular, an article in NATURE on the banana wilt-disease (Panama disease), caused by a soil fungus (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense, Foc.), has attracted great concern in China. The causes of rapid and severe occurrence of soil-borne diseases include consecutive monoculture, lack of knowledge about preventing the spread of soil-borne pathogens, and very intensive cultivation. Greenhouse cultivation in China is characterized by a high multiple cropping index of 2-4 crops per year, and a high N application rate averaging almost 500 kg N ha-1 yr-1.  Prof. Cai then introduced RSD, a  method that transforms soil from aerobic conditions to intensively reduced conditions within 1-2 days, and maintains these intensively reduced conditions for a certain period (2-4 weeks), in order to disinfest soil-borne pathogens and improve soil properties. Amongst others, it has a high impact on plant-parasitic nematodes as well as on weeds. Finally, Prof. Cai showed several successful examples, a banana plantation in Hainan Province and flower cultivation in greenhouses in Yunnan Province, resulting in a great efficiency of RSD in disinfecting soil-borne pathogens. 17   

  Dr. Joachim Ingwersen, Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, University of Hohenheim, started off his presentation by looking back at the long-term cooperation between his university and the China Agricultural University (CAU), dating back to 1980. He then gave an overview of the Sino-German International Research Training Group (IRTG) “Modelling Material Flows and Production Systems for Sustainable Resource Use in Intensified Crop Production in the North China Plain” funded by DFG and Chinese Ministry of Education (MOE) 2004-2014, with selected key results and scientific performance. Thereafter, Dr. Ingwersen presented Recent developments in the “Barometric Process Separation Technique” (BaPS), an isotopic-free lab-method for simultaneously measuring gross nitrification and soil respiration rates in well-aerated soils, which was originally developed for acidic forest soils. In particular, they developed the Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) method, which allows to directly measure CO2 retention in soil. They found an empirical relation between the respiration quotient (RQ) and the basic soil properties pH and C/N-ratio. With the help of the SCI method, provided that the site-specific RQ is known, the BaPS technique is now also applicable to high-pH soils. Prof. Ma, Yibing, of the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP) of CAAS gave a presentation on Advances in soil quality standards of trace elements for agricultural lands in China, taking Nickel (Ni) as an example. He started with an overview on Soil Contamination in China, with a table showing the percentage of soil samples exceeding the Class II Standards in the Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standards in the recent National Soil Contamination Survey (MEP and MLR). He also gave an example showing that in certain cases the standards in China were stricter than in other countries; e.g., the soil Cd natural value is 0.5 mg kg-1 for world soils while it is 0.205 mg kg-1 for Chinese soils, and the Cd limit in food crops is 0.2 mg kg-1 in rice, while it is 0.4 mg kg-1 in Japan, etc. Next, he showed the annual trace element inputs (in tons) to agricultural soils in China, resulting that for Zn, Cu, Chrome (Cr), and Cadmium (Cd), livestock manures were the greatest source, while for lead (Pb), Ni, Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg), atmospheric deposition was the main source of inputs. As main mitigation strategies, he mentioned reducing the sources of contamination, reducing metal bioavailability, reducing food crop uptake, and restructuring planting systems. In the second part, Prof. Ma presented a kind of road map procedure on advances in soil quality standards of trace elements for agricultural lands in China. Soil quality standards of eight trace elements (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, Cr, Hg) for agricultural land in China were recently investigated. Models of phytotoxicity (of Cu, Zn and Ni) and phytoavailability (of Pb, Cd, As, Cr, Hg) as a function of soil properties were developed for different local crop species. Then species sensitivity distributions were developed using local data, and hazard concentrations in soils (to protect 95% of species) were developed (HC5 values). Quantitative relationships between HC5 values and soil properties were examined and predictive models for HC5 values were developed based on soil properties that are already mapped and measured across China (e.g. pH, SOM content). Finally, the soil type-specific predicted no-effect concentration values (PNECs) for agricultural production were determined and modeled based on soil properties, as well as a PNEC calculator for different regions having different soil types and different crops was developed. When making a comparison of PNECtotal with the existing Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB 15618-1995) (National Environmental Protection Bureau, 1995) in China, the current standard for Ni is slightly overprotective in alkaline soils (pH>7.5) and 18   

  underprotective in acidic soils (pH50% clay, a SOM content of about 17.8 g kg-1, and a soil pH (CaCl2) of 7.59. Currently, an irrigated summer rice - winter upland crop (wheat, barley) double-crop rotation is carried out. The development goal and project objective is to support the development of Chinese agriculture through training and demonstrations in the field of modern, sustainable plant production. Target groups are managers, agronomists and technical staff of agricultural businesses; multipliers are representatives of education and training institutes in the agricultural sector, scientists, representatives from agricultural administration and organizations. The thematic project focuses on a Platform, on demonstration, education, farm management, and dissemination. Finally, a few examples for tillage, for digging irrigation and drainage ditches on the field, and for sowing operations, using local farm equipment and with German technology, were shown. 22   

 

Figs. 12a and 12b: Mr. Thomas Illies during overview of Sino-German demonstration park on Huanghai Farm in Jiangsu Province; Assoc. Prof. Dr. He, Jin giving presentation on agricultural mechanization and conservation tillage in China (photos: CAAS).

Session on Technological solutions to soil protection - 10 years of experience with Chinese agriculture The final of the parallel afternoon sessions focused on Technological solutions to soil protection - 10 years of experience with Chinese agriculture. Assoc. Prof. He, Jin (coauthored with Prof. Li, Hongwen), College of Engineering, China Agricultural University (CAU), Conservation Tillage Research Center of MOA, gave a presentation on Current Status of Agricultural Mechanization and Conservation Tillage in China (Fig. 12b). The degree of mechanization in China’s main crops has increased from 32.3% to 61.0% from 2000 to 2014, varying considerably between different crops and operations. There were 1,903 agricultural machinery companies with a total industrial output value of 311.5 billion RMB in 2012. The total power of agricultural machinery was 102,559 * 10,000 KW in 2012, the number of total tractors was 22.8 million, and the total number of towing agricultural machines was 30.4 million in 2012. The aim is to mechanize all operations for the main crops, due to growing demand, shortage of labour etc., by an optimization in equipment structure, by an expansion of the organizational scale, and by improving working quality and efficiency. For example, with the constantly improving mechanized operation level, fuel consumption for machinery operation per unit area has been constantly declining since 2008. Dr. Jens Oeding, Regional President for East Asia of the German company CLAAS gave a presentation on adapting technology to local needs – 10 years of experience with Chinese agriculture, taking the former Sino-German demonstration farm in Ganhe (Inner Mongolia) as an example (Fig. 13a). He presented several practical demonstrations on soil protection that were carried out at the farm, such as a soil seepage test, where water cannot enter the deeper, more heavily compacted layers of the soil, and plants cannot root deeply. In contrast, in not compacted areas of the soil, water and nutrients were able to enter the deeper soil areas, thereby enabling plants to root deeper, receive more water, nutrients and oxygen, and be stronger. As another practical example, a tyre test was carried out with conventional tyres with high tyre pressure, vs. “super volume tyres” with reduced tyre 23   

  pressure. A reduced tyre pressure gives a larger “tyre footprint”, meaning the same tractor weight is distributed on a higher surface, thereby leading to less soil compaction. Dr. Oeding then gave several examples for technological solutions with specific tractors, resulting in a better performance, less slipping of the tyres, more traction, lower fuel consumption, a lower soil compaction, and less wear on the tractor. For example, a tyre pressure of 0.8 bar means the tyre dives half way into the soil, reduces soil pressure amount and depth, and improves the traction of the tractor. Summarizing, the local conditions in Ganhe showed a high degree in soil compaction, which could mainly be attributed to the design of the equipment used on the Ganhe Farm previously. With adapted equipment, with particular focus on the tractors and its tyres, soil compaction could be reduced during the subsequent years.

Figs. 13a and 13b: Dr. Jens Oeding giving presentation on adapting technology to local needs of Chinese agriculture; Mr. Peter Zhao giving presentation on LEMKEN China experience with soil protection (photos: CAAS).

The German company LEMKEN representative from Qingdao, Mr. Peter Zhao, gave a presentation on the company LEMKEN’s experience with soil protection (Fig. 13b). The company, founded in 1780 and owned by Family Lemken since 7 generations, today has more than 1,200 employees worldwide. The company has been present in China for 20 years, and founded its assembly plant in Qingdao in 2011. As specialist for professional farming, LEMKEN products comprise the agricultural operations stubble cultivation, ploughing, seedbed preparation, seeding and crop protection. Mr. Zhao next mentioned some challenges for soil protection in China, a country with 1/14th of the world’s arable land, but having to feed 1/5th of the world’s population. Its agriculture is characterized by smallscale farming, its soil is overused and threatened by land degradation, soil hardening, a lack in organic fertilizer application and soil contamination. He then presented the full process round of farming mechanization with many examples of LEMKEN machinery. The company is also involved in sharing experience through farmers training, etc. Dr. Cynthia Wei, Head of Public and Government Affair, Bayer Crop Science (BCS), gave a presentation on how to Leverage Sino-German Modern Agriculture Cooperation for Sustainable Agriculture Development (Fig. 14). Following an overview over BCS’s Life Science Business in general, she focused on Seeds, Crop Protection and Environmental 24   

  Science in particular. She gave examples on solutions for nematode control and crop protection in rice production. She presented a pesticide effluent management system that safely disposes off washings from the spray tank, and a pilot model for empty pesticide container management. Next, Dr. Wei introduced the Bayer AgriSolution Center (ASC) and AgriSolution Site (ASS) concepts in China, based on long-term cooperation with agricultural institutes, universities, state farms, cooperatives, fixed field experiments, implementing product field testing and demonstration, reliable technical data, technical support and training, and weed resistance monitoring pot experiments. The “Jiangsu ASC–Sustainable Agriculture Demonstration Center” was inaugurated in 2014 in cooperation with the Danyang plant protection service in Jiangsu Province, and is targeted at weeds, diseases and pests in the rice-wheat double-crop rotation, vegetables and fruit crops. Internal technical training is a key component in the “Bayer Academy”, and includes training for personnel from state farms in Heilongjiang, and a cooperation with the National Agri Tech Extension Service Center (NATESC) under the MOA.

Fig. 14: Dr. Cynthia Wei giving presentation on Bayer Crop Science AgriSolutions Center (photo: CAAS).

Concluding Discussion and Wrapping Up Session The Concluding Discussion and Wrapping up session was chaired by Dr. Marco Roelcke, DCZ and Prof. Dr. Zhang, Bin, CAAS. Prof. Dr. Georg Guggenberger for the Soil Science and Soil Protection Session, and Prof. Dr. Mi, Guohua together with Dr. Franz-Georg von Busse for the Technological Solutions Session, delivered two summarizing fiveminute workshop reports to the plenum. This was followed by a short Concluding Discussion with all participants of the Symposium (Figs. 15a and b).

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Figs. 15a and 15b: Prof. Dr. Georg Guggenberger and Dr. Franz-Georg von Busse summarizing results from Soil Science and Soil protection Session and Technological Solutions Session (photos: CAAS).

Figs. 16a and 16b: Members of Chinese delegation (first row from left to right): Ms. Feng, Dongxin, Mr. Tang, Shenyao, Vice Minister Dr. Zhang, Taolin, Prof. Dr. Wu, Kongming, Mr. Wang, Jinbiao; members of German delegation (first row from left to right): Ms. Ursula Becker, Ms. Dr. Doris Heberle; PStS. Mr. Peter Bleser, Dr. Friedrich Wacker, Ms. Maja Clausen (photos: CAAS).

Immediately thereafter, the German and Chinese Delegations, led by the Parliamentary State Secretary (PStS.) of BMEL, Mr. Peter Bleser, and the Chinese Vice Minister of Agriculture in charge of Science and Technology, Dr. Zhang, Taolin, joined the Concluding Discussion. The German Delegation from BMEL further consisted of Dr. Friedrich Wacker, Deputy Head of Department International Cooperation, Food Security, Dr. Ansgar Aschfalk, Deputy Head of Division for Bilateral Cooperation with Central and East Asian Countries, GFFA, Dr. Doris Heberle, Head of Division for International Projects, Twinning, Dr. Ulrich Kleinwechter, Division for International Projects, Twinning, and Ms. Maja Clausen, of Division Research and Innovation, Department of Food Policy, Product Safety and Innovation. The Chinese Delegation from MOA further comprised Dr. Tang, Shenyao, Deputy Head of Department of International Cooperation (MOA), Mr. Wang, Jinbiao, Head of Division for Bilateral Cooperation with Europe (MOA), and Mr. Yu, Ge, Foreign Economic Cooperation Center (FECC) of MOA and Permanent Director (Chinese side) of the German-Chinese Agricultural Center (DCZ).

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  The Session was chaired by Ms. Dr. Feng, Dongxin, Director-General of Department of International Cooperation, CAAS, who first introduced the honorable guests. This was followed by a 15-minute presentation by Dr. Marco Roelcke, DCZ, who gave an overview of Several decades of agricultural scientific cooperation between Germany and China, running through the changes Chinese agriculture has undergone in the past 25 years, and including examples from both Western and Eastern Germany dating back to the 1970s (Fig. 16). He mentioned several success stories, such as the long-standing cooperation between the University of Hohenheim and the China Agricultural University (CAU), the Sino-German Cooperation Group on Soil and Environment, and the recent Sino-German projects on Sustainable Land Use, under the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST).

Fig. 16: Dr. Roelcke giving presentation on several decades of agricultural scientific cooperation (photo: CAAS).

As matching presentation, Prof. Dr. Zhang, Bin of the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP) of CAAS gave an overview on the Future cooperation priorities of Sino-German Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation Platform (S&T Platform) which was inaugurated immediately following the Soil Symposium (see below) (Fig. 17). After a brief mention of the bilateral meetings and corresponding agreements signed during the preparation phase of the S&T Platform, he gave a brief overview of the day’s Symposium, highlighting the main topics dealt with in the various Sessions. Subsequently, Prof. Zhang introduced the Future Priorities of the S&T Platform, which include the following topics and activities: Sustainable Intensification (2016-2017), with the preparation of a “Sino27   

  German collaboration group about Mollisol Region NE China”. In connection with this collaboration group, a joint workshop on “Sustainable Carbon Management In Mollisol Region of China” is planned for the latter half of 2016. As major activity in the first half of 2016, a German-Chinese Workshop on “Innovative Tools in Plant Breeding Research” will be held jointly by the DZC and the Julius Kühn-Institute, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (JKI) in Berlin-Dahlem and Quedlinburg in May 2016. For the latter half of 2016, a Workshop on specific topics under the overarching motto of food safety, such as traceability and/or veterinary antibiotics, is envisaged, also on the occasion of the “2nd German-Chinese Agricultural Week” planned for late November-early December 2016. This topic touches (amongst others) on human health via possible resistance effects, environmental, food quarantine and import-export issues.

Fig. 17: Prof. Zhang, Bin presenting overview on future cooperation priorities of the S&T Platform (Photo: CAAS).

Following these two presentations, questions were asked and discussion contributions were made from podium and floor on current issues in soil science mentioned during the Symposium. In an open and inclusive format, several Symposium participants directly addressed questions to both Vice Minister Dr. Zhang, Taolin, and PStS. Peter Bleser. These touched on topics including issues of soil protection, agricultural subsidies to fertilizers vs. to modern machinery in China, agricultural transformation, soil pollution and remediation, further cooperation and support between MOA and Chinese academic research institutions, as well as about a German engagement going beyond the “Sino-German Crop Production and Agrotechnology Demonstration Park” on the Huanghai Farm, Jiangsu Province. 28   

  Immediately thereafter, the Chinese Vice Minister and the German Parliamentary State Secretary delivered their Topical contributions to the Symposium. PStS. Peter Bleser mentioned the threats soils are currently facing in Germany, such as soil compaction and sealing, soil pollution, as well as excessive inputs of nutrients from agriculture (Fig. 18). He positively pointed out the long-standing academic cooperation in the field of soil science between both countries, and was very happy to meet a German-trained soil scientist, Prof. Dr. Zhang, Taolin, Vice Minister (MOA), at the Soil Symposium, who had obtained his Ph.D. degree in soil science in Germany in the 1980s. Mr. Bleser mentioned that the joint challenges facing both countries offered a chance to jointly address the new problems in the spirit of equality and mutual respect, such as the remediation of polluted sites, the emission of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O), the recycling of nutrients in form of a modern circular economy, sensor technologies, etc., also mentioning the International Year of Soils. The Topical contribution by Vice Minister Dr. Zhang, Taolin mentioned the strong environmental challenges China’s agriculture in general, and soil in particular were facing in view of the strong and rapid transformations which Chinese society, and agriculture in particular, had undergone in recent decades (Fig. 19). He gave several examples for environmental degradation and soil degradation, also mentioning the recent report on the current status of soil contamination in China by MEP and MLR. He then gave a long list of policies and measures the Chinese MOA was planning to carry out to address these issues, including soil melioration, improving the quality of arable land for food production, introduction and facilitation of adaptation of agricultural technologies and agricultural machinery, such as improved tillage methods, etc., the “double-zero” increase in fertilizer and pesticide consumption in China by the year 2020, the drafting of new regulations and policies regulating land consolidation in view of the currently fragmented arable land and a large migration from rural to urban areas, etc. Finally, he greatly welcomed the Sino-German cooperation activities in this field. Finally, Concluding remarks to the Symposium were delivered by Mrs. Dr. Feng, Dongxin, Director-General of the Department of International Cooperation of CAAS. These were then immediately followed by the Inauguration of “German-Sino Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation Platform” including the signing of the Implementation Agreement (see subsequent Section of this report).

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Fig. 18: PStS. Peter Bleser (BMEL) delivering topical contribution on Nov. 18, 2015 (photo: CAAS).

Fig. 19: Vice Minister (MOA) Dr. Zhang, Taolin delivering topical contribution on Nov. 18, 2015 (photo: CAAS).

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Inauguration of “German-Sino Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation Platform” The “German-Sino Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation Platform” (S&T Platform) was inaugurated on November 18, 2015 at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), immediately following the Closing Discussion of the Symposium on Soil Science and Soil protection. The S&T Platform, established within the framework of the German-Sino Agricultural Center (DCZ), is located at the CAAS and jointly operated by CAAS and the Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). A Joint Declaration of Intent on the S&T Platform had been signed on Nov. 17, 2015 by the Parliamentary State Secretary (PStS.) of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture of the Federal Republic of Germany (BMEL) Mr. Peter Bleser and by Dr. Qu, Dongyu, Vice Minister, Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China (MOA). The Implementation Agreement of the S&T Platform was signed on Nov. 18, 2015 by Ms. Ursula Becker, Head of GIZ Cluster Environment, Climate and Nature Conservation of the GIZ Country Office China, and Prof. Dr. Wu Kongming, Vice President of CAAS, in an Opening Ceremony attended by the PStS. (BMEL) Mr. Peter Bleser and by Dr. Zhang, Taolin, Vice Minister (MOA) (Fig. 20). This was followed by the unveiling of the office plate of the S&T Platform (Fig. 21). The research activities within the S&T Platform include:     

Coordination between the research institutes of the BMEL in Germany and the research institutes of the MOA in China Coordination of a bilateral exchange program for researchers Support of both Ministries in formulating bilateral research priorities Coordination of bilateral research projects jointly supported by the BMEL and MOA Organization of bilateral conferences and workshops on research, etc.

The S&T Platform’s initial focus will be the research cooperation between CAAS Institutes and the Research Institutes of BMEL. It is, however, explicitly open for collaborations with other German and Chinese funding agencies and research institutions, as well as German universities and Chinese national- and provincial-level universities.

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Fig. 20: Signing of the Implementation Agreement of the S&T Platform on Nov. 18, 2015 (photo: CAAS).

Fig. 21: Unveiling of the office plate of the S&T Platform on Nov. 18, 2015 (photo: CAAS).

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Symposium impact, scientific outlook and follow-up activities The German-Sino Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection has had quite a great impact and led to a number of ongoing follow-up activities on different levels, some of which are listed below. Institutional impact: The major impact has been to create awareness and to link together different players in the German and Chinese soil science communities and from agro-industry, as well as to make several German and international institutions in China working in different fields aware of the DCZ’s activities. Besides the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, these include the EU Delegation in Beijing, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Beijing Office, the Helmholtz Association Beijing Representative Office, the Sino-German Center for Science Promotion (DFG-NSFC), the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD), the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft representative office in Beijing, the non-governmental organization The Nature Conservancy (TNC), etc. Although not all of these institutions attended the event, their invitations heightened its visibility. The event was further highlighted by the participation of the Vice Minister and Parliamentary State Secretary of the two countries, respectively, who attended the Closing Discussion and actively replied to questions from the audience on soil protection, agricultural transformation, agro-machinery, etc. related questions. Such an open setting bringing together scientists, industry representatives, and politicians is not very common in China and was positively welcomed by all German and Chinese participants. Scientific impact: Several of the invited experts and soil scientists attending the symposium pointed out the benefit and knowledge they had gained from the symposium. In particular, the small discussion round on Nov. 17, 2015, on problems related to soil science and land use in China was very positively mentioned, due to the loose setting and open communication and exchange during the meeting between the Chinese and German soil scientists. Subsequently, several of the scientists further exchanged related information and scientific publications after the event. The Symposium’s morning session of Nov. 18 was also frequently mentioned by participants, due to its very nicely inter-linking presentations on soil protection issues and approaches on the German, Chinese and European levels. Impact of follow-up excursion to Huanghai Farm, Nov. 19-20, 2015: On Nov. 19-20, 2015, during the excursion to the “Sino-German Crop Production and Agrotechnology Demonstration Park” (DCALDP), on the Huanghai State Farm in N Jiangsu Province (under the Jiangsu Provincial Agricultural Reclamation and Development Corporation, SKIAD), Prof. Dr. Georg Guggenberger (Institute of Soil Science, University of Hannover) proposed to analyze the clay mineral composition of the soils on the farm. This was in view of the massive and compact plough pan (“hard pan”) mentioned by the Chinese soil and fertilization expert of the Huanghai Farm, Mr. Luo, Laijun, and observed during the field visit by Prof. Guggenberger, Dr. Straßburger and Dr. Roelcke. For this purpose, soil 33   

  samples (from plough horizon and from plough pan) from each of two sites, one with a higher clay, the other with a higher silt content, respectively, were sampled on Feb. 4, 2016 and delivered to the Institute of Soil Science in Hannover on March 10, 2016. Only a few institutes in Germany are able to carry out this analytical procedure (X-ray difframetrometry); therefore, this analysis was of great value to the Huanghai Farm for optimizing their nitrogen fertilization strategies. The analysis results were ready just in time for the Soil Seminar on April 28, 2016 (see below). Soil seminar on Huanghai Farm, April 28, 2016: Immediately following the DLG “Agroindustry Forum” in Beijing (April 25, 2016), and the “Field Day” on the Huanghai Farm (April 27, 2016), a “Soil Seminar” was organized at the Farm on April 28, by the two implementing organizations of the “Sino-German Crop Production and Agrotechnology Demonstration Park”, DLG International (German Agriculture Society) and AFC Consultants International GmbH. On April 28, 2016, at three soil profiles prepared for the event, several renowned soil scientists and agronomists from Germany and China discussed with SKIAD staff, invited Chinese agricultural experts from other provinces and local farmers about the composition and characteristics of these paddy soils formed on clay-rich sediments. This was followed by six indoor presentations and lectures, regarding distribution and characteristics of paddy soils in China and their adapted soil, water, straw and nutrient management, and the peculiarities of the rice-wheat double-crop rotation. Experiences and challenges with modern soil tillage technology in Germany and China, as well as field trials with reduced mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer application rates and for testing of stabilized N fertilizers were further topics. During the joint final discussion, the question arose which sustainable farming methods are most suitable for this region. Furthermore, problems related to tillage under frequently waterlogged conditions in these clay-rich soils, the choice of machinery and its impact on soil structure, and problems with residual salinity, etc. were addressed. Four of the six experts at the field day and/or soil seminar (Prof. Dr. Georg Guggenberger, Prof. Dr. Ganlin Zhang, Prof. Dr. Bin Zhang, Dr. Marco Roelcke) had also attended the Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection in Beijing in November 2015. The clay mineral analysis (see above) resulted in the following clay mineral composition in the topsoil samples from the Huanghai Farm (in decreasing order): Illite (伊利石), Smectite (蒙脱石), Magnesium Chlorite (含镁绿泥石), Kaolinite (高砱石). Many Illites did not contain potassium (K+), but apparently ammonium (NH4+) ions, which have a very similar ion radius and can therefore substitute K+. This may lead to a fixation of fertilizer-derived NH4+, at least initially, until the sites are all saturated. Moreover, according to Prof. Guggenberger, due to the detected remaining sodium (Na+) content in the soil, there is a risk for dispersion and downward translocation of the smaller clay minerals, despite the high soil pH (7.5-8.0) and CaCO3 content (approx. 10%). This is likely to have caused the further thickening of the plough pan, as has been observed in the soils of the Huanghai Farm in recent decades.

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“Soil Action Plan” and possible future activities in soil science in China

 

On March 8, 2016, an ad-hoc round-table discussion on soil pollution and remediation was arranged at the DCZ by Dr. Marco Roelcke following an initiative by Dr. He, Hong, Head of Helmholtz Beijing Representative Office, who had also participated in the Soil Symposium. It was attended by two German scientists from the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), as well as by a German consultant from Asia World Network Ltd., Beijing. The aim was to evaluate the status quo and create synergies in the run-up to the “Soil Action Plan” (tu rang shi tiao) and the “National Regulations Concerning Soil Pollution and Remediation (Soil Pollution Prevention Act)”, under preparation by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) and the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR), announced as to be issued during the year 2016, by the State Council and the Chinese National People’s Congress, respectively. It is expected that China will then be looking for international cooperation in this field on a much larger scale. On March 23, 2016, in connection with the GIZ Country Office China’s annual planning for 2016 (Landesplanung), a Brainstorming Workshop on soil, soil contamination, soil policy, soil use, etc., organized by the GIZ Cluster Environment, Climate and Nature Conservation of the GIZ Country Office China took place with the aim to investigate the potentials of these topics for further cooperation, also including land management issues such as zoning, eco-redlining, soil policy, land consolidation, inventories, etc., thus also covering legal aspects. On April 19 and 20, 2016, the Fifth German-Chinese Environmental Forum (Fünftes Deutsch-Chinesische Umweltforum) was held in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, co-hosted by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) together with Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (MEP) and the Asia-Pacific Committee of German Business (APA). It was opened by the Vice Governor of Jiangsu Province, Mrs. Xu, Jianrong, by the Vice Minister of the MEP, Mr. Huang, Runqiu and by the German Minister Barbara Hendricks (BMUB). The Environmental Forum in Nanjing was co-implemented by the GIZ, under the responsibility of the Head of Cluster Environment, Climate and Nature Conservation of the GIZ Country Office China, Ms. Ursula Becker, who also attended the Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection on Nov. 18, 2015, and signed the Implementation Agreement for the “S&T Platform”. The Environmental Forum consisted of a plenary session with keynote speeches, and three parallel workshops. In Workshop III on Biodiversity & Soil Conservation, Dr. Andreas Bieber, Head of Division, Soil Conservation and Management of Contaminated Sites, BMUB, gave a presentation on “Soil protection: practice and sustainability”, presenting the German experience. He also sat on the panel during the subsequent Panel Discussion. A question by Dr. Marco Roelcke (in the audience) dealing with the probable timing of issue of the Chinese “Soil Action Plan” was answered by three representatives from the MEP. Currently, expectations by the public in China were very high, and they were aiming at delivering a result which was well balanced and supported by all sides. Soil protection requires cooperation between different institutions. In reference to the „National Action Plans“ for Air (published in 2013) and Water (2015), soil is a more complex system than air

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or water. The MEP was currently working on it and would publish China’s third National Action Plan soon. An extra office has been established in the MEP for this purpose.

 

UPDATE: The “Action Plan on Prevention and Control of Soil Pollution” (土壤污染防治行动计 划) was released on May 31, 2016 (State Council of the People’s Republic of China, 2016).

References: Heimann, L., Roelcke, M., Hou, Y., Ostermann, A., Ma, W.Q., Nieder, R., 2015. Nutrients and pollutants in agricultural soils in the peri-urban region of Beijing: Status and recommendations, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 209 (Special Issue), 74-88. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2015.03.026 EU Joint Research Centre, 2011. The State of Soil in Europe. A contribution of the JRC to the European Environment Agency’s Environment State and Outlook Report — SOER 2010 (Authors: Jones, A. et al.). Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 78 pp. DOI: 10.2788/77361 http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/111111111/27867/1/lbna25186enn.pdf (accessed March 31, 2016) Ministry of Environmental Protection; Ministry of Land and Resources, 2014. Report on the National Soil Contamination Survey. http://www.mep.gov.cn/gkml/hbb/qt/201404/t20140417_270670.htm (accessed March 21, 2016) National Environmental Protection Bureau, 1995. Environmental Quality Standard for Soils. GB 15618-1995 Ostermann, A., Gao, J., Welp, G., Siemens, J., Roelcke, M., Heimann, L., Nieder, R., Xue, Q.Y., Lin, X.Y., Sandhage-Hofmann, A., Amelung, W., 2014. Identification of soil contamination hotspots with veterinary antibiotics using heavy metal concentrations and leaching data—a field study in China. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment 186, 7693–7707. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-3960-x Ostermann, A., He, Y., Siemens, J., Welp, G., Heuser, A., Wombacher, F., Münker, C., Xue, Q.Y., Lin, X.Y., Amelung, W., 2015. Tracing Copper Derived from Pig Manure in Calcareous Soils and Soil 65 Cu Labeling. Environmental Science & Technology 49, 4609−4617. DOI: Leachates by 10.1021/es504945e SEPLS, 2013. Sino-EU Panel on Land and Soil. http://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/networkcooperations/sino-eu-panel-land-and-soil (accessed March 31, 2016) State Council of the People’s Republic of China (2016): Action Plan on Prevention and Control of Soil Pollution (2016): 土壤污染防治行动计划 http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2016-05/31/content_5078377.htm (accessed June 1, 2016) Zhao, F.J., Ma, Y.B., Zhu, Y.G., Tang, Z., McGrath, S.P., 2015. Soil Contamination in China: Current Status and Mitigation Strategies. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49, 750−759. DOI: 10.1021/es5047099

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Reports by the six invited German experts (December 2015-March 2016)

Prof. Dr. Georg Guggenberger, Institute of Soil Science, University of Hannover Dr. Thomas Straßburger, Division Soil Protection and Contaminated Land, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) PD Dr. Gerhard Welp, Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), Soil Science and Soil Ecology, University of Bonn Dr. Joachim Ingwersen, Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, University of Hohenheim Dr. Christian Rumbaur, Chair of Hydrology and River Basin Management, Technical University of Munich (TUM) Dr. Holger Lilienthal, Institute of Crop and Soil Science, Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Quedlinburg and Braunschweig

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Institut für Bodenkunde

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Bodenkunde, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, 30419 Hannover

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 36+40 53113 Bonn

Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät Institut für Bodenkunde

bearbeitet von: Prof. Dr. Georg Guggenberger Tel. +49 (0)511 762 2623/2622 Fax +49 (0)511 762 5559 E-Mail: guggenberger @ifbk.uni-hannover.de

Projektbezeichnung: Deutsch-Chinesisches Agrarzentrum Projektnummer: 14.9086.1-001.00

Report Operation time (incl. travel days): November 16-21, 2015; Beijing, PR China and Huanghai state farm Tasks performed: Participated in the German-Chinese Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection organized by the DCZ and the CAAS on November 18, 2015 (due to teaching obligations in Hannover, I could arrive in Beijing just in the evening of November 17 and thus could not attend the "Open Day DCZ") Represented the President of the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS), Prof. Dr. Rainer Horn, and gave a presentation on the IUSS perspective on Soil Science Gave a key-note presentation on the impact of land use practices and soil degradation and chances of improvement Presented a short workshop report of the science-based presentations of the symposium Attended the formal opening of the "Sino-German Agricultural Science & Technology Cooperation Platform" between the two countries' Ministries of Agriculture Participated at the round-table discussion on Soil Protection with the German Parliamentary State Secretary Mr. Peter Bleser and the Chinese Vice-Minister of Agriculture Mr. QU Dongyu Contributed to the discussions during the workshop and exchanged knowledge with other attendees and participants Participated at the "German-Sino Agriculture and Agricultural Engineering Park" at the Huanghai state farm Had a short inspection of agricultural fields at the Huanghai state farm and discussed soil science issues with Mr. LUO Laijun (Vice Director, Agricultural Technology) Summary of impressions of the Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection: At first it needs to be emphasized that the symposium was excellently organized by the two coordinators Dr. Marco Roelcke and Prof. ZHANG Bin. The symposium was very well balanced. This refers to the different topics being discussed, but also to the very well balanced distribution of speakers from the different nations and representing different actors in soil use and soil protection, i.e. science, policy, application, agricultural equipment companies.

Besucheradresse: Herrenhäuser Str. 2 30419 Hannover www.soils.uni-hannover.de Zentrale: Tel. +49 (0)511 762 0 Fax +49 (0)511 762 3456 www.uni-hannover.de

Concerning soil protection strategies, the first session "Soil Protection Policy and Strategies" was already the most important. Here, Prof. XU Minggang (CAAS) emphasized a topic, which was reiterated throughout the whole symposium. The enhancement of nutrient utilization efficiency is one prerequisite to cope with environmental pollution caused by overfertilization. Hence, five major topics of China's agricultural policy are (1) soil quality, (2) soil fertility, (3) nutrient balance, (4) water saving, and (5) arable land restoration. However, it was not mentioned that the major threat to soil, and water pollution, as well as N2O emission to the atmosphere caused by overfertilization could be relatively easily solved by a simple action of the state - simply reduce the subsidies for nutrients. The establishment of >4.000 research sites shows the huge effort China is taking with respect. In his speech, Mr. Nicolas Dandois (EU Beijing) stressed the trilemma of land use policy food security, ecological security, urban security. This trilemma is certainly relevant in the EU and also particularly in China. It must be clear that securing food supply and the preservation or even improvement of soil functions (others than food production) should be not contradictory. Instead, a sustainable land use must ensure both. In my opinion the BONARES activity of the BMBF is an excellent opportunity for research on that topic within Germany. Unfortunately, I do not see a similar call at EU level (Horizon 2020). Dr. Thomas Strassburger (BMUB) emphasized the different soil protection acts in the past in the German Länder, and discussed also the different levels of the Bundesbodenschutzgesetz in Germany. Known by the German participants, this was certainly a very useful information for the Chinese colleagues. Prof. ZHANG Ganlin (CAS) explained that the Chinese Union of Soil Science and Soil Protection focuses on soil services. He recalled the trilemma in land use policy raised by Mr. Dandois and criticized the low use efficiency of fertilizers. However, nothing was said about the hierarchy of different soil services, and how the use of one service may impact another one. The second session on "Cutting-edge Knowledge on Soil Science and Soil Protection" was dealing with different scientific aspects. Prof. ZHANG Bin (CAAS) Bin gave an impressive overview on the land use of Mollisols, the soils that are under shortest arable use in China. He emphasized problems associated with agricultural intensification, i.e. increase in soil density, and losses of soil organic carbon. In fact, a proposal for a Sino-German network on Mollisol to be submitted to the SinoGerman Center for Science Promotion (headed by ZHANG Bin and me) are under preparation. In the next presentation, I (Uni Hannover) reported about my experience on research on Chernozems and Kastanozems in the Siberian steppe. In my opinion, the stimulus on soil organic matter research should be not so much the soil's function as carbon source or sink. With this respect, different soil management may change the carbon storage in soil, but generally this is not much considering the overall world carbon fluxes. Rather, a solid soil organic matter management is of utmost importance to keep a good soil structure, which is a prerequisite to e.g. reduce soil erosion and to optimize plant production. Next, Dr. JIAO Juying (CAS & MWR) reported about a success story on the revegetation of the Loess Plateau. With that they could reduce soil erosion in this very vulnerable landscape by up to 90%. This shows once again that China can act with huge efforts with respect to soil and land remediation. Dr. Gerhard Welp (Uni Bonn) presented very interesting and likewise alarming data on soil pollution by veterinary antibiotics in an area of high density of livestock (i.e. pigs). Actually all sites that have received pig manure as fertilizer contained antibiotics, and they also showed a mobility within the soil profile. With this respect I also see a good possibility and even necessity for bilateral cooperation. The session continued in the afternoon with a talk of Prof. CAI Zucong (Nanjing Normal University) on soil-borne diseases, which are favored at monoculture. He showed at the example of banana plantations that the creation of anaerobic soil conditions stop the soil-borne disease. However, he could not present a causal explanation on that. Nevertheless, it might be worth to test this procedure also at well-known soil-borne diseases in Germany (e.g., in apple tree nurseries). Prof. Joachim Ingwersen (Uni Hohenheim) reported results of an International Research Training Group (Hohenheim-CAU) with respect to the separation of net and gross nitrification rates, where a unique technique, the Barometric Process Separation, was developed. This was followed by a talk of Prof. MA Yibing (CAAS), which dealt with Cd contamination of rice, being derived primarily from animal manure and air pollution. As mitigation measures he suggested different possibilities, but without being very concrete. As far as I understood there is quite frequently a lack of enforcement of environmental quality standards in China. Dr. Holger Lilienthal (JKI) emphasized the different scales of soil research: (1) local (measuring), (2) regional (spatial modeling), and (3) federal

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(measuring and modeling). The European Copernicus remote sensing satellite mission will be an efficient effort for topsoil mapping. Such endeavor is indeed very much needed to upscale and regionalize soil properties and might be also intensities of soil processes. Thereafter, Prof. ZHANG Xudong (CAS) came back to the problem of low nitrogen use efficiency and high nitrogen losses. One of the problems is the lack of knowledge on the controlling mechanisms of nitrogen mineralization. In an intellectually brilliant lecture he presented the usefulness of stable isotope analysis on amino sugars in order to link living with dead organic matter und functions with processes. Prof. ZHANG definitively belongs to the leading soil biogeochemists worldwide. In the last presentation, Dr. Christian Rumbaur (TU München) emphasized problems with salinization, degradation, and loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services along the Tarim River due to cotton production. Drip irrigation under plastic mulch leads to less water consumption and higher yields but also to higher salt accumulation. In summary, all these presentations provided a good potpourri on problems associated with soil management and soil protection. In many presentations also possible solutions to improve the situation were provided. I can see good opportunities for binational research initiatives. It became clear that secure food production is of utmost importance. Likewise, it became also obvious that in most cases soil use leads also to loss of soil health with consequences for soil services. Besides contamination with nutrients and pollutants, loss of soil structure and problems arising from that is a major thread in Chinese soils. I think that the German-Sino Agricultural Center provides an excellent platform to initiate joint basic and applied research projects. For me as a scientist, it was very rewarding that representatives from politics, administration, and industry were participating the symposium, which was taking place in a very open and expectant atmosphere. Summary of impressions of the visit of the Huanghai state farm: On November 19, 2015 I attended the inauguration of the "German-Sino Agriculture and Agricultural Equipment Demonstration Park" at the Huanghai state farm by Parliamentary State Secretary Mr. Peter Bleser and the Vice Governor of the Province Jiangsu Mr. XU Ming. It was obvious that this is a high priority project for both sides. In informal discussions with members of the state farm and the provincial government it got clear that the expectations of the Chinese side on the demonstration park are very high with respect to improving soil fertility and increasing yields. As far as this concerns a shift in agricultural management towards dryland agriculture (now it is a rotation between paddy rice and winter wheat), the expectations appear to be very high at the Chinese side. This bears some risks, as the transformation to a new land-use systems is most often associated with an early decline in yields, and only after two-three years positive results might be obvious. And this is particularly the case, because the yields with 90 dt rice/ha and 75 dt wheat/ha are already quite high. At December 21, 2015 Dr. Thomas Strassburger, Dr. Marco Roelcke and I had a discussion with Mr. LUO Laijun (Vice Director, Agricultural Technology) on the soils of the Huanghai farm and we also visited two fields were we briefly inspected the soils. The soil developed from sediments of the Huanghe (Yellow) river and were originally salt marsh soils. Most of the NaCl was removed by melioration via fish ponds and paddy rice cultivation. Successively, the soils became fertile for paddy rice cultivation and, since 1990, also for wheat production. It is planned to convert the paddy rice-winter wheat rotation partly into a rotation including potatoes, corn, and rapeseed. For that it is a prerequisite to break up the plow pan, which currently increases steadily due to the heavy machinery and clay illuviation (in my point of view due to the still high Na saturation of expandable clay minerals). I am not a specialist in agricultural equipment, but in my opinion this is a major effort, and the depth loosening should be performed over several years. With the transfer to complete upland cultivation I see two problems. First, the soil is very clayey (ca. 50% according to German classification system) and in wet condition the soil structure is very weak and soil compaction is an obvious threat. Hence, efforts should be performed to improve soil structure. Traffic with heavy machinery during phases of wet soils should be avoided. As the Ca concentration at the exchange sites is already relatively high, abiotic prerequisites for aggregation are given. But the humus content of ca. 3% is relatively low

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for a clayey soil and should be increased, also with respect to an improved soil structure. Reduced or mini till are good measures to increase the rooting and biological activity along with the soil structure in the topsoil. With this respect it would be also interesting to know the clay mineral assemblage (i.e., expandable versus non-expandable clays). Second, there might be a risk of salinization as the capillary uprise of sodic groundwater may be higher after breaking the plow pan due to more middle-sized pores. Also the increasing evapotranspiration at the negative water balance will enhance the capillary uprise. This has to be checked. A countermeasure can be irrigation during the dry period. Nitrogen application of 300 kg N/ha and culture is relatively high, and thus nitrogen use efficiency relatively is low with 35% for rice and 40% for wheat. Nmin is not routinely measured and should be introduced. This is actually no complicated method. There is a risk of NH3 volatilization due to temporarily high pH value by fertilization with urea. As the soil pH is anyway a bit too high, if possibly physiologically acidic nitrogen fertilizer forms may be considered (depending on the availability and price). Potentially, there can be also relatively high production of N2O due to the often moist to wet soil and the high NO3 concentrations. Mr. LUO claims that the risk is low due to carbon limitation. But I suggest to check it at least. I would start with the transformation to a complete dryland rotation at those soils, which are a bit more sandy. If it works there, also a transformation at the heavier soils can be considered. In summary, I do not consider this Huanghai state farm as an ideal demonstration site due to the unfavorable soil physical and soil hydrological conditions. It will be certainly a challenge to transfer the sites to complete dryland rotation. As said before, most efforts should be put on the establishment of a good soil structure. Hannover, December 22, 2015 gez. Prof. Dr. Georg Guggenberger

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Dr. Thomas Straßburger  BMUB  Referat WR III 2 – Bodenschutz und Altlasten  Postfach 12 06 29  53175 Bonn    Tel. 0228 99 305 3426  [email protected]               12. Januar 2016          Kurzbericht über die Teilnahme am ‚German‐Sino Symposium on Soil Science and Soil  Protection‘ und Besichtigung der deutsch‐chinesischen Versuchsfarm auf der Huanghai State  Farm.    vom 15. – 21. November 2015 (einschließlich Reisetage)      Mit freundlichen Grüßen,   Thomas Straßburger     

  1. Programm    Seit März 2015 gibt es das Deutsch‐Chinesische Agrarzentrum (DCZ) in Peking als eine gemeinsame  Initiative des deutschen und des chinesischen Landwirtschaftsministeriums (BMEL und MOA).  Beauftragt mit der Umsetzung der Initiative sind die Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit  (GIZ) und das Foreign Economic Cooperation Center (FECC) ‐ eine nachgeordnete Behörde des MOA. Als  zentrale Anlaufstelle soll das DCZ die bilaterale Zusammenarbeit im Bereich Landwirtschaft fördern.   Diesen Zweck diente die vom DCZ getragenen Deutsch‐Chinesische Agrarwoche 2015. Als Plattform für  den Wissensaustausch und neue Initiativen brachte diese Veranstaltung Verantwortliche und  Interessierte aus Politik, Landwirtwirtschaft, Landmaschinenhandel und Wissenschaft etc. zusammen.   Die einwöchige Veranstaltung fand vom 16. bis 20. November statt. Angeboten wurde unter anderem  ein Tag der offenen Tür am 17. November sowie ein eineinhalbtägiges German‐Sino Symposium on Soil  Science and Soil Protection am 17. und 18. November. Am 19. November fand die offizielle Eröffnung  einer deutsch‐chinesischen Pflanzenbau‐ und Agrartechnologie‐Versuchsanlage auf der Huanghai  Staatsfarm in der Provinz Jiangsu statt.  Auf Einladung des DCZ, vertreten durch dessen wissenschaftlicher Berater Dr. Marco Roelcke, habe ich  als Vertreter des Bundesumweltministeriums an der Agrarwoche teilgenommen. Ich habe in einem  Vortrag auf dem Symposium am 18. November die deutsche Bodenschutzpolitik vorgestellt. Weiterhin  hatte ich bei der Planung des Symposiums einen Fachaustausch zum Thema Bodenschutz mit  chinesischen Wissenschaftlern angeregt, der dann am Vortag des Symposiums stattfand. Im Anschluss  an die Eröffnung der Versuchsanlage auf der Huanghai‐Farm hatte ich Gelegenheit zu einer  mehrstündigen Begehung von Teilen der Versuchsanlage, zusammen mit dem wissenschaftlichen  Berater Marco Roelcke und Professor Georg Guggenberger sowie dem Bodenkundler der Staatsfarm.      2. Chinas Weg zu mehr Bodenschutz    Bundesumweltministerin Barbara Hendricks war kurz vor der Agrarwoche vom 8. November für fünf  Tage zu politischen Gesprächen in China. Im Mittelpunkt der fünftägigen Reise stand das Jahrestreffen  des Umwelt‐ und Entwicklungsbeirats der chinesischen Regierung (China Council on International  Cooperation on Environment and Development, CCICED) in Peking. Frau Hendricks ist eine der beiden  internationalen Vize‐Vorsitzenden.  Durch die Unterzeichnung Gemeinsamer Erklärungen soll die Zusammenarbeit im Umweltbereich weiter  vertieft werden. Hendricks und der chinesische Minister für Wasserressourcen Chen Lei unterzeichneten  eine Gemeinsame (Absichts)Erklärung über die weiterführende Kooperation im Wasserbereich. Schwer‐ punkt sind acht wasserspezifische Themen, darunter nachhaltiges Wasserressourcenmanagement,  Auswirkung des Klimawandels auf Wasserressourcen und diesbezügliche Anpassungsmaßnahmen,  Hochwasserschutz, Dürrebekämpfung und Katastrophenvorsorge.  Die deutsche Seite ist daran interessiert, im Rahmen der Deutsch‐Chinesischen Umweltpartnerschaft  auch im Bodenschutz voranzukommen. Für April ist eine Bodenveranstaltung in Nanjing vorgesehen.  Erwähnenswert ist in diesem Zusammenhang eine kürzlich veröffentlichte Sonderstudie im Auftrag des  CCICED: Soil Pollution Management. In der Liste der an der Studie Beteiligten ist das Institute of Soil  Science (ISS) der Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in Nanjing nicht vertreten. In der Diskussionsrunde 

am 17. November wiesen die chinesischen Kollegen auf die im Vergleich zu früheren Jahren gesunkene  Bedeutung der CAS im Allgemeinen, einschließlich des ISS im Speziellen, hin.   Die Studie fordert als ersten Schritt zur Begegnung der Schadstoffproblematik ein Bodenschutzgesetz,  um die notwendigen Maßnahmen zum Schutz und zur Sanierung belastetere Böden  auf eine gesetzliche  Grundlage zu stellen. Vorgeschlagen wird auch die Einrichtung eines Sanierungsfonds.  Der Ständige Ausschuss des Nationalen Volkskongresses hat die Verabschiedung eines “Soil Pollution  Prevention Act” in der Gesetzgebungsplanung für 2017 vorgesehen. Die Studie des CCICED unterstützt  diese Absicht durch Empfehlungen  für  eine nachhaltige Nutzung der Böden Chinas. Es werden die  notwendigen Schritte zur Vermeidung weiterer Schäden aufgeführt. Die Studie ist aufgebaut auf einem  früheren CCICED‐Bericht mit dem Titel Developing Policies for Soil Environmental Protection in China.  Handlungsdruck ist entstanden durch Ergebnisse einer nationalen Erhebung zur Belastung der Böden  mit Schadstoffen. Die Erhebung wurde gemeinsam durchgeführt durch das Ministry of Environmental  Protection (MOEP) und das Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR) im Zeitraum 2005 und 2013.  Erschreckend war unter anderem der Belastungszustand landwirtschaftlicher Flächen. Die im Bulletin of  National Soil Pollution Survey (2014) veröffentlichten Werte belegen eine kritische Belastung von etwa  einem Fünftel (16%) der Ackerfläche. Hinzu kommen außerordentliche Belastungen in industrienahen  Gebieten und Bergbauzonen.      3. Discussion Round on Soil Protection  ‐ 17.11.2015, 15:30‐18:30 Uhr    Am Nachmittag des ersten Tages des Symposiums bestand Gelegenheit zu einem allgemeinen boden‐ kundlichen Fachaustausch zwischen chinesischen und deutschen Wissenschaftlern und anderen  interessierten Personen. An der von Dr. Marco Roelcke und Prof. Bin Zhang organisierten – und von mir  initiierten – Diskussionsrunde im  Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP ‐  CAAS) nahmen teil:  1. Bin Zhang (Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of  Agricultural Sciences, CAAS)  2. Ganlin Zhang (Deputy Director at the Institute of Soil Science1, CAS, Nanjing)  3. Xudong Zhang (Institute of Applied Ecology, CAS, Shenyang)  4. Zucong Cai (School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University)  ____________________________  5. Georg Guggenberger (Uni Hannover)  6. Joachim Ingwersen (Uni Hohenheim)  7. Holger Lilienthal (Julius Kühn‐Institut,  Braunschweig)  8. Anne Ostermann (World Agroforestry Centre East and Central Asia region)  9. Marco Roelcke (Science Advisor, DCZ)  10. Christian Rumbaur (Technische Universität München)  11. Thomas Straßburger (BMUB)  12. Gerhard Welp (Uni Bonn)    Die Diskussion war sehr lebendig und offener als von mir erwartet.  Die Regierung wird durch unterschiedliche Institutionen beraten; praktisch hat jedes Ministerium ‚seine‘  eigene Einrichtung – so z.B. die Academy of Environmental Protection für das Umweltministerium  (MOEP).  Die CAS hat ebenfalls beratende Aufgaben. Es ist aber Sache der Ministerien die Akademie                                                              

1

 The Institute of Soil Science was founded in 1953, as a successor to the former Soil Division of the National  Geological Survey of China, which was established in 1930. It was reformed in 2001 within the frame of CAS  Knowledge Innovation Program. 

einzubeziehen, oder nicht. Der frühere Präsident war Teil des Politikapparates wodurch der Einfluss der  Akademie wesentlich größer war als heutzutage (so war die CAS nicht bei der Studie des CCICED  eingebunden, s. Punkt 2).  Das Chinesische Umweltministerium ist zuständig für das Erfassen der Schadstoffbelastung von Böden  und arbeitet an einem Soil Action Act. Im MOEP soll vor kurzem ein Bodenreferat gegründet worden  sein. Nach Auffassung der chinesischen Gesprächsteilnehmer sollte der Soil Act auch  nicht‐ schadstoff‐ bezogene Bodenschädigungen berücksichtigen. Dies sei aber eine Entscheidung des MOEP.  Weiterhin sind das Ministry of Agriculture (MOA; special program to protect soil fertility), das Ministry  of Land and Resources (MLR; land management) und das Ministry of Water Resources mit  Bodenangelegenheiten befasst.  Die Zuständigkeiten sind eng abgesteckt.   Grundsätzlicher Probleme für die Landwirtschaft in China:     



Durch zum Teil sehr kurze Verpachtungszeiträume neigen Pächter zu einem nachlässigen  Umgang mit Boden.   Die Ausbildung der Bauern ist vielfach immer noch unzureichend.  Geringe Flächengrößen durch Aufteilung bedingen Effizienzverluste.   In den letzten 10 Jahren sollen etwa 15 % der ldw. Fläche aufgegeben worden sein (land  abandonment of marginal soil).  Der Staat unterstützt die Umwandlung von aufgegebenen  Flächen in Grasland und die Wiederaufforstung von Hangflächen.  Die MOA Webseite informiert  über Flächenumwandlungen.)  Andauernde Verluste fruchtbarer Flächen durch Überbauung. 

    4. German‐Sino Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection ‐ 2. Tag: 18.11.2015,   08:30‐20:30 Uhr    Eine Zusammenfassung  erscheint an dieser Stelle entbehrlich. Die Präsentationen sollen als pdf‐Dateien  interessierten Teilnehmern zur Verfügung stehen. Weiterhin dürfte seitens des DCZ eine ausführliche  Zusammenfassung erstellt worden sein. Drittens ist anzunehmen, dass die fachlichen Kurzberichte der  meisten anderen deutschen GIZ‐Kurzzeitexperten sich im Wesentlichen mit dem Symposium befassen.   Betont sei hier lediglich, dass das Symposium fachlich anspruchsvoll und interessant war.   Das Symposium war inhaltlich durch die Vielzahl der Vorträge vielleicht etwas überfrachtet. Die kurze  Zeit zwischen den Vorträgen erschwert das  Entstehen einer lebendigen Diskussion. Dies ist aber der  einzige leichte Kritikpunkt.   Die Veranstaltung war von Anfang bis Ende hervorragend organisiert! Da ich gelegentlich selber  Veranstaltungen organisiere, vermag ich den damit verbundenen Einsatz einzuschätzen und umso mehr  wertschätzen.  (Die Simultan‐Übersetzung war sehr gut. Leider hilft das auch nicht weiter, wenn chinesische  Vortragende es mutig mit Englisch versuchen, obwohl sie besser bei  ihrer Muttersprache geblieben  wären. Aber das waren Ausnahmen.)           5. Eröffnung des Deutsch‐Chinesischen Ackerbau‐ und Landtechnik‐Demonstrationspark,  Huanghai Farm (Provinz Jiangsu) und Feldbesichtigung  ‐ 19./20.11.2015    Die feierliche Eröffnung der Demonstrationsanlage markierte den zweiten Teil der vom DCZ ausgerichte‐ ten ersten Deutsch‐Chinesischen Agrarwoche. Ranghöchste Vertreter waren der Leiter der deutschen 

Delegation,  Parlamentarischer Staatssekretär beim Bundeslandwirtschaftsminister, Peter Bleser, und  der Vizeprovinzgouverneur von Jiangsu, Ming  Xu.  Der Deutsch‐Chinesischen Ackerbau‐ und Landtechnik‐Demonstrationspark nutzt landwirtschaftliche  Flächen der Huanghai Staatsfarm in Lianshui County, Provinz Jiangsu. Die Staatsfarm liegt in Küstennähe  unweit eines Flusses (Huai He) nördlich von Shanghai bzw. von Nanjing. Der Verwaltungssitz der Farm ist  in Huanghai. Übernachtet wurde in der etwa 1 Autostunde entfernten Stadt Binhai.  Der chinesische Projektpartner SKIAD (Jiangsu Provincial Agricultural Reclamation and Development  Corporation) stellt dazu 150 Hektar zur Durchführung von Demonstrationen zur Verfügung. Die  Ansiedlung des Demonstrationsparks erfolgte auf Wunsch der chinesischen Seite. Von deutscher Seite  war dies nicht erste Wahl, man hat sich aber gefügt. Der deutsche Vorschlag – eine Farm in der Nähe  von Peking wurde vom MoA abgelehnt.  Als Wirtschaftspartner beteiligen sich elf Unternehmen aus der deutschen Agrarwirtschaft an dem  Projekt. Sie stellen von der Aussaat bis zur Ernte Maschinen sowie Betriebsmittel bereit und werden  außerdem die Ausbildung an den Geräten unterstützen. Diese Zusammenarbeit ist Teil einer 2013  zwischen Bundeskanzlerin Merkel und dem Ministerpräsidenten Li vereinbarten Intensivierung der  Zusammenarbeit im Agrarbereich. Die bilateralen Projektaktivitäten im Agrarbereich werden über das  DCZ in Peking koordiniert.  Als einer der wichtigsten Kooperationspartner des BMEL entfallen auf China etwa ein Fünftel der Mittel  des BMEL für die bilaterale wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit im Agrarbereich.  Deutschen Unternehmen sollen durch diese Zusammenarbeit bessere Chancen auf dem chinesischen  Markt bekommen. Für die chinesische Seite steht der Know‐how Gewinn und damit Erhöhung und  Sicherung der Lebensmittelproduktion im Vordergrund.  Im Anschluss an die Eröffnungsfeier habe ich eine Teilbegehung der Versuchsflächen durchführen  können, in Begleitung von Herrn Roelcke und Prof. Guggenberger sowie zeitweise des Bodenkundlers  der Staatsfarm, Herr Luo Laijun,  seit 1986 dort tätig, Studium an der Nanjing Agricultural University,  Mitarbeiter der Agricultural Technology Division der Farm. Der kurze Besuch erlaubt naturgemäß nur  einen ersten Eindruck.     Dominierende Kulturarten sind Reis (Nassreis in kontrollierter Bewässerung,  Juni – November,  Ertrag bis 10 t) und Weizen (Dezember – Mai, Erträge bis 7 t). Zur Entzerrung der zweigliedrigen  Fruchtfolge, die aufgrund der günstigen klimatischen Bedingungen eigentlich eine Doppel‐ fruchtfolge ist, wird auch Gerste in geringem Umfang angebaut – etwa im Verhältnis  1:4 zu  Weizen.   

Auf den Versuchsflächen will man auf mehr als der Hälfte der Flächen anstelle von Reis Kartof‐ feln, Mais und Raps anbauen, was das Aufbrechen des Verdichtungshorizontes (mächtige  Pflugsohle) erforderlich macht. Auf den anderen Flächen bleibt es bei der Reis‐Weizen  Fruchtfolge. 



Trockenreis wird aufgrund des geringeren Ertrages bislang nicht angebaut. Gemüseanbau wäre  möglich, es fehlt aber anscheinend an den lokalen Vermarktungsmöglichkeiten. Aus meiner  Sicht sollte Trockenreis ‐ bei angenommener grundsätzlicher Eignung am Standort ‐ ein Bestand‐ teil der Versuchsfruchtfolgen werden. 



Als ein Grund für das Interesse an einer Fruchtfolgeumstellung wurde zunehmender Krankheits‐ druck genannt. Bei Weizen nähmen flächenhafte Wurzelerkrankungen (Fäule) zu. Wobei ich an‐ nehme, dass auch Ährenerkrankungen aufgrund der Luftfeuchtigkeit eine große Rolle spielen.  Aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen will man auf den Anbau von Weizen nicht verzichten und erlaubt  deshalb auch kein vorübergehendes Brachfallen betroffener Flächen. 



Der Boden kann als Anthrosol beschrieben werden. Der Ap‐Horizont ist bis 20 cm mächtig,  darunter liegt der Verdichtungshorizont (Pflugsohle), der den Wurzelraum entsprechend 

eingrenzt. Der Boden ist aus Flusssedimenten entstanden, daher auch der hohe Feinanteil in der  Textur (vorwiegend tonige Böden, teilweise mit etwas höherem Sandanteil). Durch den  Meerwassereinfluss sind die Böden reich an Natrium.  

Grundsätzlich ist der Boden geeignet zum Anbau der meisten Kulturarten. 



Beim Aushub einer kleinen Grube wurde auf der Pflugsohle eine Matte aus Reisstroh sichtbar –  Folge des kürzlichen Umpflügens. Zum Zeitpunkt unseres Besuches war die Reisernte in vollem  Gange. Es fanden sich ansonsten keine älteren Vorjahres‐Erntereste, was auf eine ausreichende  Umsetzung im Boden hinweist. In einer Tiefe unterhalb von 20 cm waren einige Feinwurzeln von  Reispflanzen sichtbar. Eine eingeschränkte Erschließung der verdichteten Schicht findet statt.  Weiterhin fanden sich kleine Schneckengehäuse. 



Prof. Guggenberger bot eine Untersuchung der Tonfraktion in Hannover an (Bestimmung der  Tonminerale). 



Die Erträge sind mit 10 bzw. 7 t hoch. Die Flächen werden – anscheinen typisch für China – stark  überdüngt, insbesondere mit N und P‐Mineraldünger. Mit 300 kg N erhält die Weizenfrucht in  der Tat etwa das Doppeltet dessen zugeführt, was sie dem Boden zur Produktion von 7 t Weizen  entzieht.  



In Ermangelung von Nitratdünger wird nach Aussage von Herrn Roelcke in China vorwiegend  Harnstoff (urea), Mehrnährstoffdünger (NPK), Diammonphosphat und Ammoniumhydrogen‐ carbonat (letzteres nicht auf der Huanghai Farm) gedüngt. Ausgasungsverluste von Ammoniak  dürften bei pH Werten von 8 (Boden) bis 10 (im Wasser bei überstautem Nassreis durch pH‐ Anstieg bei Sonneneinstrahlung) beträchtlich sein. 



N‐Bedarfsdüngung wird in China nicht nach Nmin durchgeführt sondern nach einer anderen  Methode (‚Conway Diffusion Method‘). Mich würde interessieren, ob bereits eine qualitativer  Abgleich der beiden Methoden durchgeführt worden ist. Das chinesische Verfahren muss per se  nicht schlecht sein.  Evtl. lassen sich die Ergebnisse durch Anwendung eines Parameters  verlässlich angleichen und machen die Einführung der Nmin‐Methodik vorerst entbehrlich. 

Aussagen zum schlechten Zustand des Bodens auf der Staatsfarm (‚der Boden ist tot‘) kann ich so nicht  nachvollziehen. Zwar wird die Struktur des Bodens im Nassreisanbau gezielt zerstört, um eine  Verdichtung zu erzielen, deshalb ist der Boden – der mehr ist als das Verdichtungsprofil ‐ aber nicht  zwangsläufig in einem schlechten Zustand. Die Nährstoffwerte sind aufgrund der nicht  ertragsangepassten Düngung im oberen Bereich anzusetzen (nach deutschem LUFA Standard wären dies  Werte der D‐ und E‐Stufe), was ökonomisch und ökologisch ein Unding ist. Die ldw. Flächen weisen mit  den o. a. Erträgen eine hohe Produktivität auf.  Ziel sollte es sein, das Potential dieser Böden mit einem sorgsamen Bewirtschaftungsmanagement zu  sichern. Die von den deutschen Unternehmen bereitgestellten Geräte erfordern leistungsfähigere  Schlepper als sie derzeit in der Breite auf der Farm in Verwendung sind. Beispielsweise dürfte die Horch  Drillmaschine einen 150 PS Schlepper erfordern. Dieser wiegt etwa 6 bis 7 t. Schlepper in der Klasse um  150 PS zählen zu den am meisten verkauften in Deutschland. Es gibt ein geringes  Angebot auf dem  deutschen Markt in der leichteren Geräteklasse, wie sie bisher auch auf der Staatsfarm zum Einsatz  kommt. Die Gefahr der Verdichtung der Böden besteht.  Es wäre begrüßenswert, wenn die Demonstrationsanlage zur Sicherung und Steigerung des  Produktionsniveaus die Fruchtbarkeit der Böden sowie gesunde Fruchtfolgesysteme in den Vordergrund  stellte – z B. durch die Wahl standortoptimierter Bewirtschaftungsmethoden.        

Anreise von Frankfurt am 15.11., Ankunft in Peking am 16.11.  Rückflug von Yancheng nach Peking  am 20. November um 21:45 Uhr und am nächsten Tag von Peking  nach Frankfurt. 

Short report on the visit to the German‐Chinese Agricultural Center and the Sino‐German  Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection in Beijing (November 2015)  Gerhard Welp  University of Bonn, Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), Soil Science and  Soil Ecology, Nussallee 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany 

At  the  invitation  of  the  Deutsche  Gesellschaft  für  Internationale  Zusammenarbeit  (GIZ)  I  visited  the  German‐Chinese  Agricultural  Center  (DCZ)  and  joined  the  Sino‐German  Symposium  on  Soil  Science  and  Soil  Protection  in  Beijing  (November  15  –  20,  2015)  which  was  organized  by  the  DCZ  and  the  Chinese  Academy  of  Agricultural  Sciences  (CAAS).  According  to  the  consultancy  agreement,  my  tasks  to  be  rendered  during  the  assignment  were as follows:  1. To take part in the Open Day DCZ in the DCZ on Nov. 17, 2015.  2. To participate in the German‐Chinese Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection  on Nov. 18, 2015.  3. To  give  a  15  min  presentation,  relating  to  soil  pollution  with  veterinary  antibiotics  and heavy metals including examples from China and Germany.  4. To  attend  in  the  formal  opening  of  the  Sino‐German  Agricultural  Science  and  Technology  Cooperation  Platform  (S&T  Platform)  between  the  two  countries’  Ministries of Agriculture on Nov. 18, 2015.  5. To  provide  input  for  the  planned  short  retrospective  on  35  years  of  Sino‐German  cooperation in the field of agriculture for the opening of the S&T Platform.  6. To  actively  participate  in  discussions  during  the  workshop  and  to  exchange  knowledge with the other attendees and participants.  Point 1: On Nov. 17, I took part in the Open Day at the German‐Sino Agricultural Center. This  event was part of the first German‐Sino Agricultural Week 2015 and brought together policy‐ makers, agricultural practitioners, as well as representatives from science and industry. From  my  point  of  view,  this  interesting  mixture  of  persons  with  very  different  backgrounds  created a good basis for talks, discussions and knowledge exchange. During the first part of  the  event,  several  Chinese  and  German  experts  gave  oral  presentations,  where  bilateral  cooperation  projects  and  Chinese  cooperation  institutions  were  introduced.  During  the 

second part, poster presentations of these cooperation projects and institutions served as a  basis for discussions.  Overall,  I  learned  here that  beyond  my  professional  topic  (soil  science and  soil  protection)  there are many fruitful fields and areas in agriculture for a cooperation between China and  Germany (e.g., agricultural engineering, renewable energy like biogas production, all kinds of  trainee  programs).  I  learned  that  German  technology  or  knowledge  cannot  directly  be  transferred to China and vice versa. If we want to support each other, we first have to know  and to understand the way of living and working of our partners.  Point 2: For me, the German‐Chinese Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection was one  of  the  highlights  of  my  stay  in  Beijing.  In  the  first  session,  soil  protection  policies  and  strategies were presented from different perspectives (China, Germany, FAO, EU). Minggang  Xu  from  CAAS  reported  on  recent  soil  issues  in  China  and  mentioned  that  about  25  %  of  China’s soils contain less than 1 % SOM and that the average pH of arable soils has dropped  down during the last decades significantly. So, with regard to SOM losses and acidification,  China  faces  similar  problems  like  many  other  countries  in  Europe  and  elsewhere.  Or  with  other  words:  In  many  parts  of  China  and  in  Germany,  the  parent  material,  the  soils  themselves,  climatic  conditions,  and  land  use  and  management  are  comparable.  Under  these  circumstances,  soil  threats  are  also  comparable  which  in  consequence  means  that  Chinese and German soil scientists are able to understand each other. This is a sound basis  for a fruitful cooperation. Nicolas Dandois (agricultural counselor from the EU delegation in  Beijing) introduced the ongoing “trilemma” of land use policy in terms of ecological security,  food  security,  and  urban  development.  Thomas  Strassburger  (German  Federal  Ministry  of  the Environment) documented soil protection activities in Germany. He outlined the positive  effects of the German Soil Protection Act from 1998 and the corresponding Ordinance from  1999,  but  also  mentioned  the  need  of  a  revision.  In  the  second  and  third  session,  soil  scientists  from  China  (Bin  Zhang,  Juying  Jiao,  Zucong  Cai,  Yibing  Ma,  Xudong  Zhang)  and  Germany  (Georg  Guggenberger,  Joachim  Ingwersen,  Holger  Lilienthal,  Christian  Rumbaur,  and  me)  presented  cutting‐edge  knowledge  on  soil  science  and  soil  protection.  I  won’t  go  into details here, because Georg Guggenberger summarized the main outcome of these two  sessions.  After the arrival of Peter Bleser (German Parliamentary State Secretary, Federal Ministry for  Food and Agriculture BMEL) and Taolin Zhang (Vice Minister, Chinese MOA), Marco Roelcke 

(DCZ)  presented  an  entertaining  overview  of  several  decades  of  agricultural  scientific  cooperation  between  Germany  and  China.  Bin  Zhang  gave  an  interesting  talk  on  future  cooperation  priorities.  Afterwards,  both  Mr.  Bleser  and  Mr.  Zhang  took  the  floor  and  stressed the importance of a close cooperation between China and Germany in the field of  soil  protection.  Vice  Minister  Zhang  announced  new  soil  protection  measures  including  a  nationwide  survey  of  recent  soil  conditions.  At  the  end,  both  politicians  answered  all  questions that came from the audience.  Point 3: My oral presentation dealt with veterinary antibiotics and heavy metals in soils. My  statements mainly based on the results of a research project (Accumulation and leaching of  P, heavy metals, and antibiotics following extended organic fertilization in light soils) that we  conducted  near  Beijing  within  the  joint  project  Recycling  of  organic  residues  from  agricultural  and  municipal  origin  in  China,  funded  by  MOST  (China)  and  BMBF  (Germany).  The main slides of my presentation are attached as pdf file.  Point  4:  According  to  my  contract  with  GIZ,  I  attended  the  formal  opening  of  the  Sino‐ German Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation Platform.  Point  5:  I  had  the  pleasure  to  provide  Marco  Roelcke  with  some  slides  from  the  1980s  showing Prof. Brümmer from Bonn University during his visits in China and several Chinese  soil scientists during their stay at the Institute of Soil Science in Bonn.  Point 6: In the afternoon of November 17, I had the opportunity to join a discussion round  on  soil  science  and  soil  protection  together  with  Chinese  and  German  colleagues.  From  Chinese side, Bin Zhang (CAAS), Xudong Zhang (Institute of Applied Ecology, CAS), Zucong Cai  (Nanjing  Normal  University),  and  Ganlin  Zhang  (Institute  of  Soil  Science,  CAS)  joined  the  discussion.  The  German  group  included  Thomas  Strassburger  (German  Federal  Ministry  of  the  Environment;  he  proposed  this  meeting),  Anne  Ostermann  (formerly  Soil  Science,  University of Bonn, now ICRAF, Kunming), Marco Roelcke (formerly Technical University of  Braunschweig,  now  DCZ),  Christian  Rumbaur  (Technical  University  of  Munich),  Holger  Lilienthal (JKI, Braunschweig), and Joachim Ingwersen (University of Hohenheim). For more  than two hours, we discussed diverse topics in soil protection including (i) the state of soil  fertility and threats of soil degradation in China and Germany, (ii) possibilities to stop or at  least slow down degradation processes, (iii) influence of land use and management on soil  fertility, (and iv) legislative measures to strengthen soil protection. 

Besides this “official” discussion round, I had a lot of talks and discussions with Chinese as  well as German colleagues. So, after coming back from Beijing, I have to state that I know  significantly more about the problems of soil protection in China than before.   

Kurzbericht über meine Teilnahme am „German-Sino Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection“ in Peking vom 17.-20.11.2015

Im Vorfeld des Symposiums hab ich mich am 17.11.2015 von 16-19 Uhr zusammen mit sechs Kollegen (Herr Strassburger (Umweltbundesamt), Herr Welp (Universität Bonn) und Herr Rumbauer (Universität München), Herr Lilienthal (Thünen-Institut Braunschweig), Herr Rölcke (DCZ, Peking) und Frau Ostermann) mit vier chinesischen Wissenschaftlern getroffen (Zhang Ganlin (Chinese Academy of Science), Zhang Bin (Chinese Agricultural Academy of Science), Cai Zucong (Nanjing Normal University) und Zhang Xudong (Chinese Academy of Science)), um über die aktuelle Situation der chinesischen Landwirtschaft und insbesondere über Bodenschutzaspekte zu diskutieren. Zu Beginn des Treffens hat Herr Strassburger den grundsätzlichen Aufbau und Inhalt des deutschen Bodenschutzgesetzes und seine praktische Umsetzung erläutert. Diese Ausführungen sind auf sehr großes Interesse gestoßen. Die chinesischen Kollegen waren sehr diskussionsbereit und haben Problemfelder offen benannt. Neben der Stickstoffüberdüngungsproblematik wurde auch das Problemfeld Schwermetalle angesprochen. Vor 10 Jahren war dies noch ein Tabuthema. Des Weiteren wurde die Problematik bodenbürtiger Krankheiten (Nematoden, Fusarium etc.) von Cai Zucong thematisiert. Als Folge des Monokulturanbaus von z.B. Bananen oder Zierblumen kommt es bei diesen Anbausystemen in der Regel zum Ausbruch bodenbürtiger Krankheiten, die eine Bewirtschaftung ohne weitere Behandlung unmöglich macht. Befördert durch das System der Landnutzungsrechte hat dies dazu geführt, daß sich in einigen Teilen Chinas eine Art Nomadenlandwirtschaft entwickelt hat. Ist der Boden nach 3-5 Jahren aufgrund bodenbürtiger Krankheiten für die Bewirtschaftung nicht mehr geeignet, ziehen die Landwirte weiter und pachten sich an andere Stelle neues Land. Darüber hinaus wurde deutlich, daß sich die chinesische Landwirtschaft zur Zeit in einem enormen strukturellen Wandel befindet. Durch eine Reform der Landnutzungsrechte, die es nun erlaubt sein Landnutzungsrecht auch an Dritte weiter zu verpachten, werden in weiten Teilen Chinas große Flurbereinigungsprojekte durchgeführt. Es ist zu erwarten, daß mit dieser Entwicklung in den nächsten Jahren eine starke Mechanisierung der Landwirtschaft einhergehen wird.

Auf dem Symposium war insbesondere der Vortrag von Zhang Xudong sehr aufschlußreich. Der Vortrag hat deutlich gemacht, daß die Stickstoffproblematik zwar inzwischen erkannt wurde, daß aber weiterhin die Maximierung der Erträge höchste Priorität besitzt. Statt die Düngermenge zu reduzieren wird darauf gesetzt das aktuelle Düngungsniveau beizubehalten und zu versuchen einen Teil des mineralischen Überschuß-Stickstoffs kurzfristig in mikrobielle Biomasse zu immobilisieren, und damit diesen Teil des Stickstoffüberhanges vor Volatilisation und Auswaschung zu schützen. Durch diese Maßnahmen kann sicherlich ein Teil des überschüssigen Stickstoff vor einem Austrag geschützt werden. Aber er ist zu bezweifeln, daß diese Maßnahme ausreicht, um einen Überschuß von bis zu 200 kg N/ha zuverlässig vor einem Austrag in benachbarte Umweltkompartimente zu schützen. In Deutschland betragen im Bundesdurchschnitt die N-Immobilisierungraten zwischen 20-50 kg N/ha. Überraschend offen fiel auch die Rede des stellvertretenden chinesischen Landwirtschaftsministers Herr Zhang Taolin aus. Er hat die aktuellen Problem wie Überdüngungen, Schwermetalle in Böden, Bodenverdichtung oder Flächenverbrauch offen benannt und thematisiert. Dies gibt Grund zu der Hoffnung, daß sich tatsächlich in den nächsten Jahren auch in China im Bereich des Bodenschutzes etwas bewegen wird. Allerdings zeigen die Erfahrungen aus dem Bereich der Stickstoffdüngung, daß die chinesische Seite ihre eigenen Prioritäten setzt und seinen eigenen Weg geht. Zum Abschluß meiner Reise hab ich meinen Aufenthalt in Peking noch dafür genutzt meinen alten Kooperationspartner Herrn Ju Xiaotang von der China Agricultural University (CAU) zu besuchen. Mit Herrn Ju Xiaotang hab ich Rahmen des Internationalen Deutsch-Chinesischen Graduiertenkollegs neun Jahre zusammen geforscht. Wir haben uns über unsere aktuellen Forschungsaktivitäten ausgetauscht, und ich habe vor seinen Master-Studenten und Doktoranden über meine aktuellen Forschungsarbeiten referiert. Wir haben beide bekräftigt, daß wir unsere erfolgreiche Zusammenarbeit auch in Zukunft fortsetzen wollen.

Hohenheim, der 30.11.2015

Dr. Joachim Ingwersen

GIZ ‐ Fachlicher Kurzbericht zur Deutsch‐Chinesischen Agrarwoche 2015 am Deutsch‐Chinesischen  Agrarzentrum in Beijing 

Fachlicher Kurzbericht zur Deutsch‐Chinesischen Agrarwoche 2015 am  Deutsch‐Chinesischen Agrarzentrum in Beijing  von Dr. Christian Rumbaur  17. November 2015 „Open Day Sino‐German Agricultural Center“  In ihren Präsentationen haben die deutschen und chinesischen Vortragenden ihre laufenden Projekte,  die landwirtschaftliche Politik Chinas und den Trend der chinesischen ökologischen Landwirtschaft  vorgestellt.  Laut Yang Chunhua vom chinesischen Landwirtschaftsministerium ist China weltweit der größte  Produzent für Baumwolle, Öl, Zucker, Milchprodukte und Fisch. Eine Reform der landwirtschaftlichen  Produktion sieht vor, das System zur sozialen Grundsicherung sowie die Krankenversicherung der  Bauern und das landwirtschaftliche Versicherungssystem zu verbessern. China steht kurz davor die  „rote Linie“ in der Landwirtschaft, die als Minimum zur Sicherstellung der Ernährung angesehene  Gesamtfläche an Ackerland („arable land“) in Höhe von 120 Mio. ha,  zu unterschreiten. Daher  versucht die Regierung mit dem Anpassen der ländlichen und urbanen Flächen, der Einrichtung eines  Subventionssystems und der Abschaffung der Steuern in der Landwirtschaft hin zu einer Öko‐ und  Recycling‐ Landwirtschaft gegen zu steuern. Das Hukou‐System soll für Bauern angepasst werden, so  dass die Bauern in die städtischen Gebiete kommen und dort bleiben können. Der Plan der Regierung  ist es, neue Dörfer und schöne Häuser zu bauen.  Die momentane Situation und der Trend der ökologischen Landwirtschaft in China wurde von Yang  Zhengli vorgestellt: In China gibt es mehr als 1000 Pilotprojekte für ökologische  Landwirtschaftsbetriebe, wie zum Beispiel für die Produktion für Green Food, die Öko‐Zivilisation, die  Recycling‐Landwirtschaft, die pfluglose Bodenbewirtschaftung, die Biogasproduktion und‐  versorgung auf Haushaltsebene, Agroforstwirtschaft und das Recycling von Stroh. Außerdem soll das  öffentliche Bewusstsein für die traditionelle und die konventionelle Landwirtschaft gefördert werden.  Herr Yang erklärte auch den Unterschied zwischen „Green Food“ und „ökologischer Landwirtschaft“.  Die Definitionen für „Green Food“ und Lebensmittel aus „ökologischer Landwirtschaft“ in China  unterscheiden sich von denen für Bio‐Lebensmittel in den USA und Europa. Die „ökologische  Landwirtschaft“ zielt darauf ab, eine intakte Umwelt zu erhalten und die Standards für das Labeling  sind strenger als für „Green Food“. Für die ökologische Landwirtschaft ist ein Gesetz erlassen worden  auf dessen Basis die ökologischen Betriebe anhand von 22 Standards überwacht werden. Die  Überwachung soll für die gesamte Produktionskette eingeführt werden („vom Bauernhof bis zum  Teller“). Zurzeit gibt es 21.000 Betriebe, die das grüne Label tragen. Dieses Label gewährt eine hohe  Qualität der Produkte. In diesem landwirtschaftlichen Sektor werden 508 Mio. RMB Umsatz erzielt.  Viele ausländische Firmen versuchen ein grünes Label in China zu bekommen. Neben dem Label  „Green Food“ gibt es noch das Label „Organic Food“ in China, welches den internationalen Standards  des Ökolandbaus (organic farming) entspricht. Die Hauptkonsumenten in China leben in den  Großstädten Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen und Guangzhou (Kanton). 60% der Lebensmittel mit dem  Label „Organic Food“ werden in diesen vier Städten verzehrt. In der Zukunft wird die Landwirtschaft  mit Begrenzungen zu kämpfen haben: i) dem Konflikt zwischen Land und der Bevölkerung  (Wasserverteilung in China), ii) die Ressourcenknappheit und der Umweltverschmutzung. Die  Dr. Christian Rumbaur – Email: [email protected]   1   

GIZ ‐ Fachlicher Kurzbericht zur Deutsch‐Chinesischen Agrarwoche 2015 am Deutsch‐Chinesischen  Agrarzentrum in Beijing  Landwirtschaft ist der größte Verursacher für Umweltverschmutzung in China noch vor der Industrie.  Die Aufgabe wird darin bestehen, dass die Effizienz der Landwirtschaft und das Einkommen der  Bauern erhöht werden muss. Und im Zuge der Heraushebung des Umweltschutzes in der  Landwirtschaft und der Nahrungsmittelsicherheit werden ökologische Düngemittel und ökologische  Pflanzenschutzmittel gefördert. Wichtig ist zudem die ökologische Einstellung der Bauern zu erhöhen.  China will in der Zukunft zur globalen Nummer eins in der „ökologischen Landwirtschaft“ aufsteigen.  Dazu sollen die Technologien und die Ausbildung der Bauern verbessert werden.  Ein Vertreter vom chinesischen Landwirtschaftsministerium referierte über die Ausbildung der  Bauern in China. In China gibt es immer weniger Bauern. 50% der Bauern sind bereits in die Städte  gezogen. Es existieren viele Geister‐Dörfer. In den meisten Dörfern auf dem Land leben nun  hauptsächlich alte Menschen oder Bauern mit Grundschulbildung. Die älteren Bauern erhalten ein  fortlaufendes Training. Zusätzlich werden Soldaten in die ländlichen Gebiete entsandt, um die Felder  zu bestellen und die Bauern auszubilden. Es gibt bereits ein Zertifizierungsprogramm für  karriereorientierte Bauern. Die Ausbildung läuft seit 2014 hauptsächlich über Schulen im Rundfunk  und Fernsehen, landwirtschaftlichen Fachschulen, Firmen und Berufsschulen. Bisher nehmen vier  Provinzen, 407 Landkreise und 21 Städte an dem Ausbildungsprogramm teil. Die Ausbildung zielt auf  Familienbetriebe und junge Bauern ab. Außerdem gibt es mobile Klassenzimmer. Dies sind Busse, die  direkt in die Dörfer fahren und direkt vor Ort die Bauern ausbilden.  Diese Vorträge gaben einen tiefen Einblick in die chinesische Situation der ländlichen Bevölkerung  und der chinesischen Landwirtschaft.  17. November 2015 Diskussionsrunde über Bodenschutz  In der Diskussion zum Bodenschutz in China erklärten die chinesischen Teilnehmer die Maßnahmen  der chinesischen Regierung zum Bodenschutz. Dieses Jahr (2016) wird die chinesische Regierung  einen Bodenschutz‐Implementierungsplan herausgeben. In dem Plan wird es um den Schutz der  Böden gegen Verschmutzung gehen. Außerdem wird eine Abteilung für Böden im chinesischen  Umweltministerium geschaffen. Im chinesischen Landwirtschaftsministerium gibt es bereits eine  Düngemittelabteilung, die sich ebenfalls mit Böden befasst. In Deutschland ist der Fachbereich Boden  unter dem Bundesministerium für Umwelt (BMUB) angesiedelt. Der Fachbereich Boden in China ist  bisher auf das Ministerium für Wasser‐Ressourcen (MWR), das Ministerium für Land und Ressourcen  (MLR) und das Ministerium für Landwirtschaft (MOA) aufgeteilt. Neue Bodenstandards werden  gegenwärtig in China geschaffen, da alle landwirtschaftlich nutzbaren Böden in China Probleme  haben. Besonders Pathogene in den Böden der Gewächshäuser aber auch in Böden offener Flächen  bereiten große Schwierigkeiten. Ein weiteres Thema ist, dass in den ländlichen Gebieten  hauptsächlich alte Menschen oder Menschen mit niedrigem Bildungsstand leben. Dadurch ist es nun  aber den Bauern erlaubt ihr Land an andere Bauern zu verpachten. So entstehen große  landwirtschaftliche Betriebe mit bis zu 20 ha. Andere Bauern spezialisieren sich auf Landmaschinen  und die Bewirtschaftung durch diese Maschinen, die sie als Dienstleistung anderen Bauern anbieten.  18.11.2015: Session on Soil Protection Policy and Strategies  Herr Prof. Xu Minggang von der CAAS berichtete über die aktuelle Situation des Ackerlandes in China.  Momentan kommen ca. 0,079 ha Ackerland auf jeden Chinesen. Auf 25% der chinesischen  Dr. Christian Rumbaur – Email: [email protected]   2   

GIZ ‐ Fachlicher Kurzbericht zur Deutsch‐Chinesischen Agrarwoche 2015 am Deutsch‐Chinesischen  Agrarzentrum in Beijing  Landfläche ist es schwierig Ackerbau zu betreiben und auf 26% des Landes liegt der organische  Kohlenstoffgehalt unter 1%. Durch die Überdüngung der Felder wird der pH‐Wert reduziert.  Innerhalb der letzten 12 Jahre ist der pH‐Wert der Böden um 0,5 bis eine pH‐Einheit gesunken. Um  den Umweltproblemen der landwirtschaftlichen Böden zu begegnen, soll eine Informationsplattform  für die Qualität der landwirtschaftlichen Böden eingerichtet werden. Das Frühwarnsystem soll durch  4060 Bodenbeobachtungsstationen unterstützt werden. Geplant sind eine Erhöhung des organischen  Kohlenstoffgehaltes in den landwirtschaftlichen Böden und eine Optimierung der Düngung und der  Bewässerung. Dies beinhaltet eine Düngung mit Stallmist und anderem organischem Dünger. Zudem  soll vermehrt mit Regenwasser bewässert und das Mulchen verbreitet werden. Die Standards und  die Gesetze für den Ackerbau sollen verbessert, der Schutz der landwirtschaftlichen Böden gestärkt,  Bauernhöfe mit hohem Standard geschaffen und neue Subventionen umgesetzt werden.  Herr Nicolas Dandois,  Agrarattaché bei der EU‐Delegation in China erläuterte die EU‐Politik für  Bodenschutz. Das EU‐Schwerpunktthema in Bezug auf Bodenschutz ist die Ernährungssicherheit.  Über einen dynamischen Ansatz sollen Szenarien für die Flächenverteilung in der Landnutzung  angegangen sowie eine nachhaltige Intensivierung der Landwirtschaft sowie das ökologische  Landmanagement gefördert werden.    

Empfehlungen zur Fruchtfolge‐ und Anbauplanung auf der Huanghai Farm  Bodencharakterisierung der Huanghai Farm: toniger Boden, 1,78% organischer Kohlenstoffgehalt,  pH‐Wert: 7,59, durchschnittliche Jahrestemperatur: 13,1°C, Jahresdurchschnittsniederschlag: 960  mm.  Auf tonigen Böden wachsen Pflanzen wie Kohlgemüse, Buchsbohnen, Lupinen, Luzerne, Ölrettich,  Getreide und einige Obstbäume gut. Pflanzen wie Kartoffeln, Mohrrüben und Radieschen sind eher  ungeeignet für den Anbau auf tonigen Böden, da ihre Wurzeln zu wenig Sauerstoff bekommen  könnten und es aufwendiger ist die Kartoffeln, Möhren und Radieschen nach der Ernte zu säubern.  Da Tonböden viel mehr Wasser als andere Bodenarten speichern, benötigt man mehr Wasser, um die  Tonböden bis zu einer bestimmten Tiefe zu befeuchten als in sandigen Böden. Wenn die Tonböden  einmal feucht sind speichern sie die Feuchtigkeit länger als zum Beispiel sandige Böden. Mit einer  minimalen Bodenbearbeitung (no till, minimum tillage) verbleiben die Wurzeln der Vorfrüchte nahe  der Bodenoberfläche und verrotten dort. Dies fördert die Bildung eines natürlichen Bodengefüges  und die Belüftung des Bodens. Mais und Hirse mit ihren weitreichenden Wurzelsystemen sind für  diese Art der Bodenverbesserung besonders geeignet. Eine weitere Möglichkeit des  bodenschonenden Anbaus von Kulturpflanzen auf tonigen Böden ist der Anbau in  Hochbeeten/angelegten Dämmen. In den Hochbeeten ist die Belüftung für die Wurzeln besser  gegeben als im großflächigen Anbau.  Als Fruchtfolge könnte man im ersten Jahr mit dem Anbau von Klee gefolgt von /oder in Mischkultur  (zur Eindämmung der Erosion bei kleinen Maispflanzen – Starkregenereignisse im Sommer in Jiangsu)  mit Sommermais beginnen. Der Klee sollte als Gründünger in den Boden eingearbeitet werden oder  zumindest auf dem Feld belassen werden, dadurch kann die organische Substanz im Boden  angereichert werden und so zur Bodenverbesserung beitragen. Der Anbau könnte mit Kohlgemüse  Dr. Christian Rumbaur – Email: [email protected]   3   

GIZ ‐ Fachlicher Kurzbericht zur Deutsch‐Chinesischen Agrarwoche 2015 am Deutsch‐Chinesischen  Agrarzentrum in Beijing  gefolgt von Hirse im nächsten Jahr fortgeführt werden. Auch hier sollten die Wurzeln im Boden  verbleiben. Je nach Stand der Bodenqualität sollten ab und zu Klee oder Lupinen als Gründünger  angebaut werden und in den Boden eingearbeitet werden. 

Dr. Christian Rumbaur – Email: [email protected]   4   

Reisebericht German-Sino Agricultural Week in Beijing/China Zeitraum: 16.11. – 19.11.2015 Teilnehmer: Dr. Lilienthal, JKI-PB Auf Einladung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) reiste im November eine Delegation nach Peking, um an der „German-Sino Agricultural Week“ teilzunehmen. Die Teilnehmer der deutschen Delegation waren: Dr. Thomas Straßburger – Bundesumweltministerium Prof. Dr. Georg Guggenberger – Universität Hannover PD. Dr. Gerhard Welp – Universität Bonn Dr. Joachim Ingwersen – Universität Hohenheim Dr. Holger Lilienthal – JKI Braunschweig Dr. Christian Rumbaur – TU München Im Rahmen der Veranstaltungen fand am 17.11. vormittags ein Tag der offenen Tür am neu gegründeten Deutsch Chinesischen Agrarzentrum (DCZ) in Peking statt.

Foto 1. Der parlamentarische Staatssekretär Bleser des BMEL bei seiner Eröffnungsrede anlässlich des Tags der offenen Tür des DCZ in Peking. (Foto: Lilienthal, JKI-PB) Am Nachmittag des 17.11.2015 fand ein Expertengespräch zum Thema Bodenschutz mit chinesischen und deutschen Wissenschaftlern statt. Die Gespräche wurden in einer sehr offenen Atmosphäre geführt. Die Probleme der chinesischen Landwirtschaft (zu hoher Düngemitteleinsatz, Übernutzung der Böden) und deren Lösungen sind in der Wissenschaft schon lange bekannt. Allerdings besteht ein Kommunikationsproblem, um die wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse in die Praxis zu übertragen. Es gibt keine Ausbildung für Landwirte; Wissen wird entweder von der Vorgängergeneration weitergegeben, oder aber die Beratung findet direkt durch die Düngemittelhändler statt, die ihrerseits jedoch ausschließlich auf Umsatzsteigerung aus sind. Eine unabhängige, wissenschaftlich fundierte Beratung soll zukünftig über Test- und Pilotbetriebe realisiert werden. Ein Besuch des „Sino-German Production and Technology Demonstration Parks“ auf der Huanghai Staatsfarm in der Jiangsu Provinz

fand am 19.11.-20.11. statt (Dr. Lilienthal konnte aus terminlichen Gründen leider nicht an der Exkursion teilnehmen). Der chinesische Staat, als Besitzer sämtlichen Ackerlandes, verpachtet die Flächen an Landwirte auf 30 Jahre. Landwirtschaft hat in der Bevölkerung einen negativen Ruf und gilt als rückständig, so dass viele Pächter einen Beruf in der Stadt bevorzugen, ihre Flächen aber an andere landwirtschaftliche Unternehmen weiter vermieten. Dabei sind diese Vermietungsperioden gerade so lang, dass eine Ernte auf den Flächen realisiert wird. Zum Beispiel werden Flächen für die Melonenproduktion gerade einmal für 3 Monate vermietet. In diesen 3 Monaten wird unter maximalem Einsatz versucht hohe Erträge zu erzielen. Danach wird die Fläche an ein anderes Unternehmen vermietet, die zum Teil wieder die gleiche Kultur anbaut. So kommt es zu einer nicht nachhaltigen Bewirtschaftung, bis hin zur kompletten Zerstörung der Ackerflächen. Der Umgang und die Nutzung der Flächen sind ein politisches Problem, da die Erhaltung der Bodenfruchtbarkeit über die 30 Jahre Pachtzeit nicht gefordert wird. Die Ernährungssicherung ist die größte Herausforderung für China, trotz aller Probleme ist China jedoch in der Lage seine Bevölkerung mit Nahrungsmitteln zu versorgen. Am 18.11.2015 fand das “German-Sino Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection” statt. Dabei stellten chinesische und deutsche Wissenschaftler ihre aktuellen Forschungsfragen zu den Themen  Soil protection policy and strategies  Cutting-edge Knowledge on soil science and soil protection  Transfer and extension: Demonstration farms in China  Technological solutions to soil protection – 10 years experience with Chinese agriculture vor.

Foto 2. Eröffnung des German-Sino Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection in Peking. (Foto: Lilienthal, JKI-PB)

Anschließend fand eine Diskussionsrunde mit dem parlamentarischen Staatssekretär Herrn Peter Bleser und dem Vize- Landwirtschaftminister Dr. Zhang Taolin über die Landwirtschaft in China statt. Dabei wurden die Probleme von chinesischer Seite sehr offen angesprochen. Den Abschluss des Tages bildete die Unterzeichnung einer Durchführungsvereinbarung sowie die Eröffnung der „Deutsch-Chinesischen Plattform zur Kooperation in der landwirtschaftlichen Forschung und Technologie“.

 

Summarizing report by Chinese side on Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection and German-Sino S&T Platform (January 2016)

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中德农业科技合作平台 2015 年工作总结 一、 项目背景 基于 2014 年 3 月中德农业部共同签署的《中华人民共和 国农业部与德意志联邦共和国食品与农业部关于中德农业 中心的框架协议》,2014 年 12 月,中国农科院党组书记陈 萌山出访德国,与德国食品与农业部食物政策、粮食安全与 创新司 Klaus Heider 司长,共同签署在“中德农业中心框 架”下建立“中德农业科技合作平台”(以下简称“平台”) 的合作意向书。2015 年 3 月 23 日,农业部对外经济合作中 心(FECC)与德国国际合作机构(以下简称为英文名称缩写 “GIZ”)共同签署了“中德农业中心”(以下简称“中心”) 《德国国际合作机构(GIZ)和外经合作中心(FECC)间关 于中德农业中心(DCZ)的执行协议》(以下简称协议), 协议明确规定“中国农业科学院为农业部委任的中心科研合 作伙伴”、 “中方计划从中国农业科学院指派一名国内专家, 对接上述德方派遣的科学协调员工作”。 基于上述“协议”内容,2015 年 5 月 22 日“中德农业 中心”官方负责人 Dietrich Guth 博士率团访问了中国农业科 学院,与院国际合作局冯东昕局长就依托中国农业科学院建 设“中德农业科技合作平台”(以下简称“平台”),以及 对接德方科学协调员 Marco Roelcke 博士常驻中国农业科学 1   

院开展日常工作等相关事宜进行了磋商,并达成一致意见。 中国农业科学院国际合作局一致同意将“中德农业科技 合作平台”挂靠在我所开展建设,同时指派张斌研究员具体 与德方科学协调员 Marco Roelcke 博士对接相关工作。 2015 年 8 月,农业部对外经济合作中心与我所签署 《2015 年“中德农业科技合作平台”建设及交流活动委托协 议》,并为支持“平台”工作顺利开展,在我所设立“平台” 办公室,任岳现录博士为科研助理。当月,Marco Roelcke 博士入驻我所,共同积极筹备“平台”揭牌仪式,以及在“中 德农业周”期间召开“中德土壤学和土壤保护性研讨会”等 相关具体工作。 二、 项目执行情况 1)筹备召开了中德土壤学和土壤保护性研讨会 9 月,在我所陈金强书记和中国农科院国际合作局徐明 处长的支持和领导下,经过与德方专家进行频繁协商,多次 向农业部国际合作局和农业部对外经济合作中心汇报请示, 成立了土壤研讨会及揭牌仪式的组委会。制定了土壤研讨会 及揭牌仪式的举行方案,编写了土壤研讨会及揭牌仪式的会 议日程,完成参加会议的中德科学家和企业代表的邀请。  10 月,协助准备了《关于中德农业科学技术合作平台 项目的成立意向》和《关于中德农业科学技术合作平台项目 的执行协议》两个英文文本。  2   

11 月 15 日,落实了会场准备、会议材料印刷、参会代 表和中德政府代表团的接待。我所科研处以及学生的参与保 证了会议准备按时高质量完成,保证了会议的顺利进行。  11 月 17 日,在德国议会国务秘书 Peter Bleser 访问 农业部期间,双方共同签署了《中华人民共和国农业部与德 意志联邦共和国食品与农业部关于建立中德农业科技合作 平台的联合声明》。 2015 年 11 月 18 日,“中德土壤学和土壤保护性研讨 会”  在中国农科院大会议厅和中国农科院农业资源与农业 区划研究所会议室召开。会议议题包括:1)土壤学和土壤 保护的国际视角;2)中德土壤保护科学前沿进展;3)土壤 保护技术推广;4)土壤保护技术对策;5)中德土壤科学和 保护合作优先领域。来自国际土壤学会主席代表、欧盟驻中 国农业参赞、德国农业部和环保部代表、中国和德国著名土 壤学研究机构的科学家、德国农机公司和示范农场代表等 22 位代表应邀做会议报告。研讨会开幕式由我所陈金强书记主 持,中国农科院副院长王汉中、农业部种植业司耕肥处副处 长仲鹭勍、德国联邦食品和农业部调研和创新处处长马 娅·克劳森和中德农业中心德方政治主任迪特里希·古丝参 加开幕式并讲话。参加会议人员达 100 余人。  会上,农业部副部长张桃林和德国食品和农业部议会国 务秘书彼得·布莱塞尔出席并参加了圆桌讨论,回答了大家的 3   

提问并就会议主题发言。德国联邦议院议员, 食品和农业委 员托马斯·马尔贝格,联邦议院议员, 食品和农业委员弗里 德里希·瓦克尔,德国联邦食品和农业部副部长办公室主任 马丁·米勒博士、农产品出口兽医事务处处长阿克塞尔·施 托克曼博、中、东亚国家双边合作处副处长安斯加尔·阿施 法尔克博士、调研和创新处处长马娅·克劳森、中德农业中 心德方主任康拉德·霍约斯等参加会议。  张桃林简要回顾了中德农业科技合作历史,肯定了中德 在土壤学和土壤保护方面三十年来合作成就,强调了我国农 业发展所取得的巨大成就、农业持续发展中所面临的资源要 素和环境生态约束。希望为了实现我国政府提出的“藏粮于 地”的战略目标和部署,在中德两国农业部的支持下,中德 科学家能够从农业生态的角度,深入研究可持续农业集约化 过程中的作物秸秆和有机肥还田、农机耕作与土壤压实、土 壤侵蚀防控、减少化肥农药施用与土壤环境污染防治和修复 等核心科学问题。希望中德农业中心和中德农业科技合作平 台成立,能促进中德农业合作,特别是农业科技合作成为国 际农业科技合作的典范,为中德乃至全人类的粮食安全、食 品质量安全以及生态环境安全做出重要贡献。 彼得·布莱塞尔热烈祝贺中德土壤科学和土壤保护研讨 会成功召开,认为这次会议推动更多公众认识到土壤科学的 重要性,丰富了国际土壤年活动;充分肯定了三十五年来中 4   

德两国在土壤学方面的合作成就,强调中德两国科研合作和 人际交往已走向深入,特别提及土壤资源在持续农业发展和 生态环境安全保障中的核心地位,指出中国土壤资源面临的 挑战与德国过去在工业化和经济高速增长时期类似,为中德 双方在土壤污染治理、温室气体排放、养分循环利用等方面 进行合作提供了机遇;强调了成立中德农业中心和中德农业 科技合作平台的重要作用,希望中德农业科技合作平台发挥 更大推动作用。  会后来自参会中德农业部官员、科学家和其他人员都对 会议作出了积极评价。德国农业部国际双边合作项目处 Ulrich Kleinwechter 博士通过邮件说明这次会议的组织、学 术报告水平、学术与政治仪式相结合形式、参加会议人员的 广泛性以等方面是未来中德学术交流研讨会的典范,是这次 中德农业周最成功的活动之一。农业部国际合作司唐盛尧副 司长和王锦标处长也对会议取得的成果和组织表示满意。为 了更好地利用中德农业中心和中德农业科技合作平台开展 工作,会后我们也进行了认真总结。  2)筹备举行了中德农业科技合作平台揭牌仪式 2015 年 11 月 18 日,在中国农业部张桃林副部长和德国 议会国务秘书 Peter Bleser 的共同见证下,中国农科院吴孔明 副院长和德国国际合作机构(GIZ)代表 Ursula Becker 共同签 署了《中德农业科技合作平台的实施协议》,并由张桃林副部 5   

长和德国议会国务秘书 Peter Bleser 为“平台”揭牌,中国农 业科技合作平台正式运行。  该平台将为中德两国政界、学术界和企业发展提供决策 支撑,其目标是设计和协调双边委托的农业研究项目,借此 加强科研合作强度和培育长期展。主要任务包括:1)协调 德意志联邦共和国食品和农业部的研究机构和中华人民共 和国农业部的农业及与食品相关的研究机构;2)协调科研 人员的双边交流计划;3)支撑德意志联邦共和国食品和农 业部和中华人民共和国农业部提出的双边合作研究的优先 项目;4)协调意志联邦共和国食品和农业部和中华人民共 和国农业部共同支持的合作研究项目;5)组织关于科研的 双边会议和研讨会;6)建立关于科研和出版物的开发性的 数据库;7)定期出版关于农业和食品以及优先研究领域的 通讯;8)为中德农业中心的合作项目提供技术。  三、 成效和经验 1、完成了会议目的,推动了人们对土壤的保护意识。 今年是国际土壤年,倡导健康土壤带来健康生活。来自中德 两国不同部门科学家、企业代表、学生共同探讨土壤保护议 题,并通过农业部、中国农科院等网站以新闻稿件形式进行 宣传,通过政府部门和科学家的大力呼吁,促进了人们对土 壤退化的认识,推动了人们对土壤的保护意识。该活动成果 在国际土壤年总结会议中得到高度认可。  6   

2、密切了中德双方土壤学家从土壤保护的基础研究、 技术推广及政策方面的的深入交流,加深了中德两国科学家 个人友谊,为深化中德农业合作提供了契机。 3、得到中德政府和各方力量的大力支持。推动了德农业 科技合作平台成立相关文件的签署和揭牌仪式的顺利进行。 为深入开展中德农业全方位合作奠定了坚实的政治基础。 4、中德农业部领导和科学家对本次活动的成功召开给 与了积极的评价。德国农业部给 Marco 发邮件,认为这次会 议以科学交流和行政活动相结合的模式可以成为未来中德 农业合作的榜样。中方科学家均期望这个平台能够成在中德 农业科技合作中发挥大的作用。  四、 问题和建议 1、在筹备“中德土壤学和土壤保护性研讨会”和“中德农 业科技合作平台”揭牌仪式过程中,出现一些事务性问题不 知向哪一级主管部门汇报的情况,导致部分准备工作不是很 充分、一些材料准备出现拖延等情况。由于中德农业科技合 作平台事关外交领域,每一个环节都要力争做到严谨和无疏 漏,因此建议中德农业科技平台的各级主管部门能够进一步 明确各自主管任务与边界(最好能明确到具体领导),一方 面便于和德方各主管部门对接交流,另一方面便于今后更好 地开展工作。  2、尽管中德农业科技合作平台已于 2015 年建立起来, 7   

但是在中国农业领域,绝大多数科学家、企业主管等还不知 道该平台的存在,而平台的运作也需要他们共同参与。因此 建议 2016 年加大对平台的资助力度,将中英文网站建立起 来,加强对合作平台和合作成果的实时宣传。  五、 今后工作设想 1.

由中国农业科学院国际合作局协调,建立院属各研

究所主管外事和与德国有合作意愿的科学家代表的联系网 络。更大范围地推广中德农业科技平台,使其在推进中德农 业科技合作中发挥作业。 2.

在中德农业中心的领导下,完成“中德农业科技合

作平台”协议上描述的任务,协调农业研究机构、科研人员 双边交流、双边研讨会、提供优先研究项目建议,建立开放 性数据库并出版通讯,为中德农业中心的合作项目提供技术 支撑。2016 年计划分别在德国和中国召开“中德现代农作 物育种研讨会”和“中德食品安全研讨会”。 3.

借助中德农业科技合作平台,从德国农业部 DFG\

DAAD,中国农业部、科技部、国家留学基金委员、国家自 然科学基金委等机构申请长期的科研和教育经费;从中国方 面立项,邀请德国专家和学生来华工作。   中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所  2015 年 12 月 4 日  8   

 

Annexes:

Workshop programme Participants list German side Participants list Chinese side

                                73   

 

 

               

74   

German-Sino Symposium on Soil Science and Soil Protection German-Sino Agricultural Center (DCZ) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) November 17-20, 2015

Beijing, China

In Celebration of the 2015 International Year of Soils

German-Sino Agricultural Week, November 16-20, 2015

(Programme)

Sponsored by: German-Sino Agricultural Center (DCZ) Organized by: German-Sino Agricultural Center (DCZ) Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) With support from: German Asia-Pacific Business Association, German Agribusiness Alliance Location: CAAS, Main Building Meeting Hall and Meeting Hall of IARRP Accommodation: Friendship Hotel

1

Tuesday, November 17th 2015

8:00-17:00

Arrival and Registration at the Friendship Hotel

15:30 - 18:30 Small discussion round on Soil Protection (IARRP, CAAS) (German and Chinese soil scientists and interested persons)

18:30-20:30

Dinner

2

Wednesday, November 18th 2015: MORNING PLENARY SESSION Main Building Meeting Hall at the Headquarter of CAAS Welcome Chairperson: CHEN Jinqiang 08:30-08:50

Opening Statements WANG Hanzhong, vice President, CAAS Maja CLAUSEN, Division Research and Innovation, BMEL ZHONG Luqing, Deputy Division Head, Department of Crop Production, MOA Dietrich GUTH, Political Director (German side), DCZ

08:50-09:05

Group photo

Soil Protection Policy and Strategies Chairpersons: ZHANG Bin, Marco ROELCKE 09:05-09:20

09:20-09:35 09:35-09:50 09:50-10:05

10:05-10:20

10:20-10:40

The 2015 International Year of Soils - IUSS perspective on Soil Science and Soil Protection Rainer HORN (President of International Union of Soil Science (IUSS)) China’s soil issues and agricultural policy (MOA) XU Minggang (Inst. of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, CAAS) EU policy on Soil Protection Nicolas DANDOIS (Agricultural Counsellor, EU Delegation in Beijing) Soil protection policy in Germany Thomas STRASSBURGER (German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Division Soil Protection and Contaminated Land) Perspectives from Chinese Union of Soil Science and Soil Protection ZHANG Ganlin (Inst. of Soil Science, CAS) Coffee break

Cutting-edge Knowledge on Soil Science and Soil Protection Chairpersons: Holger LILIENTHAL, CAI Zucong 10:40-11:00

11:00-11:20

11:20-11:40

11:40-12:00

Delving deeper into Mollisols of China with international collaboration for food and environmental security ZHANG Bin (Inst. of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, CAAS) Impact of land use practices on soil degradation and chances of improvement: Lessons learned from the Kulunda steppe, Siberia Georg GUGGENBERGER (Inst. of Soil Science, University of Hannover; President of German Soil Science Society (DBG)) Vegetation restoration, soil erosion and sediment yield on the Loess Plateau after GFG project JIAO Juying (Inst. of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & MWR, Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University) Veterinary antibiotics and heavy metals in soils Gerhard WELP (Inst. of Crop Science and Resource Conservation-Soil Science, University of Bonn)

12: 00-13:30 Lunch 3

Wednesday, November 18th 2015: PARALLEL SESSION 1 Meeting Hall at the IARRP, CAAS Cutting-edge Knowledge on Soil Science and Soil Protection (continued) Chairpersons: Marco ROELCKE, ZHANG Xudong 13:30-13:50

Reductive

soil

disinfestation

to

solve

consecutive

monoculture

problems CAI Zucong (School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University) 13:50-14:10

Recent developments in the Barometric Process Separation technique (Results from Hohenheim-CAU IRTG, 2003-2012) Joachim INGWERSEN (Inst. of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, University of Hohenheim)

14:10-14:30

Advances in soil quality standards of trace elements for agricultural lands in China MA Yibing (Inst. of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, CAAS)

14:30-14:50

Current Aspects of Soil Research at JKI Dr. Holger LILIENTHAL (Inst. of Crop and Soil Science, Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Braunschweig)

14:50-15:10

Mediating nitrogen cycling by carbon management in agro-ecosystem ZHANG Xudong (Inst. of Applied Ecology, CAS)

15:10-15:30

Sustainable management of River Oasis along the Tarim River Christian RUMBAUR (Chair of Hydrology and River Basin Management, Technical University of Munich)

15:30-15:45

Tea break and rearrangement (small group to prepare workshop report)

4

Wednesday, November 18th 2015: PARALLEL SESSION 2 Main Building Meeting Hall at the Headquarter of CAAS Transfer and Extension: Demonstration Farms in China Chairpersons: Bernd KOCH, HE Jin 13:30-13:50

13:50-14:10

14:10-14:30

Findings, results and experiences from German-Chinese demonstration farm in Ganhe/Inner Mongolia Tesa WEISS (AFC Consultants International GmbH) Action to increase crop productivity for smallholder farmers in China MI Guohua (College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University CAU) Sino-German crop production and agrotechnology demonstration park (GSCADP) (Huanghai State Farm/Jiangsu Province) Thomas ILLIES (Team leader, German side)

Technological solutions to soil protection – 10 years of experience with Chinese agriculture Chairpersons: Franz-Georg von BUSSE, MI Guohua 14:30-14:50

14:50-15:10

15:10-15:30

15:30-15:45

Current situation of China’s agricultural mechanization and conservation tillage HE Jin (College of Engineering, China Agricultural University CAU, Conservation Tillage Research Center of MOA) Adapting technology to local needs in China – Experience and challenges from the perspective of a German agricultural machinery manufacturer Peter ZHAO, General Manager, Lemken Agricultural Machinery (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. Stefan TRENDOWITZ (CLAAS Agricultural Machinery Trading Co, Ltd. Providing modern inputs, know-how and training: The AgriSolutions Center in Danyang/Jiangsu Province Cynthia WEI, Head of Public and Government Affairs, Bayer Crop Science (China) Company Ltd. Tea break and rearrangement (small group to prepare workshop report)

5

Wednesday, November 18th 2015: AFTERNOON PLENARY SESSION Main Building Meeting Hall at the Headquarter of CAAS Concluding discussion and wrapping up Chairpersons: Marco ROELCKE, ZHANG Bin 16:00-16:10

Short workshop report Georg GUGGENBERGER, Science Group Franz-Georg von BUSSE, Technical Group

16:10-16:30

Concluding discussion All participants Chairperson: FENG Dongxin (Director-General of Department of International Cooperation, CAAS)

16:30-16:35

Introduction of honorable guests

16:35-16:45

Several decades of agricultural scientific cooperation between Germany and China Marco ROELCKE (DCZ)

16:45-16:55

Future cooperation priorities ZHANG Bin (CAAS)

16:55-17:10

Questions and Discussion from podium and floor

17:10-17:25

Topical contributions to Symposium Peter BLESER, German Parliamentary State Secretary ZHANG Taolin, Vice Minister, Ministry of Agriculture of China (MOA)

17:25-17:30

Concluding remarks

6

Official

Inauguration of “Sino-German Agricultural Technology Cooperation Platform”

Science

and

Chairperson: FENG Dongxin (Director-General of Department of International Cooperation, CAAS) 17:30-17:40

Formal signing of Implementation Agreement on the “Sino-German Agricultural Science and Technology Cooperation Platform” Signatories:Jürgen STEIGER, Vice Director, GIZ Country Office China; WU Kongming, CAAS Vice President. Testimonies: Mr. Peter BLESER, Parliamentary State Secretary, German Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL); ZHANG Taolin, Vice Minister, Ministry of Agriculture of China (MOA).

17:40-17:50

Inauguration and Gratulatory statements Mr. Peter BLESER, Parliamentary State Secretary, German Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL); ZHANG Taolin, Vice Minister, Ministry of Agriculture of China (MOA).

17:50-18:00

Group photo

18:10-20:30

Reception at the Friendship Hotel

7

Thursday, November 19th, 2015

Follow-up tour 7:00-8:30

Breakfast

9:00

Follow-up tour to visit the new “Sino-German Crop Production and Agrotechnology Demonstration Park” on the Huanghai State Farm (Jiangsu Province) (Flight AIR China CA 1591 11:35 - 13:30 to Yancheng) or Departure

8

Venues: Main Building Meeting Hall At the Headquarter of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and At the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning (IARRP), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) No. 12, Zhongguancun South Street, 100081 Beijing. Contacts:

Mobile phone:

Prof. Dr. Zhang Bin, IARRP, CAAS: Mrs. Zheng Jiang, IAARP, CAAS: Dr. Marco Roelcke, DCZ: Mr. Oliver Rogall, DCZ:

13691170632 E-Mail: [email protected] 13810670419 E-Mail: [email protected] 13810839060 E-Mail: [email protected] 13041160516 E-Mail: [email protected]

Friendship Hotel

IARRP, CAAS

Main building, CAAS

9

 

Participants list German side

Nr

Full Name

Alina 1 Gumpert 2

Anne Ostermann

3

Ansgar Aschfalk

4

Axel Stockmann

Title, Position Director Agribusiness, German Agribusiness Alliance, German Asia-Pacific Business Association (OAV) World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS Deputy head of division for bilateral cooperation with Central and East Asian Countries, GFFA, German Federal Ministry for Food and Agriculture Head of division Veterinary Affairs during Export, German Federal Ministry for Food and Agriculture

5 Bao Yuan

GIZ LOCLU Project

6 Bernd Koch

DLG International

7

Christian Rumbaur

Research Associate, Technische Universität München, Chair of Hydrology and River Basin Management

8

Cornelia Horsch

Gesellschafterin, Horsch Maschinen GmbH

9 Cynthia Wei

Head of Public and Government Affairs, Bayer Crop Science (China) Company Ltd.

Dietrich Guth

Political director of German side, German-Sino Agricultural Center (DCZ)

10

11 Felix Beck

Project Manager, General Agent, Bilateral Cooperation Programme of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL)

12 Feng Yingli

GIZ LOCLU Project

FranzChairman, German Agribusiness Alliance, 13 Georg von German Asia-Pacific Business Association (OAV) Busse

Participants list German side

Nr

Full Name

Friedrich 14 Wacker

Title, Position Deputy head of department International Cooperation, Food Security, German Federal Ministry for Food and Agriculture

Georg Guggenberger

Professor and Director of Institute, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institute of Soil Science

16 Gerhard Welp

Assistant Professor and Senior Lecturer, University of Bonn, Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), Soil Science and Soil Ecology

Holger 17 Lilienthal

Julius Kühn-Institut - Federal Institute for cultivated plants, Institute for crop and soil science

18 Jens Oeding

Claas Global Sales GmbH, Regional President Asia

Joachim 19 Ingwersen

University of Hohenheim, Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Biogeophysics Group (310d)

15

Johann Conrad 20 Graf von Hoyos Johannes 21 Buschmeier 22 Liu Hongqiao 23 24 25 26

German-Sino Agricultural Center, Permanent Managing Director (German side) AFC Consultants International

China Water Risk (HK Think Tank) Deputy head of Division Research and Maja Clausen Innovation, German Federal Ministry for Food and Agriculture Marcello CEO, Shandong Changlin Deutz-Fahr Albertini Machinery Company LTD German-Sino Agricultural Center, Science Marco Roelcke Advisor (German side) Head of Vice Ministers’ office, German Federal Martin Mueller Ministry for Food and Agriculture

Participants list German side

Nr

Full Name

27

Martin Umhau

28

Martine Püster

29

Nicolas Dandois

Member of Advisory Board, German Agricultural Society (DLG) Counsellor for Food and Agriculture, Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany to China, Beijing Counsellor, Agriculture, Permanent representation of the European Union, Beijing

30

Oliver Rogall

German-Sino Agricultural Center, Agricultural Policy Dialogue Advisor (German side)

31 Peter Bleser 32 Peter Zhao 33

Robert Tansey

34 Tesa Weiss

Title, Position

Parliamentary Secretary of State to the Minister for Food and Agriculture General Manager, Lemken Agricultural Machinery (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. The Nature Conservancy (NGO) AFC Consultants International

Team leader (German side) of Sino-German Crop Production and Agrotechnology Demonstration Park in Huanghai, Jiangsu Province Thomas Member of the German Bundestag (Parliament), 36 Mahlberg Committee for Food and Agriculture Policy officer for soil protection, German Federal Thomas Ministry for the Environment, Nature 37 Strassburger Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, Division WR II 2. Ursula 38 GIZ Environmental Partnership Project Becker Thomas 35 Illies

39 Wang Zhe

Interpreter (German – Chinese)

40 Wei Rong

German-Sino Agricultural Center, National Expert (German side)

41 Xu Wenna

Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (BfR), Berlin

Participants list German side

Nr

Full Name

42

Zhang Li

DLG International

43

Katharina Backes

Krieg & Fischer Ingenieure GmbH

He Hong

Helmholtz Beijing Representative Office

Feng Xue

Pöttinger

Daniel ?

CAAS

44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

Title, Position

Participants list Chinese side 编 号



1



单位名称

职务/职称

张桃林

农业部

副部长/研 究员

2

唐盛尧

农业部国际合作司

副司长

3

王锦标

农业部国际合作司

处长

4

仲鹭勍

农业部种植业司

副处长

5





农业部对外经济合作中心

主任

6





农业部对外经济合作中心

处长

7

谢冬生

农业部对外经济合作中心

副处长

8

吴孔明

中国农业科学院

9

王汉中

中国农业科学院

10

冯东昕

中国农业科学院国际合作局

局长

11

张蕙杰

中国农业科学院国际合作局

副局长

12





中国农业科学院国际合作局

代处长

13

张甘霖

中国科学院南京土壤研究所

副所长/研 究员

14

张旭东

中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所

研究员

15

焦菊英

中国科学院水土保持研究所

研究员

16

胡正义

中国科学院大学

书记/教授

17

蔡祖聪

南京师范大学地理学院

教授

18



中国农业大学工学院

副教授

19

米国华

中国农业大学资源与环境学院

教授

20

巨晓棠

中国农业大学资源与环境学院

教授



副院长/院 士/研究员 副院长/研 究员





Participants list Chinese side 编 号



21



单位名称

职务/职称

江荣风

中国农业大学资源与环境学院

教授

22

王道龙

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

所长/研究 员

23

陈金强

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

书记

24

徐明岗

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

副所长/研 究员

25





中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

处长

26





中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

外事主管

27

张维理

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

研究员

28





中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

研究员

29

马义兵

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

研究员

30

周文斌

中国农科院作物科学所

研究员

31

郭建英

中国农科院植保所

研究员

32

王春连

北京大学

研究员

33

宋阿琳

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

副研究员

34

范分良

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

副研究员

35

查燕

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

副研究员

36

胡琼

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博士

37

田京

设计学

研士/编辑

38

刘逸竹

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博士

39

项铝涛

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

40

周晓阳

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博士





Participants list Chinese side 编 号



41



单位名称

职务/职称

徐扈

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

42

李兰海

中科院新疆生态与地理研究所

研究员

43

保万魁

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

研究员

44

邸佳颖

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博后

45

赵雅雯

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

46

王士超

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博后

47

陈浩

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

48

张莉

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博士

49

张水勤

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博士

50

王专杰

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

51

任凤玲

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

52

曲潇琳

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

53

高丽丽

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博士

54

李景

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博士

55

岳龙凯

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博士

56

何翠翠

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博士

57

刘鑫海

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

博士

58

五宇洲

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

59

郭文茜

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

60

冯欣

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士





Participants list Chinese side 编 号



61



单位名称

职务/职称

周扬帆

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

62

姜赛平

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

63

宋核璇

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

74

张妍

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

65

郭康莉

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

66

孙兆凯

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

67

郑涵

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

68

范玲玲

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

69

张玉静

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

70

许鹏宇

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

71

王海英

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

72

王慧颖

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

73

毛晓洁

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

74

许猛

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士

75

覃志象

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

研究员

76

李兆军

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

研究员

77

张瑞福

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

研究员

78

胡韵菲

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士生

79

邹亚杰

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

助研

80

李玲玲

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

助研





Participants list Chinese side 编 号



81

单位名称

职务/职称

张涛

中国农业大学

副教授

82

张帼俊

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

财务处长

83

孟秀华

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

主任

84

苏敏

吉林辽源市汉研室

主任

85

胡同涛

吉林辽源市农委

副主任

86

袁学高

吉林辽源市农委

科长

87

王倩倩

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士生

88

张月玲

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

硕士生

89

郭剑

中国农科院农业资源与农业区划研究所

90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99