Chapter 4 Section 2 The Old Kin gdom
Writing Prompt #38 How was society structured in the Old Kingdom?
Writing Prompt Answer The society structured in the Old Kingdom was the following: 0 Pharaoh on top 0 Nobles 0 Scribes and Craftspeople 0 Farmers, Servants, and Slaves
Writing Prompt #39
How did religious beliefs affect Egyptian burial practices?
Writing Prompt Answer Religious beliefs affected the Egyptian burial practices by believing that the spirit remained linked to the body. Egyptians developed mummiOication and Oilled tombs with food and other items the spirit might need in the afterlife.
Big Idea Egyptian government and religion were closely connected during the Old Kingdom.
Vocabulary Old Kingdom A period in Egyptian history that lasted from about 2700 BC to 2200 BC
Vocabulary Khufu Ruled in the 2500s BC Was cruel People who worked for him were well fed Known for the monuments made for him
Vocabulary Nobles People from rich and powerful families
Vocabulary afterlife Life after death
Vocabulary mummies Specially treated bodies wrapped in cloth
People of wealth and power
Vocabulary Pyramids Huge stone tombs with four triangle-‐shaped walls that met in a point on top
Vocabulary Engineering The application of scientiOic knowledge for practical purposes
Main Idea #1 In early Egyptian society, pharaohs ruled as gods and were at the top of the social structure.
Rule by Pharaohs 0 Belief pharaoh was king and god 0 Believed Egypt belonged to gods 0 Came with responsibilities 0 Blamed if crops did not grow well 0 Blamed if disease 0 Demanded to make trade proOitable 0 Demanded to prevent wars
The Social Structure 0 Pharaoh 0 Rules Egypt as a god 0 Nobles 0 OfOicials and priests helped run the government and temples
The Social Structure (cont) 0 Scribes and Craftspeople 0 Scribes wrote and craftspeople produced goods 0 Farmers, Servants, and Slaves 0 Most Egyptians were farmers. 0 Below them were servants and slaves
Egypt and Its Neighbors 0 Sumerian designs found in Egyptian art 0 Egyptian pottery reOlects styles from Nubia 0 Traders came from Nubia with gold, ivory, slaves and
stones 0 Punt (located on Red Sea) had incense and myrrh – used to make perfume and medicine 0 Syria provided wood
Questions to Consider 0 How long did the Old Kingdom last? About 500 years, from 2700 BC to 2200 BC
0 What responsibilities did the pharaoh have that
balanced his high status? Make crops grow, keep people healthy, make trade proOitable, prevent wars
0 What may be some advantages and disadvantages for
such a large segment of the population being farmers, servants, and slaves?
Advantages: plenty of food and labor Disadvantage: potential for rebellion
Writing Prompt #40 12/4 Why were pyramids so important to the people of ancient Egypt?
Writing Prompt Answer The pyramids were important to the people of ancient Egypt because the Egyptians believed their own afterlife was linked to eternal life of the pharaoh buried in the pyramid.
Main Idea #2
Religion shaped Egyptian life.
The Gods of Egypt 0 Practiced polytheism 0 Everyone expected to worship the same god 0 Built temples to gods 0 Payments collected from government and
worshippers to grow 0 Memphis – people prayed to Ptah – creator of the world
The Gods of Egypt (cont) 0 Major gods 0 Re, or Amon-‐Re: sun god 0 Osiris: god of the underworld 0 Isis: goddess of magic 0 Horus: sky god
Emphasis on the Afterlife 0 Believed it was a happy place 0 An ideal world where all people are young and
healthy 0 ka (KAH) – a person’s life force
0 Became a spirit 0 Had the same needs as the person had when he/she was
0 Tombs Oilled with objects 0 Furniture, clothing, tools, jewelry, weapons 0 Relatives expected to bring food and drinks
Burial Practices 0 Body had to be prepared for afterlife – preserved 0 Decayed – spirit could not recognize it 0 Embalming preserved bodies as mummies 0 Took several weeks 0 Wrapped body with linen cloth and bandages 0 Placed in cofOin 0 Only royalty and Egypt’s elite became mummies 0 Peasant families buried dead in shallow graves 0 Hot dry sand and lack of moisture preserved naturally
Questions to consider 0 What is a mummy? A mummy is a preserved body that is wrapped in cloth.
0 How was the ka different from the body? The ka was not a physical entity but rather the person’s life force. It left the physical body at death but could not leave the burial site.
0 Why did the Egyptians believe it was important to
preserve the physical body? If the body decayed, the ka would not be able to receive the food and drink it needed.
Main Idea #3
The pyramids of Egypt were built as tombs for the pharaohs.
The Pyramids 0 Built during Old Kingdom 0 Great Pyramid of Khufu still standing 0 Not sure how they were built but amazing 0 Size symbolized greatness 0 Wanted to be spectacular – belief pharaohs controlled
afterlife 0 Pharaoh spirit happy = happy afterlife for everyone
Questions to consider 0 Why did the Egyptians want the pyramids to be
Egyptians believed their own fate in the afterlife depended on the pharaoh's. 0 Do you think the Egyptians were gloomy and
obsessed by death? Why or why not?
Egyptians were more interested in living forever because they loved life
Writing Prompt #41 Which group helped run the government and the temples?
Writing Prompt Answer The nobles were the ones that helped the government and the temples, including the ofOicials and the priests.
Page 95 1a. To what does the term Old Kingdom refer? Old Kingdom refers to the 500-‐ year period from 2700 to 2200 BC.
1b. Why was the pharaoh’s authority never questioned? Pharaoh’s authority was never questioned because the Egyptians thought of him as a god.
1c. How did the trade beneOit the Egyptians? The trade beneOitted the Egyptians because it brought gold, ivory, slaves and stone from Nubia, incense and myrrh from Punt, and wood from Syria.
2a. What did the Egyptians mean by the afterlife? The term afterlife refers to life after death.
2b. Why was embalming important to the Egyptians? Embalming was important to the Egyptians because if the body was allowed to decay, the spirit would not be able to recognize it in the afterlife.
3a. What is engineering? Engineering is the application of scientiOic knowledge for practical purposes.
3b. What does the building of the pyramids tell us about Egyptian society? The building of the pyramids tells us that the Egyptian society was capable of complex organization and discipline required to build the pyramids.