Chapter 5: open economy

Chapter 5: open economy ƒ accounting identities for the open economy ƒ small open economy model ƒ what makes it “small” ƒ how the trade balance and ex...
Author: Charleen Rich
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Chapter 5: open economy ƒ accounting identities for the open economy ƒ small open economy model ƒ what makes it “small” ƒ how the trade balance and exchange rate are determined and affected by policy ƒ In an open economy, spending =/= output

CHAPTER 5

slide 0

The Open Economy

GDP = expenditure on domestically produced g & s Domestic economy : Y = C + I + G

Open economy: Y = CD + ID + GD + EX IM = CF + IF + GF

EX – IM = NX = net exports ( “trade balance”) C = CD + CF

I = I D + IF

G = GD + G F

Y = C + I + G + EX – IM = C + I + G + NX CHAPTER 5

slide 1

The Open Economy

The income identity in an open economy and International capital flows Goods markets Y = C + I + G + NX NX = Y – (C + I + G) Financial markets NX = (Y – C – G) – I = S – I net outflow of goods = net purchases of foreign assets S>I international lender, S 0 I (r1* )

I (r2* ) CHAPTER 5

S, I slide 7

The Open Economy

The nominal exchange rate e = nominal exchange rate, the relative price of one currency in terms of the other

country

exchange rates

Euro

1.41 $/Euro (0.70 Euro/$)

Japan

115 Yen/$ Beware of the conventions!

Euro: we normally quote dollar vs euro Yen: we normally quote yen vs dollar CHAPTER 5

The Open Economy

slide 8

3

The real exchange rate ε = real exchange rate, relative price of domestic goods in terms of foreign goods

e ×P (Yen per $) × ($ per unit U.S. goods) = P* Yen per unit Japanese goods

ε =

CHAPTER 5

=

Yen per unit U.S. goods Yen per unit Japanese goods

=

Units of Japanese goods per unit of U.S. goods

slide 9

The Open Economy

~ example 1 ~ ƒ one good: Big Mac ƒ price in Japan: P* = 280 Yen ƒ price in USA: P = $3.22 ƒ nominal exchange rate

e = 115 Yen/$

This example: ε>1 Goods in US are ``more expensive” than in the Japan Dollar is overvalued wrt yen

ε =115 x 3.22 / 280 = 1.32

CHAPTER 5

slide 10

The Open Economy

~ example 2 ~ ƒ one good: Ipod Nano 8gB ƒ price in Italy/Euro Area: P* = 200 euros

ƒ price in USA:

P = 210 dollars

ƒ nominal exchange rate e = 0.70 Euro/$

This example: ε