CHAPTER – II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
CHAPTER – II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1
Introduction In the previous chapter an attempt has been made to present a conceptual
framework of the investigation along with need and importance of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study in relation to the influence of achievement motivation, home environment and study habits on academic achievement of secondary school students. In this chapter, an effort has been made to review the earlier work related to the study under investigation. 2.2
Review of Related Literature
2.2.1 Studies related to Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement Sandven (1975) observed the motive to excel in academic work as an activating force, a drive or an urge to achieve good results and recognition which to some degree accounts to progress in school. Abrol (1977) made a study on achievement motivation in relation to intelligence, vocational interests, sex and socio-economic status. Students of X class from six urban schools of Delhi were selected as the sample of the study. The study revealed that the mean n-achievement of students from unaided, aided and Govt., schools differed significantly. A significant and positive correlation was found between achievement motivation and scholastic achievement. Amalaha (1975) and Moen and Doyle (1977) found that academic achievement motivation was used to mean the pupil’s need or drive towards the achievement of success in academic work of students. It is assumed that people differ in their need to achieve in situations that call for excellence.
37 Indrani (1985) explored the study of relationship between academic achievement and achievement motivation of IX class students of Bangalore city, and to locate high and low achiever among boys and girls. The major findings of this study were significant high positive relationship between academic achievement and achievement motivation in IX standard boys and girls. Harneek and Manjit Kaur (1990) studied the relationship between achievement motivation and achievement in science and mathematics to find out whether over and under achiever in science and mathematics differ significantly in their achievement motivation. They found that significant relationship did not exist between achievement motivation and achievement in science and mathematics, over and under achiever in science did not differ significantly in their achievement motivation whereas significant difference exists in the achievement motivation of over and under achiever in mathematics. Ramila Salvi and Samita Trivedi (1991) studied influence of intelligence, socio economic status and attitude towards English on achievement in English and their various instructions on achievement in English of XII standard students in a higher secondary school in Ahmadabad. They found that intelligence or socio-economic status did not have a significant influence on achievement in English and the three variables when interacted with one another they had a significant influence on achievement in English. Verma (1992) studied achievement motivation, anxiety and learning styles in relation to ecological variables like age, gender, caste, residence and SES of parents. Gender made differences in achievement motivation and anxiety, learning style and parents’ educational level in achievement motivation.
38 Sudhir (1998) examined the nature and extent relationship between selected personality factors and achievement motivation and the association between socioeducational factors and achievement motivation among high school students. He found that the students with high test anxiety are positively related to achievement motivation, with self reliance are negatively related to achievement motivation, and with high family relation were found to be more achievement oriented. Tuckman (1999) presented a model of motivation for achievement that includes three generic motivational factors that influence outcome attainment: (1) attitude or belief about one’s capability to attain the outcome; (2) drive or desire to attain the outcome; (3) strategy or techniques employed to attain the outcome. He has presented an experimental research evidence to illustrate the contributive influence of each proposed factor on academic engagement and achievement. Gesinde (2000) found that the urge to achieve varies from one individual to the other. For some, the need for achievement is very high while, for others it is very low. According to him achievement motivation is learnt through the socialization process. Those who have high achievers as their role models in their early life experience would develop a high need for achievement, while those who have low achievers as their role models would hardly develop the need for achievement. The family is obviously, a major socializing agent and therefore important in determining the child’s motivation to achieve success in various areas. Salim (2000) observed that students’ performance in science in public examinations has been consistently low. Olatoye (2002) also found students’ achievement in Lagos State (Nigeria) secondary schools to be generally poor. Kushman, Sieber and Harold (2000); Sandra (2002) and Broussard and Garrison (2004) have found
39 positive relationship between achievement motivation and academic performance of the students. Adedji Tella (2007) investigated the impact of motivation on students’ school academic achievement in mathematics in secondary schools in Nigeria. Results showed that gender difference were significant when impact of motivation on academic achievement was compared in male and female students. Also other result indicates significant difference when extent of motivation was taken as variable of interest on academic achievement in mathematics based on the degree of their motivation. Ahmet Akbas and Adnan Kan (2007) investigated the motivation and anxiety for Chemistry course of high school students attending 10 different high schools located in the city center of Mersin. The study revealed that while 2nd grade students of high school have the highest motivation for chemistry course, 1st grade students possess the highest anxiety level for chemistry course, as well. Also, it was found out that the motivation and anxiety for chemistry lesson, on their own, is a significant predictor of chemistry achievement. Brenda Navarrate et al (2007) investigated the role of socio economic and cultural factors that may contribute to motivational factors and academic achievement in Latino American and Anglo American high school students in California, USA. A theoretical model for the study of culture was used to examine the proposed relations among socio economic status and fatalistic cultural value orientations as determinants of stability of causal attributions for academic failure and student achievement. The findings supported the proposed effect of socio economic status and fatalistic cultural value orientation on academic achievement through the mediating role of attribution processes.
40 Van de Gaer, Eva; et al (2007) investigated on the impact of students’ achievement motivation on the status and growth in Mathematics and Language achievement of boys and girls across grade seventh and eighth. They found the positive effect of achievement motivation both individually in group on their achievement. Pandey and Faiz Ahmed (2008) have investigated to study the significance of difference between male and female adolescents of XI class students, on academic performance, achievement motivation, intelligence and socioeconomic status. They found that there is no significant difference between male and female adolescents on measures of academic performance, achievement motivation, intelligence and socioeconomic status. Sangeeta (2009) studied the impact of self-concept and academic achievement motivation on academic performance of secondary school students of HyderabadKarnataka region. She concluded that academic achievement motivation had a high impact on the academic performance of the students. Further the academic achievement motivation and academic performance of the students were significantly correlated and were interdependent. Maureen E. Kenny (2010) studied and explored the contributions of work-based beliefs and autonomy support as predictors of adaptive achievement-related beliefs. Two hundred and one urban high school students who were enrolled in a work-based learning program completed measures of work hope, autonomy support, and achievement beliefs. Results from the full canonical correlation model revealed that work hope, career planning, and autonomy support shared 37.5% of the variance with achievement-related beliefs. Moreover, work hope and teacher autonomy support further contributed unique variance in explaining these beliefs. The findings contribute to the theoretical knowledge
41 base concerning the value of work-based learning in fostering academic motivation among adolescents. Karen Strobel (2010) made a study on deeper understanding of classrooms that promote motivation, engagement and ultimately achievement among an ethnically and economically diverse population of middle school students. Their analyses highlight three main findings: 1.Students’ motivational beliefs are significant predictors of their achievement. 2. Classroom practices that encourage effort and understanding and create a caring learning environment potentially yield higher achievement by increasing students’ motivation to learn. 3. Changes in classroom practices are associated with changes in students’ motivation. Gök and Sılay (2010) examined the effects of teaching of the problem solving strategies on the students’ physics achievement, strategy level, attitude, and achievement motivation on the tenth grade students in Turkey. The averages of the experimental group’s achievement, motivation, strategy level, and attitude were found to be higher than control groups. According to the experimental data, gender didn’t affect the physics achievement of students. It was concluded that problem solving strategies were more effective in cooperative learning than conventional teaching. Aydın and Coşkun (2011) investigated the achievement motive among secondary school students. The relations between the achievement motive and gender, class level, parent education level and family income level with variables. They revealed that the views of students about the scale of geography lesson achievement motivation has shown significant difference according to class level, but did not show any significant difference according to gender, mother’s education level, father’s education level and family income status.
42 Prakash Chandra Jena (2011) has made a study on to compare the memory and achievement motivation of male and female students of secondary schools in Sikkim state. The findings were; there was a significant difference in the memory of rural boys and girls; there was no significant difference in achievement motivation of urban boys and girls, and there was no significant difference in achievement motivation of rural boys and girls. Vishal Sood (2012) has investigated on need for achievement, academic achievement and socio-demographic variables of high school students of Kullu and Manali districts of India. The results revealed that n-achievement positively and significantly affected academic achievement of high school students. The students with high n-achievement possessed significantly higher academic achievement as compared to students with average and low n-achievement. Girls were found to have significantly higher n-achievement in comparison to boys. However, no significant differences in nachievement were found among rural and urban students as well as students belonging to nuclear and joint families. Firouzeh Sepehrian Azar (2013) has investigated the relationship between selfefficacy, achievement motivation, academic procrastination as predictors of academic achievement in pre-college students. The results revealed that there was significant difference between boys and girls in terms of the level of achievement motivation, academic achievement and academic self-efficacy. 2.2.2 Studies related to Home Environment and Academic Achievement Asha Bhatnagar (1980) has made a study on X class students of Delhi and found a positive relationship between parental involvements in studies with their academic achievement.
43 Veerabhadramma (1984) investigated the causes of under achievement of middle school children of Government schools in Bangalore city. The results revealed that the students do not study due to poor home conditions, lack of motivation and poor communication skills. Head masters of the schools feel that schools are not well equipped, promotion rules are too liberal, heavy syllabus and remedial training not done and schools are overcrowded. A few researchers noted little or no effect of parental involvement on adolescent school performance (Keith et al, 1986; Natriello and McDill, 1986). The parenting style (democratic, authoritarian, etc) is also influential both in the students’ educational process as well as in family-school relations. Jagannadhan (1985), Rodriquez Castellano (1986) and Narang (1987) found that a positive family climate favours the development of welladapted, mature, stable and integrated subjects, and an unfavorable family climate promotes non-adaptation, immaturity, lack of balance and insecurity. Baumrind (1988) has identified three types of parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative and permissive. Keith (1991) observed the inconsistencies in part by the numerous definitions of parent involvement in studies on school performance. For instance, some authors use the latter term to refer to parent participation in school activities while others use it to refer to more general parental interest in their child's academic and social life. Steinberg et al., (1992) found the positive correlations between parenting style and involvement in school suggests that a combination of some dimensions of these variables could be associated with adolescent school performance. Epstein (1992) found that parental involvement in children’s learning activities positively influences their levels of achievement and motivation to learn.
44 The research studies conducted by Dauber and Epstein (1993) and Janosz, (1994) revealed that the home environment influences academic achievement and thus prevents high school dropout rate. Among the family-related factors associated with school performance are family background variables, such as parental education and family structure, and family processes, such as parental education style and parental involvement in schooling. Dornbusch et al (1990); Steinberg et al (1992) and Christenson (1992) have concluded that parenting style refers to a general child-rearing pattern that characterizes parents' behavior towards their child. It is most often conceptualized along two dimensions, parental acceptance involvement and strictness-supervision, which can be combined to create a fourfold parenting typology: authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful, wherein parental involvement in schooling refers to the parents' role in their child's education. It can take several forms: presence at school, communicating with the teachers, or helping at home with homework. Dornbusch et al (1987) and Lamborn et al (1993) found the positive relationship between authoritative parenting and school performance. According to these researchers, authoritative parenting is defined by a combination of high levels of warmth and acceptance, behavioral control, and psychological autonomy granting. They have concluded that the students with higher grades come from parents who demonstrate high levels of warmth, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting and who are highly involved in their adolescent's schooling and the positive influence the family environment has on adolescent school achievement. Shukla et al (1994) have investigated the factors at home which effect academic achievement of the children. They found that the facilities for learning at home have significant correlation with achievement level of children at primary stage. Henderson and Berla (1994) synthesized over sixty studies regarding the effects of family
45 involvement on student achievement. Their work attributes to parental involvement effects that include higher grades and test scores, increased homework completion, improved school attendance, more positive attitudes, fewer discipline problems, increased high school completion rates, decreased school leaving rates, and greater participation in postsecondary education. They suggested that the parents’ involvement can contribute to these outcomes from early childhood through high school. Paulson (1994) asserted that demandingness, responsiveness and parental involvement have positive effect on the achievement outcomes of early adolescents. Deslandes et al (1997) examined the influence of parenting style and parental involvement in schooling on academic achievement at the secondary level. The research was conducted with 525 adolescents of the Quebec-Appalaches region and found that the three factors, parental acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting, contributed to school achievement. Results also indicated that youngsters whose parents gave them affective support performed better than their peers. The study revealed that parents retain substantial influence over their adolescent's school performance. Cartejon and Perez (1998) found indirect relationships with performance from the student’s perception of how much importance his or her parents assign to study at home. In a study by Gottfried et al (1998), home environment was found to have a statistically positive and significant effect on academic intrinsic motivation. Children whose homes had greater emphasis on learning opportunities and activities were more academically intrinsically motivated. Sophia Catsambis (1998) analyzed the data of National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 whether parental involvement influences the educational achievements of high school seniors. By utilizing multiple involvement indicators for the eighth and
46 twelfth grades, the study confirms the importance of considering the multidimensional nature of parental involvement in students’ education. General conclusions based on the findings support the existence of positive effects of parental involvement on twelfth grade students’ academic achievements. High levels of educational expectations, consistent encouragement, and actions that enhance learning opportunities of students were the major ways by which families positively influence the educational achievements of their teens. Regardless of socioeconomic or race/ethnic background, families with high levels of educational expectations have the most positive effects on their children’ achievements. Ichado (1998) found that the home environment in which the students come from would greatly influence their performance at school. The family lays the psychosocial, moral and spiritual foundations in the overall development of the child, while the mother’s significant role in this cannot be over-emphasized. Agulanna (1999) made a study on father-child relationship and concluded that the presence of a father in the home influences significantly the development of a child. Various studies conducted by Raj (1995), Bajwa and Kaur (2006), Williams (2008), Ewnetu and Fisseha (2008), Houtenville and Conway (2008), Chan and Koo (2010) have concluded strong connection between parenting styles and the academic achievements of children. These studies revealed that home environment as a potential predictor of academic achievement and reported the positive and significant effects of home environment on academic achievement of students, while Vijayalakshmi (2003) revealed negative correlation between home environment and academic achievement. Marchesi and Martin (2002) observed that parental expectations have a notable influence on academic results, even when controlling for initial knowledge and socio-
47 economic context. Other studies show that the family relationships (Buote, 2001) and level of family cohesion (Caplan et al, 2002) prove themselves capable of predicting academic performance. In a study on achievement and aspirations of adolescents, Malvinder Ahuj and Sunitha Goyal (2005) observed high parental involvement leads to high achievement and low parental involvement resulted in low achievement. Rajendher Singh Pathani (2005) found that school atmosphere, socio-emotional adjustments and home environment effect the academic achievement. Vamadevappa (2005) has found that there was a positive and significant relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement among higher primary students. Good parental involvement leads to higher academic achievement. And achievement of girls was more than the achievement of boys among high parental involvement group. A study by Bansal et al (2006) based on 100 eleventh grade students drawn from 10 senior secondary schools in Ludhiana City of India showed that good quality of home environment had significant positive correlation with high level of achievement motivation among high achievers. It was found that as the quality of home environment deteriorates, the level of achievement motivation also deteriorates. In a longitudinal study of 89 first grade children of low income mothers, parental support was not found to be related to academic motivation. Sunitha and Khadi (2007) investigated the academic learning environment at home and school, of coeducational high school students from English and Kannada medium schools and its influence on academic achievement. The study also aimed to know the influence of socio-economic factors on academic learning environment at home and school. The sample consisted of 240 students, selected from 8 coeducational high
48 schools in Dharwad city of Karnataka state. The results revealed that students with English medium of instruction were significantly higher in students involvement, had higher qualified teachers in schools, received significantly better parental encouragement and care and had significantly better facilities in home (separate room to study, table, light, ventilation, and surrounding environment), had significantly better academic achievement than students of
Kannada medium schools. Further, home learning
environment had positive and significant influence on school learning environment of students among Kannada medium schools. Socio-economic status of the family exhibited positive and significant influence on home learning environment and school learning environment of students of both Kannada and English medium schools. Hickman & Crossland (2005), Assadi et al. (2007) and Abar et al (2009) have observed that people are aware of the importance of the home environment or family on pupil’s/student’s academic performance. The home has a great influence on the students’ psychological, emotional, social and economic state.
And have concluded that
authoritative parenting produce high level of academic performance and academic skills. Ajila and Olutola (2007) observed that the state of the home affects the individual since the parents are the first socializing agents in an individual’s life. This is because the family background and context of a child affect his reaction to life situations and his level of performance. Although, the school is responsible for the experiences that make up the individual’s life during school periods, yet parents and the individual’s experiences at home play tremendous roles in building the personality of the child and making the child what he is. Meena Siwach nee Daulta (2008) assessed the effect of home environment on the scholastic achievement of children of class VIII. The study revealed that boys of high
49 home environment group achieved significantly greater mean score than the boys falling in the group of low home environment. The impact of home environment has also been observed in the mean values of scholastic achievement of girls belonging to high, medium and low home environment groups. But the difference was not significant at 0.05 level and results also showed that good quality of home environment had significant positive correlation with ‘high’ level of scholastic achievement in boys than among girls. It was found that as the quality of home environment gets declined, the level of scholastic achievement also comparatively declines in boys. Huang (2008) investigated student social capital in Norwegian secondary schools and its effects on student achievement. He also tested an analytical model that links student home background, social capital at school and student academic achievement, using a structural modeling technique. Control variables in the analysis were student age, gender, school size and home community. Testing the analytical model with female and male student subgroup, gender perspectives have been taken into consideration. The study revealed that student social capital, generated from student social relations with parents, teachers and peers, has a significant influence on student achievement. Uwaifo (2008) examined the effects of family structure and parenthood on the academic performance of Nigerian university students. The sample for the study consisted of 240 students drawn from the six randomly selected faculties in Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State. The results showed that significant differences existed between the academic performance of students from single parent family and those from two-parent family structures. The results also indicated significant differences in academic performance of male and female students compared on two types of family structures. On the basis of findings, it was recommended that school counselors should be
50 employed in all schools and that they should provide necessary assistance to students especially those from single-parent family to enable them overcome their emotional concerns. Prasamita Mohanty (2009) attempted to examine the social factors that play significant role in academic achievement. The study was carried among 210 rural scheduled caste primary school girls in four DPEP districts of Haryana. The results revealed that socio-economic status is found to be potential social correlate of academic achievement. Home environment is having positive correlation with academic achievement in case of low achievers only and school environment failed to prove any relationship with the achievement level of high and low achievers. Abdul Raheem Yousuf et al (2009) investigated the influence of parenting styles on junior secondary school students' performance in social studies in Ilorin Emirate, Nigeria. The results showed that the parenting styles adopted had influence on the performance of the students. In addition, it was observed that students from authoritative parenting had better performance than students from other parenting styles. It was recommended among others that parents should adopt authoritative parenting style to enhance optimal performance of the students. In addition, the school should create structures and strengthen the existing ones that would provide parent training intervention. Jagpreet Kaur et al (2009) explored academic achievement and home environment as correlates of self-concept among adolescents. The results of the study revealed selfconcept was positively correlated with academic achievement, though not significantly so.
protectiveness, conformity, reward, and nurturance with self-concept among adolescents.
51 However, the correlation of social isolation, deprivation of privileges and rejection components of home environment is significantly negative with self-concept among adolescents. Muola (2010) investigated the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. The study was carried out on 235 standard eight Kenyan pupils from six urban and rural primary schools randomly selected from Machakos district. Their age ranged between 13 and 17 years. Two questionnaires, the simple profile (SP) and home environment questionnaire, were used to provide information on the pupil’s levels of academic motivation and home environment. A significant positive relationship was found between six of the home environmental factors, that is fathers’ occupation , mothers’ occupation , fathers’ education , mothers’ education , family size and learning facilities at home and academic achievement motivation. Parental encouragement was the only factor that was not significantly related to academic achievement motivation. These correlations showed that pupils’ motivation to do well in academic work is to some extent dependent on the nature of their home environment. Farhana Kazmi et al (2011) conducted a study to explore and evaluate the impact of father’s style of dealing with their children at home and their academic achievements at school. Classroom achievement of the children has been taken as a dependent variable. The sample of the study consisted of 300 students, 300 fathers and 20 teachers which was drawn randomly from urban and rural areas of district Mansehra province Khyber Pakhtun khwa (KPK). The results of this study were found in the favor of the fathers’ involvement for the academic achievements.
52 Viswanathan and Indira Ramani (2012) have investigated on social skills and home environment of secondary level tribal students of Khammam district in Andhra Pradesh (India). The study revealed that standards of VII and IX Tribal students did not differ in their perception on home environment. This was due to the process of schooling and other learning activities which they have undergone at the school. Siva Kumar (2012) has made relational studies of home environment and emotional maturity of higher secondary school students and found that level of home environment of higher secondary students is average. There is a significant difference between boys and girls with respect to their home environment. There is a significant difference between rural and urban higher secondary students with respect to their home environment. 2.2.3 Studies related to Study Habits and Academic Achievement A habit is automatic learned behavior pattern that enables an individual to handle specific type of environmental situations. The student who has acquired good study habits, has developed a behavior pattern, which enables him/her to sit down and begin working on his/her assignment with a minimum concentration. Individual study habits play a pivotal role in determining in a pupil’s academic achievement. A student’s progress or failure in the classroom depends upon several factors like interest in the subject, study facilities, own study habits and so on. Academic achievement is the achievement of the pupil during the course of his study, the standard of achievement in language, in subjects and in general knowledge. Brown and Holtzman (1956) constructed and validated a self-rating questionnaire that measures a student aptitude and motivation towards studying as well as his study habits. The questionnaire was validated on a sample of 219 men and 176 women.
53 Correlation of 0.50 and 0.52 were obtained for the sample of men and women respectively. Krishnan (1956) showed that the junior B.A. students had better study habits than senior B.A. students. Ahmann et al (1958) reported that the raw scores yielded by study habits scale failed to correlate significantly with the first semester grade point averages. It made no significant contributions to the prediction of these averages when included in a battery of tests. Norton (1959) made an investigation on the relationship of study habits and achievement on IX grade students from general science pool. He found that the achievement in general sciences wasn’t associated with study habits. Diener (1960) obtained the similarities and differences between over-achieving and under-achieving students and also observed that the two groups differed significantly in respect of their study habits. The over-achieving males had better study habits. Brown and Dubois (1964) and Richard and Virginia (1967) found a positive relationship between good study habits and academic achievement. Samuel and Rao (1967) conducted a study on a sample of 500 pre-university students and showed that there is a significant positive relationship between the study habits and academic achievement. Agarwal and Saini (1969) found that the coefficient of correlation between the study habits score and scores on achievement in mathematics of VIII and IX class students. Krishnamurthy and Rao (1969) conducted a study on high school students in Coimbatore. They observed that there is significant correlation between study habits and academic achievement of the urban students and also there is high significant correlation between study habits and academic achievement of sub-urban students. Richard et al (1971) observed that the feasibility and applicability of combining psychological conditioning techniques with a study technique in terms of its effect upon
54 the academic performance of ‘high risk’ college students. Florence and Ronald (1971) revealed that in the case of boys, the study habits score and attitudes subset predicted reading achievement, in the case of girls, the attitudes subset did predict a different criterion mathematics achievement. Sinha (1972) found significant relationship between study habits and scholastic achievement among adolescents. Marentic Pozaranik (1974) found positive relationship between study habits and scholastic achievement of IX class pupils. McCausland and Steward (1974) showed that academic aptitude, study skills and attitudes contribute to college success. Silvermann and Riordens (1974) observed that there was positive relationship between study habits and first semester grade of college students. Prociuk and Breen (1974) examined the relation between locus of control (inner-outer), study habits and attitudes, and academic performance; they stated that there is a positive relation among them. Girija et al (1975) made a study on the relationship between study habits, study skills, academic achievement motivation and academic achievement of first and final year students of the under graduates of University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore. The two groups differed significantly with regard to their study skills and achievement. Patel (1976) showed that there is positive correlation between study habits and achievement in school subjects. Ansari (1980) found that study habits and study attitudes are both significant variables which determine the academic performance of the students. Asha Bhatnagar (1980) made a study on 600 students of X class of Delhi and found that there existed a positive relationship between the study habits and academic achievement. Tuli (1980) observed that study habits are correlates of achievement in Mathematics. Several studies
55 have established that students’ academic performance is highly influenced by their study habits (Akinboye, 1980; Mustapha (1982), Adetola, 1988). Patel (1981) and Chauhan and Singh (1982) found that there exists significant relationship between study habits and academic scores among school going children. Christian (1983) studied need achievement and study habits of the pupils of standard 10th in relation to sex. Study habits inventory of Patel (1976) was administered on a sample of 79 girls and 68 boys. The analysis of variance revealed that girls and boys had equally good study habits. The study suggested that study habits are one of the important factors, helpful to achieve more in the promising field. Agarwal (1983) made a study on reading ability in relation to certain cognitive and non-cognitive factors. A sample of 200 males and 200 female students of XI grade were randomly selected from high schools in Bihar, India. The subjects completed a battery of reading ability tests, study habits inventory, general intelligence and non-verbal intelligence tests, anxiety, Eysenck personality inventory and youth adjustment inventory. The results indicated that males had a greater predisposition to better study habits, neuroticism, extroversion, favorable parental attitude and a better ideal self than females. However, females showed a higher reading ability and academic achievement than males. There were significant and positive correlations in both males and females between reading ability and their study habits. Singh (1984) found that the study habits of boys and girls differed significantly at different levels of academic achievement. Gadzella et al (1984) found that effective study skills lead to academic success. Premalatha Sarma (1986) in a study on achievement of rural girls found that poor study habits were highly associated with under achievement.
56 Singh (1987) investigated into the Study habits of scheduled caste adolescents in relation to their intelligence and achievement motivation. The random sample consisted of 100 boys and 100 girls of 9th standard of secondary schools of Bilaspur, Kangra and Simla districts of Himachal Pradesh in India. Study habits Inventory and general mental ability test and TAT were used for the study. The results reported that the main effect of intelligence on study habits was very highly significant. High intelligent group had better study habits than the low intelligent group. Singh (1989-90) made an investigation into the Study habits of scheduled caste adolescents in relation to their sex and achievement motivation. The study was conducted on 150 boys and 150 girls belonging to scheduled caste from 9th classes in Himachal Pradesh, India. The main effect of sex on the study habits was significant at 5 percent level. It indicated that the study habits of boys and girls differed significantly. Boys had significantly better study habits than girls. Ramaswamy (1990) studied the relationship between study habits and academic achievement in high and low achieving boys and girls of 11th standard in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India. The study habit inventory of Patel (1976) was used to measure the study habits. The correlation analysis revealed significant relationship between the study habits and academic achievement variables. Deb and Gravel (1990) revealed that after their investigation on B.Sc. final year Home Science students, the component of study habits was positively correlated with the academic performance of students. Students with good study habits did better academically. Therefore parents and teachers should help to promote good study habits in their children right from the beginning. Patnaik and Basavayya (1991) reported that there was no significant relationship between study habits and achievement in mathematics.
57 Misra (1992) conducted a study on assessing the level of test anxiety, self-concept, adjustment and study habits in predicting academic achievement. The study was conducted on a sample of 88 Oriya male students of 9th and 10th class in three schools of Bhubaneshwar, Orissa, India. To determine study habits of subjects Wrenn’s (1941) study habits inventory was used and total marks obtained in annual examination was used to know the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. It revealed significant and positive correlation between study habits and academic achievement. Tymms and Gibbon (1992) examined the relationship between time spent on homework and exam grades among approximately 3000 students from schools and colleges in Northeast England. Average time spent was 5 hrs per week. Girls reported spending approximately 30 minutes/week more than boys. The study revealed that students who marked for long hours gained slightly better grades than those who worked for modest periods. Ruth Lee (1992) conducted a study on development of study skill to improve grades in IX and X students. It is found that development of study skills, increased student achievement. Russell and Petrie (1992) have cited a research study aimed to find out the relationship between study habits and student attitude and academic performance (cumulative GPA) of college students. Findings of the study indicate a positive correlation between study attitude, study habit and academic achievement. Mehta and Malhotra (1993) carried out a study to find out the predictors of academic achievement among 300 arts students. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that study habits and study attitudes were the important predictors of academic achievement. Stella and Purushothaman (1993) examined the study habits of underachievers. 90 underachievers from rural and urban schools in Tamil Nadu, India
58 were selected by using randomized block design. Patel’s (1976) Study Habit Inventory was used for the study. The results indicated significant difference between urban and rural students in respect of study habits. The mean value showed that urban students had better study habits than rural students. But no significant difference was found between boys and girls. Research on the correlation between study habits and students’ academic achievement has for long received attention from scholars and educational agencies. For instance, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic performance of the students. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habits and academic achievement. Loranger (1994) compared the study strategies of six 16-18 year old successful and unsuccessful learners to determine if successful learners would differ in the quality of their information processing from unsuccessful learners. Each subject read and studied on article and participated in an interview. Results showed that successful students tended to be more motivated to succeed and more likely to be active, purposeful and flexible in their strategy use while less-successful students perceived themselves as successful, and they lacked self knowledge of inefficient strategy use. Abdullahi (1995), Anamoze (1999) and Pinda (2000) found that Nigerian students have negative pattern of study habits and possessed only half of the skills required for effective study habits. Verma (1996) studied the effect of study habits on academic achievement among 500 students of X class. The sample was selected from schools in Delhi by using random cluster sampling technique. The results showed that students possessing good study habits scored higher achievement than students possessing poor study habits in English, Hindi
59 and Social studies. On the other hand, students having poor and good study habits scored almost equal achievement in Mathematics and General science. Patel (1996) from his study revealed that 1. the achievement scores of pupils having high and low general ability were significantly different, 2. those pupils who had good study habits did get significantly more achievement scores than those who had poor study habits, 3. it was found that sex and study habits integrated significantly in explaining achievement scores. Patel (1997) investigated the causes of under achievement in mathematics of eighth grade students having high numerical ability. A sample of 35 high achievers and 40 low achievers was selected from schools in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India, based on their marks in mathematics. The chi-square analysis revealed that the study habits have tremendous effect on the achievement. Ayeduso (1997) and Ikegbunam (1997) identified study habits as correlates of academic performance. Sampath and Selvarajgnanaguru (1997) studied the study habits of higher secondary commerce students. 428 higher secondary second year commerce students studying in Chidambaram Taluk in Tamil Nadu were selected by using cluster sampling technique. The study revealed the positive correlation between study habits and academic achievement of the students. Sam Sananda Jah and Sreehi (2000) found that study habits and academic achievement on students are positively and significantly related. Onwuegbuzie et al (2001) conducted a series of studies to find out the relationship between academic success and study habits and reported positive relationship between the two variables. When the differences are examined in terms of gender, it is revealed that female students are more successful academically than male students and they have better study habits and attitudes (Gadzella and Fournet, 1976; Brown & Holtzman, 1984;
60 Kucukahmet, 1987; Mullen, 1995; Hong & Lee, 2000; Arslantas, 2001; Tinklin, 2003Houtte, 2004; Grabill et al., 2005;). Aluede and Onolemhemhen (2001) studied the effect of study habits counseling on the academic performance of secondary schools students in English language. The 108 senior secondary students of Uromi, Edo state, Nigeria were targeted. The multi-stage stratified sampling method was used. The study habit inventory (Bakare, 1977) was used. The findings of the study revealed that counseling students on good study habits could bring about improvement in the students’ academic performance. Onwuegbuzie (2001) conducted a series of studies to find out relationship between study habits and academic success and reported positive relationship between study habits and academic success. The main objective of the study was to examine the effect of guidance services on students study attitudes, study habits and academic achievement. It was found that effective study habits promote academic achievement. Nagaraju (2001) concluded that the academic achievement in all the school subjects has positive significant influence at 0.01 level on the study habits of high school students. Sirohi (2004) conducted a study of under achievement in relation to study habits and attitudes. A sample of 1000 elementary grade students was taken from ten composite schools of South District, Delhi. The results found that guidance program would lead to better results, improving the achievement of the students and thus their potentialities be maximally utilized. Guravaiah (2004) investigated into the academic achievement of X class students in all the school subjects and found that study habits of pupils do not have any significant influence on their achievement. Rajani (2004) observed that the academic achievement of Intermediate students in all the subjects including group subjects is positively related to their study habits.
61 Abid Hussain (2006) examined the effect of guidance services on students’ study attitudes, study habits and academic achievement by developing a guidance programme for secondary school students. An experiment was conducted to explore the effectiveness of guidance services in terms of improvement in students’ study attitudes, study habits and academic achievement. Ten null hypotheses were tested to explore the effect of guidance services on students’ study habits, study attitudes and academic achievement in five subjects.
The results of the study indicated that the guidance services have
significant effect on the students’ study attitude, study habits and academic achievement. Sud and Sujata (2006) conducted a study on academic performance in relation to self-handicapping, test anxiety and study habits of 200 high school children from government senior secondary schools of Himachal Pradesh. Study habits scores using SHI of Palsane & Sharma (1989) and academic performance using the school marks were considered for analsis. The results revealed that boys were poorer in study habits and academic performance than girls. Yenagi (2006) conducted a study on study habits as a function of self-perception among intellectually gifted and non-gifted students. A sample of 1020 pre university college students was randomly selected from colleges in and around Hubli and Dharwad cities of Karnataka state. Study habits inventory by Patel (1976) and self-perception inventory Soars and Soars (1976) were considered for data collection. The results revealed that the overall study habits were significantly differed from gifted and nongifted groups. General habits and attitudes, planning of subjects, reading and note taking habits, habits of concentration were also found to be significant. Thus the results indicated that study habits influence academic achievement of students.
62 Subrahmanyam (2007) has investigated the study habits and social, emotional and educational adjustment problems of 10th class students in relation to their achievement. The study revealed significant relationship between study habits and academic achievement of students. Significant influence of gender on academic achievement was also found. Muniraja Reddy et al (2008) carried out a study to find out the level of achievement in reading in English as a second language among high school students, influence of study habits on achievement of reading, the correlation between the study habits and achievement in reading and the prediction of achievement in reading with the help of study habits. The final test was administered on a sample of 1200 students. The major findings were: majority of the students were having average level of study habits; study habits like reading and note taking, general habits and attitudes and school environment have major impact on vocabulary and comprehension. As a whole study habits have their own influence on achievement in reading of the high school students except factors of home environment and planning of work. Samual O. Salami (2008) investigated the relationship between psychopathology and students’ academic performance and the moderator effects of study behaviour, selfefficacy and motivation.
Participants were 476 students (228 males, 248 females)
randomly selected from ten coeducational secondary schools in Ibadan. Measures of psychopathology, study behaviour, self-efficacy and motivation were administered on the sample. Results showed that psychopathology correlated negatively but non-significantly with academic performance. Study behaviour, self-efficacy and motivation correlated significantly with academic performance.
63 Niradhar Dey (2008) has conducted a comparative study of the study habits of high achieving CBSE and ICSE students in the secondary school examination. The results indicates that high achieving CBSE and ICSE students were having similar nature of highly positive study habits in curricular areas both for boys and girls. Gokhan Ozsoy et al (2009) investigated the relationship between fifth grade students’ meta-cognition levels, and their study habits and attitudes. Participants of the study consist of 221 students, 125 female and 96 male, enrolling to six public primary schools in Turkey. The results revealed that there was no significant relationship between meta-cognition and study habits and attitudes for low and medium achievers but, there was a significant relationship for high achievers. Aanu and Olatoye (2011) investigated combined and relative influences of use of library resources and study habits on science achievement of the junior secondary school students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty (360) students randomly selected from twelve secondary schools participated in the study. Three instruments were designed and used for data collection. Use of library resources and study habits combined together to significantly influence science achievement. There is no significant difference between male and female students’ use of library resources, study habits and science achievement. Tuncay Ergene (2011) investigated the relationships among study habits, test anxiety, achievement motivation, and academic success on a Turkish tenth grade high school sample consisting of 510 participants, 267 females and 243 males. The data were collected by the Turkish version of Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI), Study Habits Inventory (SHI) and Self Evaluation Inventory (SEI). Students’ GPA was accepted as the indicator of their academic success. Small but significant correlations were found between the
64 worry subscale of TAI scores and academic success, and between the study habits scale scores and academic success level. A positive relationship between study habits scores and achievement motivation was found. Gender, worry subscale of TAI and study habits predicted academic success in general. Test anxiety and study habits were associated positively with academic success. Omotere Tope (2011) investigated the effects of study habits on the academic performance of students’ using some selected senior secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State in Nigeria, as a case study. Two hundred students were randomly selected from five senior secondary schools in the area. The results showed that family background, peer group pressure, personality type of the student and the school environment, all affect the reading habits of students in secondary schools. Sutherman and Vasanthi (2011) have investigated on study habits and academic achievement of XI standard students in Palani District of Tamilnadu state. They observed that girls are better in study habits and academic achievement. The mean scores of rural students are higher in study habits when compared to urban students, whereas rural students are poor in academic achievement when compared to urban students. 2.2.4 Studies related to Gender and Academic Achievement Gender is one of the important variables which influence the academic achievement of secondary school students. Farquhan (1963) observed no significant relationship between academic achievement and sex of XI grade high school students. Pavithran and Feroze (1965) found there is no marked difference between boys and girls in the scholastic achievement of X class students. Both are more or less on the same levels of achievement. Padmanabhan Nayar and Visweswaran (1966) found that there was significant difference between the achievements of urban boys and girls of X class.
65 They also found a marked difference in the achievement of rural boys and girls. Balasubramanian and Feroze (1966) found that there existed no significant difference in the achievement of boys and girls of urban locality, while there was some marked difference in the achievement in mathematics between boys and girls of rural areas of X class. Gupta (1968) observed no significant differences between boys and girls of IX class in three variables namely academic achievement, intelligence and economic status. Haragovinda Gupta (1968) observed that except, in the high intelligence group of VIII class students, a significant relationship between academic achievement and sex appears to exist in both the moderate and low intelligence groups. Roach (1979) conducted a study on 206 boys and 212 girls from five urban elementary schools in Jamaica and found that the girls scored significantly higher than boys on a mathematics achievement test. Dubey (1982) has found that girls performed better than boys in all the school subjects. Asudullakhan et al (1982) showed that sex of Pre-university students was found to be not effective in bringing about any variation in the scholastic achievement. Gupta (1983) found that girls on the whole, had better achievement motivation than boys and had higher academic achievement than boys. The relationship between achievement motivation and academic achievement is positive and significant. Watkins Haltie and Astilla (1984) showed that there existed significant influence of sex, self-concept and intelligence on academic achievement of students. Jagannadhan (1985) reported that sex does not have any significant influence on the academic achievement of V, VI and VII class pupils. Quraishi and Bhat (1986) conducted a study on 200 undergraduate students of M.S. University of Baroda and found that sex has a
66 significant effect on academic achievement. Ramaswamy (1990) observed no significant difference between boys and girls of high and low achievers. Bujendranath Panda (1991) observed that IX and X class boys of rural areas and urban girls were better in academic achievement than their counter parts. Vijayalakshmi and Hemalatha Natesan (1992) found that XI class girls have better mean academic achievement than boys which is significant at 0.01 levels. Panda (1992) investigated study habits of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged adolescents in relation to sex and academic achievement. The sample of the study consisted of 50 disadvantaged boys and 50 non-disadvantaged girls of 9th and 10th classes in Orissa, India. The subjects were selected randomly and matched with age, sex, area of living and birth order. Patel’s (1976) Study Habits Inventory was used in the study. The ‘F’ value for sex indicated significant difference. From the mean values, it was revealed that boys had significantly better study habits than girls. Nair and Bindu (1998) made an attempt to find out the association between sex and discrepant achievement in six school subjects of secondary school pupils. Sex of the pupils was found to be associated with discrepant achievement in social studies and mathematics. Promod (1999) conducted a study on 300 boys and girls to find whether sex difference exists in academic performance. The results showed boys and girls differed significantly in their academic performance. Boys performed better than girls. In a study Viswanatham (2000) found that girls do better than the boys but there is no significant difference between rural and urban students in their achievement. Suneetha and Mayuri (2001) conducted a study on age and gender differences on the factors affecting high academic achievement of school children. The total sample of the study comprised of 120 children of IX and X grade drawn purposively from 10
67 private schools of Hyderabad. The results showed boys and girls differed significantly in drilling, interaction and language dimensions of study habits inventory.
reported that gender was found to be more important variable than IQ in deciding the high academic performance, as more girls were found among top ranking students of classe IX and X. Ellekka Kumar (2001) found that there was no significant deference in achievement in Physics between boys and girls: 1. the mean scores of achievement related motivation was higher for girls than boys, 2. the positive correlations were found between the achievement related motivation and achievement marks in physics in respect of girl students studying in Tamil medium. Govinda Reddy (2002) found that sex does not have any significant influence on the academic achievement of DIET students. Panda (2002) observed that V class boys and girls studying in urban, rural and tribal areas did not differ in their achievement in all the school subjects. Gakhar and Aseema (2004) found no significant difference in the academic achievement of boys and girls of X class, in their previous annual examination. Wani Gulshan (2005) has conducted a study on the personality characteristics, occasional preferences, study habits and academic achievement of Kashmiri, Dogri and Ladakhi adolescent girls. It was a cross cultural study. The study revealed that Ladakhi are very low in study habits and also much below in academic achievement as compared to Kashmiri and Dogri adolescent girls. Pandey and Faiz Ahmad (2008) conducted a study on a sample of 621 students of XI standard from Azamgarh district of Bihar and found that there is no significant difference between male and female adolescents on the measures of academic performance. Nuthana and Yenagi (2009) studied the influence of study habits, self-
68 concept on academic achievement of 600 boys and girls of secondary level, 300 drawn from rural and 300 from urban. The findings revealed that boys and girls did not differ significantly in study habits, self- concept and academic achievement. Correlation coefficients between self concept and academic achievement were positive and highly significant Jagpreet Kaur (2010) investigated on gender differences in perceptions of home environment among school going adolescents. The results of study revealed significant gender differences in control, protectiveness, social isolation, reward, deprivation of privileges, rejection and permissiveness as components of home environment. Female adolescents perceived their home environment to be more protective and rewarding than their male counterparts. Singh Suneeta et al (2010) studied the nature, type and characteristics of study habits in high school children in relation to various orgasmic variables like gender, age, class or grade level and scholastic achievement. The sample for the study was drawn from two private English medium schools in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, comprising of 250 high school students including equal number of boys and girls from class VIII, IX and X. The results indicate that the girls have better study habits than boys. It is also seen that study habits improve with age and class or grade levels in children. Sayid Dabbagh Ghazvini and Milad Khajehpour (2011) studied the gender differences in factors affecting academic performance of high school students. Results of the study reveal that existence of gender difference in variables under consideration with girls showing internal locus of control, attitude, motivation, time management, anxiety, self-testing strategies more extensively and getting better marks in literature. Boys are in mathematics than girls.
69 Kartigeyan and Nirmala (2012) analyzed the gender influence on academic achievement in English. The study revealed that the girls had a higher mean score compared to the boys in their academic achievement in English. From the communitywise analysis it is found that girls showed better performance except in scheduled tribe community. 2.3
Overview of the Review of related Literature The above review of the related studies reveals the following observations.
The researchers from under developed countries like Nigeria, Uganda, Turkey etc., concentrated on the problems of the academic achievement of school and college students in their countries for the decades. The results show a low achievement levels.
The earlier studies mostly pertain to the influence of self-concept, attitudes, socioeconomical conditions, anxiety, intelligence, study habits of primary and middle school students. Influence of study habits, achievement in individual subjects like Mathematics, English, and Physical science on academic achievement were focused in studies.
Many studies were conducted on the underachievers in relation to their achievement motivation, home environment, study habits, self-concept, attitudes etc.
The study of the factors that influence the academic achievement of the Indian population is also received good attraction from researchers. However, the work on the influence of achievement motivation, home environment and study habits on academic achievement of high school students is meager and not covered all the states except a few like Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Gujarat etc.
70 This subject has not shown sufficient interest on the high school students of Andhra Pradesh in general and Hyderabad district in particular.