Chapter 4 Section 2. The Old Kin

Chapter  4   Section  2   The  Old  Kin gdom   Writing  Prompt  #38   How  was  society  structured   in  the  Old  Kingdom?   Writing  Prompt  An...
Author: Victoria Benson
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Chapter  4   Section  2   The  Old  Kin gdom  

Writing  Prompt  #38   How  was  society  structured   in  the  Old  Kingdom?  

Writing  Prompt  Answer   The  society  structured  in  the  Old   Kingdom  was  the  following:   0 Pharaoh  on  top   0 Nobles   0 Scribes  and  Craftspeople   0 Farmers,  Servants,  and  Slaves  

Writing  Prompt  #39  

How  did  religious  beliefs   affect  Egyptian  burial   practices?  

Writing  Prompt  Answer   Religious  beliefs  affected  the   Egyptian  burial  practices  by   believing  that  the  spirit  remained   linked  to  the  body.    Egyptians   developed  mummiOication  and  Oilled   tombs  with  food  and  other  items  the   spirit  might  need  in  the  afterlife.  

Big  Idea   Egyptian  government  and   religion  were  closely   connected  during  the  Old   Kingdom.  

Vocabulary   Old  Kingdom   A  period  in  Egyptian  history  that  lasted   from  about  2700  BC  to  2200  BC  

Vocabulary   Khufu   Ruled  in  the  2500s  BC     Was  cruel     People  who  worked  for  him  were  well  fed     Known  for  the  monuments  made  for  him  

Vocabulary   Nobles   People  from  rich  and  powerful   families  

Vocabulary   afterlife   Life  after  death  

Vocabulary   mummies   Specially  treated  bodies   wrapped  in  cloth  

Vocabulary   Elite    

People  of  wealth  and  power  

Vocabulary   Pyramids   Huge  stone  tombs  with  four   triangle-­‐shaped  walls  that  met   in  a  point  on  top  

Vocabulary   Engineering   The  application  of  scientiOic   knowledge  for  practical  purposes  

Main  Idea  #1   In  early  Egyptian  society,   pharaohs  ruled  as  gods  and   were  at  the  top  of  the  social   structure.  

Rule  by  Pharaohs   0  Belief  pharaoh  was  king  and  god   0  Believed  Egypt  belonged  to  gods   0  Came  with  responsibilities   0  Blamed  if  crops  did  not  grow  well   0  Blamed  if  disease   0  Demanded  to  make  trade  proOitable   0  Demanded  to  prevent  wars    

The  Social  Structure   0  Pharaoh     0  Rules  Egypt  as  a  god     0  Nobles   0  OfOicials  and  priests  helped  run  the  government  and   temples    

The  Social  Structure  (cont)   0  Scribes  and  Craftspeople   0  Scribes  wrote  and  craftspeople  produced  goods   0  Farmers,  Servants,  and  Slaves   0  Most  Egyptians  were  farmers.       0  Below  them  were  servants  and  slaves  

Egypt  and  Its  Neighbors   0  Sumerian  designs  found  in  Egyptian  art   0  Egyptian  pottery  reOlects  styles  from  Nubia   0  Traders  came  from  Nubia  with  gold,  ivory,  slaves  and  

stones   0  Punt  (located  on  Red  Sea)  had  incense  and  myrrh  –   used  to  make  perfume  and  medicine   0  Syria  provided  wood  

Questions  to  Consider   0  How  long  did  the  Old  Kingdom  last?   About  500  years,  from  2700  BC  to  2200  BC  

0  What  responsibilities  did  the  pharaoh  have  that  

balanced  his  high  status?   Make  crops  grow,  keep  people  healthy,  make  trade  proOitable,  prevent  wars  

0  What  may  be  some  advantages  and  disadvantages  for  

such  a  large  segment  of  the  population  being  farmers,   servants,  and  slaves?    

Advantages:  plenty  of  food  and  labor   Disadvantage:  potential  for  rebellion  

Writing  Prompt  #40   12/4   Why  were  pyramids  so   important  to  the  people  of   ancient  Egypt?  

Writing  Prompt  Answer   The  pyramids  were  important  to   the  people  of  ancient  Egypt   because  the  Egyptians  believed   their  own  afterlife  was  linked  to   eternal  life  of  the  pharaoh  buried   in  the  pyramid.  

Main  Idea  #2  

Religion  shaped   Egyptian  life.  

The  Gods  of  Egypt   0  Practiced  polytheism   0  Everyone  expected  to  worship  the  same  god   0  Built  temples  to  gods   0  Payments  collected  from  government  and  

worshippers  to  grow   0  Memphis  –  people  prayed  to  Ptah  –  creator  of  the   world    

The  Gods  of  Egypt  (cont)   0  Major  gods   0  Re,  or  Amon-­‐Re:  sun  god   0  Osiris:  god  of  the  underworld   0  Isis:  goddess  of  magic   0  Horus:  sky  god  

Emphasis  on  the  Afterlife   0  Believed  it  was  a  happy  place   0  An  ideal  world  where  all  people  are  young  and  

healthy   0  ka  (KAH)  –  a  person’s  life  force  

0  Became  a  spirit   0  Had  the  same  needs  as  the  person  had  when  he/she  was  

living  

0  Tombs  Oilled  with  objects   0  Furniture,  clothing,  tools,  jewelry,  weapons   0  Relatives  expected  to  bring  food  and  drinks  

 

Burial  Practices   0  Body  had  to  be  prepared  for  afterlife  –  preserved   0  Decayed  –  spirit  could  not  recognize  it   0  Embalming  preserved  bodies  as  mummies   0  Took  several  weeks   0  Wrapped  body  with  linen  cloth  and  bandages   0  Placed  in  cofOin   0  Only  royalty  and  Egypt’s  elite  became  mummies   0  Peasant  families  buried  dead  in  shallow  graves   0  Hot  dry  sand  and  lack  of  moisture  preserved  naturally  

Questions  to  consider   0  What  is  a  mummy?   A  mummy  is  a  preserved  body  that  is  wrapped  in  cloth.  

0  How  was  the  ka  different  from  the  body?   The  ka  was  not  a  physical  entity  but  rather  the  person’s  life  force.    It   left  the  physical  body  at  death  but  could  not  leave  the  burial  site.  

0  Why  did  the  Egyptians  believe  it  was  important  to  

preserve  the  physical  body?   If  the  body  decayed,  the  ka  would  not  be  able  to  receive  the  food   and  drink  it  needed.  

Main  Idea  #3  

The  pyramids  of   Egypt  were  built  as   tombs  for  the   pharaohs.  

The  Pyramids   0  Built  during  Old  Kingdom   0  Great  Pyramid  of  Khufu  still  standing   0  Not  sure  how  they  were  built  but  amazing   0  Size  symbolized  greatness   0  Wanted  to  be  spectacular  –  belief  pharaohs  controlled  

afterlife   0  Pharaoh  spirit  happy  =  happy  afterlife  for  everyone  

Questions  to  consider     0  Why  did  the  Egyptians  want  the  pyramids  to  be  

spectacular?  

 

Egyptians  believed  their  own  fate  in  the  afterlife   depended  on  the  pharaoh's.   0  Do  you  think  the  Egyptians  were  gloomy  and  

obsessed  by  death?    Why  or  why  not?  

Egyptians  were  more  interested  in  living  forever   because  they  loved  life  

Writing  Prompt  #41   Which  group  helped  run   the  government  and  the   temples?  

Writing  Prompt  Answer   The  nobles  were  the  ones   that  helped  the  government   and  the  temples,  including   the  ofOicials  and  the  priests.  

Page  95   1a.    To  what  does  the  term  Old   Kingdom  refer?     Old  Kingdom  refers  to  the  500-­‐ year  period  from  2700  to  2200   BC.  

1b.    Why  was  the  pharaoh’s   authority  never   questioned?     Pharaoh’s  authority  was   never  questioned  because   the  Egyptians  thought  of   him  as  a  god.  

1c.    How  did  the  trade  beneOit   the  Egyptians?     The  trade  beneOitted  the   Egyptians  because  it  brought   gold,  ivory,  slaves  and  stone   from  Nubia,  incense  and   myrrh  from  Punt,  and  wood   from  Syria.  

2a.    What  did  the  Egyptians   mean  by  the  afterlife?     The  term  afterlife  refers  to  life   after  death.      

2b.    Why  was  embalming   important  to  the  Egyptians?     Embalming  was  important  to   the  Egyptians  because  if  the   body  was  allowed  to  decay,   the  spirit  would  not  be  able  to   recognize  it  in  the  afterlife.      

3a.    What  is  engineering?     Engineering  is  the   application  of  scientiOic   knowledge  for  practical   purposes.  

3b.    What  does  the  building  of   the  pyramids  tell  us  about   Egyptian  society?   The  building  of  the  pyramids   tells  us  that  the  Egyptian   society  was  capable  of   complex  organization  and   discipline  required  to  build   the  pyramids.