Chapter 11 Resource Guide SECTION RESOURCES Daily Objectives Section 1 Thinking and Problem Solving Understand that thinking involves changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new or transformed information.

Section 2 Language Explain how language and thought are closely related.

Reproducible Resources

Multimedia Resources

Guided Reading Activity 11–1 Vocabulary Activity 11–1 Section Quiz 11–1

Daily Focus Transparency 11–1 ExamView ® Assessment Suite CD-ROM Presentation Plus! Software

Guided Reading Activity 11–2 Vocabulary Activity 11–2 Section Quiz 11–2

Daily Focus Transparency 11–2 Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROM ExamView ® Assessment Suite CD-ROM Presentation Plus! Software

Blackline Master

CD-ROM

Transparency

KEY TO ABILITY LEVELS

Activities that are particularly suited for use within the block-scheduling framework are identified throughout this chapter by the following designation: BLOCK SCHEDULING

294A

Teaching strategies have been coded for varying learning styles and abilities. L1 BASIC activities for all students L2 AVERAGE activities for average to above-average students L3 CHALLENGING activities for above-average students ELL ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNER activities

Chapter 11 Resource Guide Timesaving Tools ™

• Interactive Teacher Edition

Access your Teacher Wraparound Edition and your classroom resources with a few easy clicks.

• Interactive Lesson Planner

Planning has never been easier! Organize your week, month, semester, or year with all the lesson helps you need to make teaching creative, timely, and relevant.

ACTIVITY From the Classroom of… Patrick Mattimore South San Francisco High School San Francisco, CA The Gray Box

Use Glencoe’s Presentation Plus! multimedia teacher tool to easily present dynamic lessons that visually excite your students. Using Microsoft PowerPoint® you can customize the presentations to create your own personalized lessons.

PSYCHOLOGY Use our Web site for additional resources. All essential content is covered in the Student Edition. You and your students can visit glencoe.com, the Web site companion to Understanding Psychology. This innovative integration of electronic and print media offers your students a wealth of opportunities. The student text directs students to the Web site for the following options: ■

Chapter Overviews Student Web Activities Self-Check Quizzes

Purpose: To use critical thinking skills and metacognition



Materials Needed: A large, empty gray box



Procedure: Tell students that restructuring high schools is a major topic among school administrators. (Although that information is true, the rest of this story is fictional.) In 1998, a State Department of Education sponsored a statewide contest and awarded a $25,000 cash prize to the person who came up with the most innovative plan for a restructured high school. The Department of Education was so enamored with the winning entry that it built scale models for resale. Show students a gray box, and tell them that enclosed in the box are the model and plans that were purchased from the Department of Education. Tell students that they will ask you up to 20 yes/no questions to try to determine the exact structure and details of the school. After several minutes of questions and the yes/no responses, challenge students to guess at the structure. Then reveal the empty gray box to students.

Answers are provided for you in the Web Activity Lesson Plan. Additional Web resources and Interactive Puzzles are also available.

Discussion: Ask students to reflect on their own thinking processes during the exercise (metacognition). How did they revise their thinking as a result of new information? How can asking the right (or the wrong) questions be useful in helping us think about problems, novel situations, and human behavior?

294B

Chapter 11 Resource Guide Note: The following materials may be used when teaching Chapter 11. Section level support materials are shown at point of use in the margins of the Teacher Wraparound Edition.

TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES

MULTIMEDIA

Chapter Chapter11 4 Concept Transparencies

Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROM ExamView ® Assessment Suite CD-ROM TeacherWorks™ CD-ROM Glencoe Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook, Level 2 Presentation Plus! Software

REVIEW AND REINFORCEMENT Reteaching Activity 11 Name __________________________________

Date ______________

Graphic Organizer Activity 11 Name __________________________________

Class _______________ Name __________________________________

Visualizing Information

Date ______________

Reteaching Activity

15. 14.

Date ______________

Class _______________

Class _______________

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Graphic Organizer Activity

Directions: Fill in each box with the units of thought and the kinds of thinking in which people engage.

11

Thinking and Language

16.

Thinking

Directions: Thinking is the process of changing and reorganizing information stored in memory to create new or transformed information. Psychologists have divided the processes of thought into five units and have also identified at least three kinds of thinking. Complete the graphic organizer by listing the five units of thought and providing a brief description of each. Then list the three kinds of thinking and briefly describe each one.

Terms and Concepts Directions: Use the clues below to complete the crossword puzzle. 1

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THINKING

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Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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ACROSS

DOWN

2. using information in a unique way

1. being aware of one’s thought processes

Connecting Ideas 4. a step-by-step problem-solving process Directions: Write a problem-solving strategy that could be used for each of the following items. Identify 11. a general guideline for problem solving whether the strategy is an algorithm or a heuristic.

3. a sudden realization of a solution to a problem

12. a mental picture of a person, place, thing, or 23. Choosing a checkout lane at a grocery store __________________________________________________ event

5. creating new information by changing or reorganizing information in memory

13. words serving as representations of objects or 24. Finding the shortest driving route from San Francisco, California, to Seattle, Washington qualities

6. the smallest unit of meaning in a language 7. the use of symbols and sounds for communication of ideas 8. studying the meaning of words based on their context 9. an example of a concept

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Reteaching Activities

Graphic Organizer Activities

10. labels for classes of objects

Reteaching Activities

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APPLICATION AND HANDS-ON Psychology Projects 4-1 and 11–2 4-2 Psychology Projects 11–1 Name __________________________________

Date ______________

Class _______________

Name __________________________________

Date ______________

Application Activity 11 Name __________________________________

Class _______________

Date ______________

Class _______________ STUDENT WORKSHEET

Date ______________

Class _______________

Name __________________________________

Project

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Connect the Dots

not creative

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How many times does the participant follow the same pattern? How many participants solved the problem in 20 minutes? On average, how many tries did it take for a participant to solve the problem? Does it make any difference if the participant has seen the puzzle before?

Analyzing the Results Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Of the participants who were not able to solve the puzzle, how many of them drew lines outside the box created by the eight dots on the perimeter? 2. How does the participant’s mental set affect his/her ability to solve the puzzle? Psychology Projects and Lab Activities 40

41 Psychology Projects and Lab Activities

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.



slightly creative

creative

very creative

Flexibility

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Directions: Use the word list below to complete the following word search puzzles. Top Puzzle: All words appear either up, down, or diagonally. Keep track of the time it takes to solve the puzzle.

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Bottom Puzzle: Words are placed in random patterns as shown in the shaded sample. The letters in the words do not appear in straight lines. As you spell out the word, each letter might be located in a new direction from the last letter. Each letter will be adjacent to the previous letter and the one that comes after it. To help you understand how the puzzle works, the word “sample” has already been spelled out. Keep track of the time it takes to solve the puzzle.

slightly wooden clothespins very spring-type flexible flexible flexible

pens with blue ink

no assembly required 11.

Procedure

12. 1. Invite a total of 20 people between the ages of 13 and 19 to take part in the experi3. 13. ment. Conduct this activity with all of the participants in one large group or in several small groups. 4. 14. 2. Have participants sit at empty desks or tables. Tell them that you will provide everything they need including pens and paper. Ask participants not to talk among them5. selves. 15. 3. Pass out copies of the data sheet and pens with blue ink. Ask participants to answer 6. 16. the two questions at the top. 4. When everyone has finished with the two questions, hand each participant two 7. 17. wooden clothespins. Do not make any comments while passing out the spring-type clothespins except to remind participants not to talk among themselves. 8. 18. 5. Ask the participants to make a list of how these objects could be used as a pair or individually. 9. 19.minutes for the participants to make their lists. Use a digital timer or a 6. Allow five stopwatch to time the activity. 10. 7. After five20. minutes, ask the participants to stop writing. 8. Ask each participant to draw a circle around what they think was the original use intended for these objects. Analyzing the Results 9. Collect the pens and the data sheets. Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 10. Ask participants to share their ideas with each other. (This step is not integral to the 1. How did the number of uses a participant relate to thefor answers to the project,identified but can be enjoyable the participants.) questions? Use a bar chart to illustrate your findings. 2. Did participants whoThings knew theto intended use of the object (secure wet clothing to a Observe clothesline) come up with fewer other uses? Use a bar chart to illustrate your findings. Directions: Answer the following questions in the space provided. 3. Do you think that this activity can actually identify individuals who are flexible and/or creative? Why or why not?

Psychology Projects and Lab Activities 38



How many participants knew the original use intended for a clothespin?



What was the average number of uses?

39 Psychology Projects and Lab Activities

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O Activity C the that we learn various problem-solving strategies. When we encounter problems that we have faced before, we apply a mental set that allows us to treat the problem in a certain fixed E C O R T Y B way. When the nature of the problem changes, the fixedness of our mental set interferes with our ability OtoWsolve L the O Bproblem. C P In order to solve new or different problems, we must use creativity to expand our T mental Y P set. E R O T

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Discussion Questions E O problem-solving I T B What strategies do you use with word search puzzles? (Some students will say that A they G Plook W for H the M words one at a time. Other students will review the word list, scan the entire puzzle to find as many words as possible, then work on finding the remaining words. Still others will say that L I G M A C they work row by row to find words.) A Bdid N your T Y How mental set interfere with your ability to solve the second puzzle? (Students will point out that their mental set for reading and for solving word puzzles places words in straight lines. The second puzzle ignores that rule. With the pattern destroyed, the problem-solving process is basically reduced to evaluating each letter with its surrounding letters to find the words.)

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Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9. Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. ■

5

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

to Observe

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Ask 10 people who are not currently taking psychology and who are at least 12 years old to follow the directions on the data sheet. Conduct this activity with all of the participants in one large group or in several small groups. 2. Have participants sit at empty desks or tables. Tell them that you will provide everything they need including 6. pens and paper. Ask participants not to talk among themselves. 3. Let participants know that you will share the answer whenever they want to see it. (Some participants will not want to see the answer, and will continue to work on the puzzle on their own.) The answer to the puzzle is as follows:







2.

4. End each session after 20 minutes. 8.Things

not very ■ flexible

1.

Procedure

7.

11-1

4

3. Use the following spaces as directed by the person conducting this session. Assembly

1. Make copies of the data sheet for each participant.

5.

not very creative

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2 3 Materials Needed

not flexible

data sheet pen or pencil 3. a blank sheet of paper for each participant

Assembly

4.

Application Activity

2. How would you rank Concept yourself on the mental flexibility scale below? Inflexible, rigid thinking leads to unoriginal solutions or no solutions at all.

Having❒a Within mental the set sometimes last year interferes with problem solving. ❒ Within the last month ❒ Within the last six months ❒ More than one year ago Materials Needed ■

2 Project

1

B. If yes, how long ago? (check one) Concept

294C

TEACHER NOTES

Class _______________

1. How would you rank yourself on the creativity scale below?

A. Have you ever seen this puzzle before? (check one)

❒ Yes

Date ______________

Data Sheet

Directions: Connect all nine dots shown by drawing four straight lines without lifting your pencil from the paper or retracing any line. Use a different set of dots for each attempt. After your ninth attempt, create additional sets of dots on blank paper. Before you begin, answer the following questions:

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name __________________________________

Data Sheet

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M2.Q

Extension Activity Ask students to create a crossword puzzle that follows a different set of rules. Have students write the rules in the form of directions and see if someone else can solve the puzzle. Application Activities Application Activities

21

Chapter 11 Resource Guide ASSESSMENT Chapter 11 Test, Form A Name __________________________________

Date ______________

Class _______________

Name __________________________________

Name __________________________________

Thinking and Language

Date ______________

Class _______________

SCOR

Thinking and Language

11

Chapter Test Form A

Name __________________________________

Chapter Test Form B

E

11

Thinking and Language

Completion: Choose an item from the list below that best completes each sentence. Write the letter of

that item in the blank to the left of the sentence. (4 points each)

that item in the blank to the left of the sentence. (4 points each)

Multiple Choice: Choose the item that best completes each statement or answers each question. Write the letter of that item in the blank to the left of the sentence. (4 points each)

H. Benjamin Whorf I. recombination J. B.F. Skinner K. prototype L. subgoals

A. B. C. D. E. F.

1. Which of the following is a combination of the other three? A. recombination C. flexibility B. creativity D. original use of information

2. The “aha” experience, or suddenly realizing the solution to a problem, is called A. functional fixedness. C. insight. B. a concept. D. symbolic thinking. 16. When the elements of a problem are familiar but the required solution is not, it may be 3. Which of the following is not a type of thinking? achieved by ________________. A. directed C. metacognition 17. A(n) ________________ is a fixed set of procedures that, if followed correctly, will lead to a B. non-directed D. heuristic solution. 4. A symbol used to represent a class of objects is called a(n) 18. Imagery, feelings, and daydreams are typical of ________________. A. rule. C. image. D. set. 19. The first sentences a child utters usually follow a pattern called ________________. B. concept.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

27.

Discuss the obstacles to problem solving and give an example.

9. prototype

D. ability to overcome rigidity

10. metacognition 11. morpheme 12. syntax 13. heuristic

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habitual strategy

F.

abstract unit of thought

statement of relation between concepts

15. flexibility

J.

54

27.

the smallest unit of sound

K. systematic attempt to solve a problem L.

You are student teaching in an elementary school. Your supervising teacher has asked you to develop a bulletin board to help students use heuristics or other problem-solving rules as they learn. Select one of the following skills as the purpose of your bulletin board: phonics rules of punctuation addition and subtraction multiplication tables multiplying and dividing fractions planets in the solar system

Describe functional fixedness and how it results in rigidity.

13. heuristic 14. syntax

Target Audience

Objective The purpose of the bulletin board is to teach students algorithms or heuristics that will help them learn a topic.

15. semantics

Procedure 1. Consult the Assessment Lists for a bulletin board. 2. Select a topic for your bulletin board. A topic not on the list may be used as long as your teacher approves it. 3. Research how the topic is taught and identify algorithms, heuristics, or other problem-solving rules that are helpful in learning and remembering the information. Also, identify the age or grade at which children typically learn this information. 4. Create a sketch of the bulletin board that uses the information you researched in step 3. The bulletin board should be designed to appeal to children of the correct age. For example, limit the number of words on a bulletin board designed for first or second graders. 5. Ask at least two other students in your class to review your sketch and give you suggestions for improvement. If possible, ask a child of the correct age to tell you whether he or she would find this bulletin board helpful. 6. Create the bulletin board from your sketch, incorporating the suggestions from the student reviewers. If a bulletin board is not available, use butcher paper or poster board mounted to a wall. 7. Prepare a list of the problem-solving rules that you used to develop your bulletin board. 8. Present the bulletin board and list to your teacher.

C. unit of meaning D. ability to use information in a new or original way E.

a rule-of-thumb problem-solving strategy

F.

free flow of thoughts with no plan

G. a representative example of a concept H. abstract unit of thought I.

label for a class of objects or events with common attributes

J.

step-by-step procedure for solving a problem

K. study of meaning in language L.

habitual strategy or pattern of problem solving

Assessment

inability to imagine new functions for familiar objects

1. Use the classroom Assessment Lists to evaluate your bulletin board. 2. Discuss what you might do differently for a similar project in the future.

Chapter and Unit Tests

56

Chapter and Unit Tests

(continued)

Chapter and Unit Tests

metric units of measure names of the continents names of the 50 states concepts of latitude and longitude concepts of money and making change

The audience for your bulletin board will be the students that you are student teaching.

22. A person can overcome ________________ by thinking about and analyzing situations from Matching: Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B. Write the correct letters in the many perspectives. blanks. (4 points each) 23. A(n) ________________ is a system of communication that involves using rules to make Column A and Column B combine symbols in ways that produce meaningful words and sentences. 6. nondirected thinking A. intermediate steps toward a solution 24. A(n) ________________ is a unit of meaning. 7. concept B. rules for combining words to form phrases and sentences.

H. awareness of one’s own cognitive process I.

Task

Mentally rearranging the elements of a problem in order to find a new solution is called ________________ proposed that children inherit a mental program that enables 4. them to A. functional fixedness. C. set thinking. learn language. B. flexibility. D. recombination. 20. The idea that a person’s language influences his or her thoughts is called ________________. 5. A child who speaks in sentences, but does not use articles or prepositions is exhibiting 21. Directed thinking, also called ________________ thinking, depends heavily on symbols, A. a mental set. C. telegraphic speech. concepts, and rules. B. flexibility. D. linguistic relativity.

G. representative example of a concept

14. functional fixedness

As children, we learned various problem-solving rules and algorithms. Often, we were taught or discovered heuristics which allowed us to solve problems more quickly.

19.

9. prototype Short Answer: Answer both of the questions below. Use a separate sheet of paper for additional space 10. algorithm if necessary. (5 points each) 11. mental set 26. Describe and give three examples of how language can express a particular value system. 12. creativity

Class _______________

Background

1. Which of the following is a mental representation of an event or object? A. prototype C. symbol B. concept D. image

25. ________________ believed children learn language through operant conditioning.8. subgoals

11

Date ______________

Problem-Solving Bulletin Board

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

26. Discuss creativity and the basic parts of this process.

Performance Assessment Activity

2. Metacognition occurs when you think about A. thinking. C. concepts. B. rules. D. heuristics. A(n) ________________ is an abstract unit of thought that uses a sound or design to represent 3. “Mass remains constant despite changes in appearance” is an example of a an object or quality. A. concept. C. symbol. 18. A(n) ________________ is a sudden realization of the solution to a problem. B. rule. D. image.

B. the smallest unit of meaning C. rule-of-thumb problem-solving strategy

E

Multiple Choice: Choose the item that best completes each statement or answers each question. Write the letter of that item in the blank to the left of the sentence. (5 points each)

G. morpheme H. convergent I. B.F. Skinner J. Benjamin Whorf K. symbol

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

symbol

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7.

8. directed thinking

SCOR

17.

Matching: Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B. Write the correct letters in the 23. ________________ believed that children possess an innate capacity for language. blanks. Not all of the terms in Column B will be used. (3 points each) 24. A ________________ is a complex unit of thought that states the relation between concepts. Column A Column B 25. Intermediate steps in problem-solving are called ________________. 6. phoneme A. rules for combining words into phrases and sentences if necessary. (5 points each)

Name __________________________________

Class _______________

16. The ability to overcome rigidity is called ________________.

5. Changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new or transformed 20. ________________ argued that language affects our basic perceptions of the world. information is called A. thinking. C. problem solving. 21. A ________________ is a representative example of a concept. B. creativity. D. language development. 22. The most primitive unit of thought is a(n) ________________.

Short Answer: Answer both of the questions below. Use a separate sheet of paper for additional space

language insight rigidity linguistic relativity flexibility Noam Chomsky

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

non-directed thinking image symbol telegraphic speech rule Noam Chomsky algorithm

Date ______________

Thinking and Language

11

Chapter Test Form B

Completion: Choose an item from the list below that best completes each sentence. Write the letter of A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

Authentic Assessment Activity 11

Class _______________

(continued)

53

Chapter and Unit Tests

22

55

Performance Assessment Strategies and Activities

EXTENSION AND ENRICHMENT Enrichment Activity 11 Name __________________________________

Date ______________

Critical Thinking Skills Activity 11

Class _______________

Name __________________________________

Name __________________________________

Brainstorming

Date ______________

11

CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS ACTIVITY

Creativity

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

How? Where? When? Who? Why?

What? How? Where? When? Who? Why?

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

What?

Class _______________

Writing a Research Report/Essay

Dyslexia is a common reading disability that affects both boys and girls. Before dyslexia was identified as a reading disability, many children were labeled “slow” or “not very bright.” Today we know that most dyslexics have normal or above average IQs. There are various forms of dyslexia. Some forms lead to only minor reading problems; others lead to great difficulty in reading. Leonardo da Vinci, the famous artist, suffered from an extreme form of dyslexia. He actually wrote backwards, from right to left. He was a very poor speller and his handwriting was difficult to read. Leonardo learned to express himself through his drawings, which are very detailed and precise. His difficulties with reading and spelling did not limit his creative abilities. He found a way to express his thoughts and introduce us to his inventions with drawings instead of words. Many famous people are dyslexic or have exhibited symptoms of dyslexia. They include:

Actors/Actresses Tom Cruise

Inventors/Scientists Alexander Graham Bell

Artists/Writers Pablo Picasso

World Leaders Winston Churchill

Jay Leno

Thomas Edison

Agatha Christie

Thomas Jefferson

Whoopi Goldberg

Albert Einstein

Walt Disney

John F. Kennedy

As researchers learn more about genetics and the structures of the brain, they are learning the causes for dyslexia. At the moment, there is no “cure,” but there are many effective tools that can be used to help dyslexics learn to read and learn to manage their disability.

Topic: Reducing pollution in a large city

2. Practice the personal brainstorming technique by thinking of at least 10 product names for a new energy drink that will be marketed to young athletes. If you were truly looking for a way to reduce pollution in a large city, you could begin to answer the 3. Write a brief plan for making learning new things a priority in your life. questions on your list. The answers to the questions may lead to new questions or they may lead to creative solutions. The creation of the questions uses divergent thinking. The answers to the questions use convergent thinking. 22

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Directions: Read the information below and follow the steps to write a research report on dyslexia.

Now think about an everyday problem in your life. Brainstorm a list of possible solutions. Let your Consider the following questions: What creative people do you know? Why do you think they are credivergent thinking do the work. When you have completed your list, use your convergent thinking to ative? Do you think they were born with that creative ability or do you think they have worked to develevaluate each solution. Cross out options that are not practical. How many are left? Can you use them to op their creativity? begin to solve your problem? Creativity is often thought of as original or unique expressions of thoughts, ideas, or talents. In reality, creative people use existing products in new ways, adapt products for new uses, and apply unique Learning perspectives to solving new problems. Creative people are found in the arts, in business, in government, in research laboratories, and in schools. In other words, they are everywhere. Creative thinkers are usually lifelong learners. They try to learn new things every day. How does people use two different thought process: convergent and divergent thinking. Convergent learning help creativity? It feeds your mind with new ideas. Reading books, going to plays,Creative listening to thinking sees thewe goal and uses logical processes to find a solution. Suppose you are a researcher who is different kinds of music are all great ways to expand your body of knowledge. We often discount what a cure forto AIDS. You have read extensively on the advances that have been made in finding a can learn from our senses of touch, taste, and smell. The next time you walk through seeking a park, take time cure The and next you have touch the grass or the leaves on the trees and smell the flowers or the water in a fountain. time developed several new avenues of research to explore. Because funding is limited, only explore one of these avenues. You use a step-by-step, logical process to evaluate each of you order pizza, try a new ingredient on it. How did the ingredient change the taste ofyou thecan pizza? and identify the most promising research project. One fun and easy way to keep track of these new experiences is to keep a journal these of theavenues new things Divergent thinking does not aim at a specific goal, but uses free-flowing, nondirected thoughts to you learn. Yes, you learn many things in school each day, but make this a journal of the things you learn produce unique insights. Many people report having insights while dreaming or daydreaming. Insights outside of school or the things you learn from unusual experiences. often occur when you let your conscious mind wander. Although some people seem more naturally gifted in these thought processes, everyone can learn Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. them. Many different techniques can help you develop your creative thinking skills. 1. Consider the following situation. They are building an additional high school in your school district and the school board is running a contest to select the new mascot and team name for the school. Asking Questions You want to enter the contest. Create a question table using the model below to help you create your Creative people are often inquisitive people. They ask questions when others think they know the entry for the contest. answers. The questions they ask often begin with What, How, Where, When, Who, and Why. Use the chart below to try this skill by creating as many questions as possible about the topic listed. Selecting a mascot and team name for a new high school

Date ______________

Class _______________

You have probably been a part of a group that has been asked to brainstorm to generate ideas or to find solutions to a problem. The basic ground rule for brainstorming is that all ideas are welcome. During the brainstorming process, ideas are not evaluated or criticized. By brainstorming in a group, EN RICHMENT one person’s idea may spark an idea from another group member. A group is not required, however, for ACTIVITY effective brainstorming. By opening your mind to all the possibilities and forcing yourself not to evaluate each idea, you can effectively brainstorm alone. For example, for the next five minutes write on a piece of paper all the uses for a sponge. How many did you think of? If possible, compare your list with the list Directions: Read the following material then answer the questions on a separate sheet of paper. of a classmate. How did they compare? How did they differ?

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Date ______________

Enrichment Activities

1. The topic for your report will be dyslexia. Begin your research by identifying the purpose for your report. 2. Write several main idea questions you want to answer about your topic such as: “How does the brain of a dyslexic differ from a normal brain?” “What tools can dyslexics use to learn to read?” “How have successful people who have dyslexia overcome their disability?” Organize these questions into an outline. 3. Conduct research about the topic and take notes. You may want to use index cards or small slips of paper that can later be grouped and rearranged. 4. Organize and analyze your information. Classify, synthesize, and outline the information that you have collected. 5. Write a first draft. Your research report should have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. The introduction should explain the purpose of your report. After reading the introduction, your reader should be anxious to read the rest of the report. The body develops the main ideas of the report. The ideas are expressed in a logical manner with clear transitions between paragraphs and topics. The conclusion summarizes your findings. 6. Edit the first draft. Reorganize information, improve sentence structure and transitions, and correct grammar and spelling errors. 7. Write your final report.

Critical Thinking Skills Activities

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Enrichment Activities

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Psychology Reading 11 Name __________________________________

Date ______________

Name __________________________________ 2. How did Peter Jusczyk test infants’ abilities to recognize their own names?

Class _______________ Date ______________

Name __________________________________

Class _______________ Date ______________

Class _______________

Understanding the Case Study Directions: Answer the following questions in the space provided.

11

1. Why is the United States Army interested in foreign language training?

CASE STUDY

Peacekeeping With Words

Directions: Read the following case study, then answer the questions that follow. 2. What is Alice Healy’s hypothesis about the way people learn a second language?

Sound Patterns

president spoke forcefully for the need for improved educational opportunities. Noun/pronoun sequence: Bill Clinton addressed the media. He spoke forcefully for the need for improved educational opportunities.

3. What three common subject identifier strategies are used in both English and Chinese?

Noun/zero anaphora (no noun or pronoun): Bill Clinton addressed the media and spoke forcefully for the need for improved educational opportunities.

4. What were the results of the Healy/Tao study?

The United Nations Flag

Thinking Critically

Increasingly, the United States, in conjuncDirections: Answer the following questions in the space provided. tion with the United Nations, sends peacekeeping troops around the globe. U.S. troops serve alongside clearly troops with fromother otherpeaceUnited Nations 5. Why is it important for peacekeeping troops to be able to communicate countries. Barriers to communication and keeping troops? understanding are great. As a result, the U.S. Army has become keenly interested in foreign language training.

Hypothesis Psychologist Alice Healy, Ph.D., along with colleagues at the University of Colorado, is working with the army using psycholinguistics to analyze how people learn a second language. Their hypothesis is that: “People use strategies 6. What recommendations would you make to the Army as it seeks to address its needs for language from their native language to process and underskills among its troops? stand foreign language….”

Method for Testing Native Language Strategies Healy and postgraduate assistant Liang Tao, Ph.D., examined the use of pronouns and noun phrases to identify subjects in sentences. Examples of common English phrasing include: Noun/noun phrase sequence: Bill Clinton addressed the media. The Readings and Case Studies

Chinese uses the same strategies; however, zero anaphora is much more common in Chinese than in English. To see how Chinese speakers whose second language was English used their native language in understanding English, Healy and Tao developed a study using standard reading comprehension tests. Some tests were given intact; that is, no modifications were made. Some tests were altered using the zero anaphora strategy. Finally some had changes to noun phrases and pronouns that would be considered inappropriate in both English and Chinese. The three versions of the tests were administered to both native English and native Chinese speakers.

Results Native Chinese speakers scored consistently lower on the intact and inappropriate versions. However, they did significantly better on tests using the zero anaphora strategy. The findings seem to indicate that the Chinese speakers did transfer their native language skills to understanding English. The army can use these findings as they design foreign language training programs for troops who may be assigned for overseas postings.

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Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Date ______________

Name __________________________________

Class _______________

Date ______________ Class _______________ The infants listened longer to their own names Name __________________________________ Less is More than to any other name, even the ones with similar The critical learning period doesn’t end abruptly, sound patterns. ‘This finding suggests that 4-and-aNewport said.sound Instead the ability to learn language 3. What did Jusczyk find about an infant’shave attention todetailed his or her own name compared to other half-month-olds a rather representation gradually declines as the brain matures. By late puberpatterns? of the sound patterns of their names,’ the researchers ty, R everyone E A D I learns N G at about the same rate. concluded. Traditional neurobehavioral theory likens the This doesn’t mean they understand what their decline in learning to the winding down of a biological names mean, but it’s the first step, said Jusczyk. clock: The mechanism for language learning is at its ‘Infants as young as 4-and-a-half months of age are prime in young children and declines as they mature. the following selection, then answer the questions that follow. learning sound patterns that will have a Directions: Read 4. What is the critical period theorytoofrecognize language learning? Newport’s theory examines the decline in learning special personal significance for them,’ he concluded. ability more as a difference in how children and adults Why are children able to learn a second language more readily than adults? Recent approach learning. Research shows that children can Younger is Better research suggests that infants first learn sound patterns and then attach meanings to the only handle small bits of information at a time because sound patterns. Researchers theorize These incremental steps to learning language may they have a more limited perspective than adults. that learning a second language incrementally in make children better learners than adults, according to small pieces easier. As information, the brain matures, it loses its ability to process information in For participants example, whenisgiven novel such 5. What did Elissa Newport and Jacqueline Johnson conclude from their study of Chinese a theory developed by psychologist Elissa Newport, small bits. Instead it responds as signsthese from American Sign Language, children to do whole thoughts, sentences, and ideas. This makes in a language study? PhD, of the University of Rochester. Because language learning a secondonly language difficult. poorly, often remembering a piece more of the sign— has many components, learning it in small pieces the hand shape, but not the hand movement or vice makes things easier, she reasons. versa. Adults, on the other hand, have a wide perspecHer theory issued from work on the ‘critical periAt age 15, Alex learned onewhole of the signs, embarknown sound pattern is contrary to the traditive; they’re quite good at remembering od’ theory of language learning: The idea that there’s a rassments of adult life: After a month in the tional view that babies learn sound patterns, for example. finite period when children can easily learn language, Middle his 7-year-old sister was transsuch as words, to name objects they’re interIn the caseEast, of language learning, Newport for him while Children’s he struggled to underested in. believeslating that ‘less is more.’ limited perspecThinking Criticallyan idea based on anecdotal evidence that children learn foreign languages faster than adults. stand, lettoalone Arabic. Why did she Jusczyk doesn’t deny that object-naming tive forces them learnspeak, language in stages. test the theory, and colleague Directions: Answer the followingTo questions in theNewport space provided. the language so easily while Alex grapoccurs, but he contends that babies also Theylearn acquire a few pieces at a time and learn Jacqueline Johnson, PhD, of the University of Virginia pledtowith store word patterns in memory and eventually slowly how put it? them together. This system works for studied Chinese subjectschildren who had learned English as a Psychologists acquisiattach them to objects in the environment. 6. Your school district is considering introducing to a second language beginning the first learning in language becausestudying languagelanguage is composed of second language. The 44 subjects in the study differed tion are beginning to understand Alex’s dilemTo study how babies learn to go from grade. Some people argue that young children have enough to learn already and many second littlelanguage parts. by the age they arrived in the United States (from 3 ma. on They’re finding thatperceive language is sound patterns to meaning, Jusczyk, graduate Adults, the other hand, alllearning the pieces instruction should begin in high school. Which view do you support? Why? years old to 39 years old). None knew English before incremental, withthe theorganization first step simply recogstudent Denise Mandel and David Pisoni, at once and have to find within the big arriving, all had been living in the United States for no According to at one PhD, of Indiana University recently studied 4picture. nizing Indeed,sound adultspatterns. learn languages fast first, less than five years and an average of 10 years, all had hypothesis, it’s the incremental of chiland-a-half-month-old infants’ responses to picking up lots of vocabulary and entire nature sentences at learned English by immersion in the culture and all had their names. Babies hear their own names one time.dren’s language learning that makes it easy. attended American schools since their arrival. puberty, makes it more than most other words, so it will probaBut But theybysoon fizzlethe out,brain’s takingmaturity a long time to truly The researchers found that the younger people harder learn in such increments and bly be one of the first recognized. Deciphering understand the to organization of asmall foreign language. were when they arrived in the United States, the better moreand difficult. the age at which infants recognize their Newportlanguages likens it tobecome the tortoise the hare: Children they scored on a language test designed by the names might provide a first clue to the start out slowly, but far surpass adults over time…. Sounding it Out researchers. The correlation between language ability antecedents of relating sound to meaning, the Source: Azar, B. (1996). Sound patterns: Learning language keys. and age of arrival was as strong as that between height As evidence of how children learn lanresearchers reasoned. The APA Monitor, 27 (1), p. 20. and weight—one of the strongest correlations around, guage incrementally, researchers find that They based their study on past research, said Newport. ‘It’s clear that there is a superiority of infants first learn to distinguish sound patwhich finds that when babies recognize 7. Although children may have a superior ability to learn language, what types of learning doof teens children over adults in language learning,’ saidat Newport. terns their native languages. This ability sounds, they listen to them longer than less and adults excel? develops faster than any other aspect of lanrecognizable sounds. For example, 6-monthguage. It’s not surprising that sound percepold infants listen longer to someone speaking Understanding the Reading tion develops first and fastest, says psycholotheir native language than to someone speakgist Peter Jusczyk, PhD, of the State ing a foreign language. Directions: Answer the following questions in the space provided. University of New York-Buffalo. When they To measure how long babies listened to aren’t language? sleeping, infants spend most of their their names, the researchers played each 1. What is the first task an infant faces in learning his or her native first year listening to speech sounds detached infant’s name through a loud speaker and from meanings. Even when parents try to timed whether and for how long the baby teach their children a particular word, more turned its head toward the speaker. The times than not, they imbed it in a sentence. infants also heard recordings of three other ‘Babies need to break that sentence down names—one with a similar sound pattern to into sound patterns and pick out individual their name and the other two with different American words,’ explained Jusczyk. sound patterns. For example, Joshua would Sign Readings and Case Studies 53happens, they can relate indiOnce that hear his name, then ‘Agatha,’ which has the Language vidual sound patterns to particular meanings. same sound pattern as ‘Joshua,’ then ‘Maria’ (continued) This idea of putting an unknown object to a and ‘Eliza.’ 52 Readings and Case Studies

11

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Psychology Case Study 11

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Test Form A

Chapter 11 Test, Form B

Source: Azar, B. (1995). Psycholinguistics helps keep the peace. The APA Monitor, 26 (5), p. 36.

55 54

Readings and Case Studies

(continued)

Readings and Case Studies

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294D

CHAPTER

11

Introduction

PSYCHOLOGY Visit glencoe.com for a Chapter Overview for Chapter 11—

Thinking and Language.

Psychology Journal In your journal, answer the following question: If you increase the size of your vocabulary, will you think better? Use past experiences to explain your answer. ■

For a preview of Chapter 11 content, see MindJogger Checkpoint on Presentation Plus!

Psychology Journal Explain that the connection between language and higher-level thinking skills is well documented. We organize thought by language. Therefore, increasing your vocabulary will allow you to process more information. This journal activity provides the basis for the Psychology Journal activity exercise in the Chapter Assessment. ■

PSYCHOLOGY Chapter Overview Visit the Understanding Psychology Web site at glencoe.com and click on Chapter 11—Chapter Overviews to preview the chapter.

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TWO -MINUTE LESSON LAUNCHER Creative people have the ability to think flexibly and develop many unique solutions. One test developed by J.P. Guilford to test creativity is to find unique uses for common, everyday objects. Give every student in the class a common, everyday object such as a glass, a paper clip, a pair of scissors, and so on. Randomly assign students to work in pairs. Tell them that they are to combine their items in some way to make a new object that serves some purpose. Ask volunteers to share their new invention. Ask: How did you use creativity to make the new object? In what ways did you have to overcome set mental patterns to complete the assignment? What gave you the insight to complete the task?

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Thinking and Problem Solving Reader’s Guide Exploring Psychology

■ Main Idea

Thinking involves changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new or transformed information, such as creative problemsolving strategies. ■ Vocabulary

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

thinking image symbol concept prototype rule metacognition algorithm heuristic mental set functional fixedness creativity flexibility recombination insight

■ Objectives

• Identify the units of thought and the kinds of thinking. • Explain strategies for and obstacles to problem solving.

A Radical Assumption Historians often refer to “the Copernican revolution” as a milestone in the history of science. Copernicus was a careful and creative scientist who eventually solved a problem that others before him had failed to solve: how to account for the movement of the planets in the heavens. . . . Copernicus finally created a theory that nicely predicted the movements of the planets. To do so, however, he had to make a radical assumption. Prior to Copernicus, everyone had taken it for granted that the sun and the other planets revolve around the Earth, and indeed, it looks that way to the naked eye. Copernicus argued that, if one made this assumption, it would be impossible to predict with accuracy the movement of the planets. His theory began with an alternate assumption, namely, that the Earth and the other planets in our solar system revolve around the sun.

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Chapter 11 / Thinking and Language 295

SECTION RESOURCES Reproducible Masters

Section 1, pages 295–302

1 FOCUS Section Objectives 1. Identify the units of thought and the kinds of thinking. 2. Explain strategies for and obstacles to problem solving.

BELLRINGER Motivational Activity Project Daily Focus Transparency 11–1 and have students answer the questions. Available as blackline master

Daily Focus Transparency 11–1

—from The Ideal Problem Solver by John D. Bransford and Barry S. Stein, 1984

oing beyond memory, how do we think? How do we solve problems? How do we create ideas? How did Copernicus come up with his idea? If storage and retrieval were the only processes we used to handle information, human beings would be little more than glorified cameras and VCRs. Yet we are capable of doing things with information that make the most complex computers seem simple by comparison. These processes—thinking and problem solving—are most impressive when they show originality or creativity.

• Guided Reading Activity 11–1 • Vocabulary Activity 11–1 • Section Quiz 11–1

CHAPTER 11

Multimedia ExamView ® Assessment Suite CD-ROM

Reader’s Guide Use the Reader’s Guide to introduce concepts and vocabulary. ■

Exploring Psychology

Ask students to read the Exploring Psychology feature. Then ask: In what ways did Copernicus’s assumption show creativity and originality? Why was it difficult for people to accept Copernicus’s discoveries? ■

Vocabulary Precheck

Have students create a matching puzzle by writing the terms in one column and the Glossary definitions in random order in a second column. Have pairs of students trade and complete puzzles.

Presentation Plus! Software

Transparencies • Daily Focus Transparency 11–1

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CHAPTER 11

THINKING

Section 1, pages 295–302

thinking: changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new information

2 TEACH

Units of Thought

L1 Classifying Information Have students work in small groups to design a chart classifying examples of the five units of thought: images, symbols, concepts, prototypes, and rules. Encourage students to illustrate at least some of the entries. After students have shared their charts, point out that to complete this assignment, they used a critical thinking skill known as classification. Ask: Is classification an example of directed or nondirected thinking? ELL BLOCK SCHEDULING

Tell students that concepts are stored in memory using complex networks. These are links that interrelate concepts. For example, food would be linked to meat, vegetables, and fruit. Networks have many branches. For example, asparagus, peas, and corn are linked to vegetables, which in turn are linked to food. Explain that researchers have discovered that knowing one word in a network allows other words in the network to be recalled more quickly.

Guided Reading Activity 11–1 Name __________________________________

Guided Reading Activity

11-2

Date ______________

image: a visual, mental representation of an event or object

symbol: an abstract unit of thought that represents an object or quality; anything that stands for or represents something else

concept: a label for a class of objects or events that have at least one attribute in common

prototype: a representative example of a concept

The processes of thought depend on several devices, or units of thought: images, symbols, concepts, prototypes, and rules. One very basic unit of thought is an image, a visual, mental representation of a specific event or object. The representation is not usually an exact copy; rather, it contains only the highlights of the original. For example, if an adult tries to visualize a grandmother who died when he was seven, he would probably remember only a few details—perhaps the color of her hair or a piece of jewelry she wore—without a portrait or photo. Imaging is an effective way to think about concepts. In 1971 two researchers (Shepard & Metzler) presented participants with 1,600 pairs of geometric images (see Figure 11.1). The researchers then asked the participants to determine if the objects in each pair were identical or different. The researchers discovered that the participants completed the task by rotating an image of one of the objects in their minds in an effort to see both patterns from the same perspective. Another abstract unit of thought is a symbol, a sound, object, or design that represents an object or quality. The most common symbols in thinking are words; every word is a symbol that stands for something other than itself. An image represents a specific sight or sound, but a symbol may have a number of meanings. That symbols differ from the things they represent enables us to think about things that are not present, to consider the past and future, and to imagine things and situations that never will be or never were. Numbers, letters, punctuation marks, and icons are all familiar symbols of ideas that have no concrete existence. When a symbol is used as a label for a class of objects or events with at least one common attribute—or for the attribute itself—it is called a concept. Animals, music, liquid, and beautiful people are examples of concepts based on the common attributes of the objects and experiences belonging to each category. Thus the concept animal separates a group of organisms from such things as automobiles, carrots, and Roquefort cheese. Concepts enable us to chunk large amounts of information. We do not have to treat every new piece of information as unique, since we already know something about the class of objects or experiences to which the new item belongs. When we think of a concept, we often think of a representative example of it. When you think of a vehicle, for example, you might picture a car or a truck. This representation is called a prototype. The prototype you picture may not be an example that you have actually experienced. Most often it simply is an example that has most of the characteristics of the particular concept.

296 Chapter 11 / Thinking and Language

Class _______________

Language

For use with textbook pages 304–308

Directions: Recalling the Facts Use the information in your textbook to answer the questions. 1. What four rules make up language? __________________________________________________________

2. How many morphemes are in the words book, love, and reason? ________________________________ 3. A complete sentence must have a subject and verb. This is an example of what language rule?

4. The word produce can be used as a noun or a verb. What language rule allows you to understand the meaning of this word in a sentence? ______________________________________________________

5. How did B.F. Skinner believe children learn language? _________________________________________

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You may view thinking as changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new or transformed information. By thinking, for example, humans are able to put together any combination of words from memory and create sentences never devised before, such as this one.

COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITY Encouraging Creativity Organize students into groups and ask the members of each group to imagine they are a team of child-care workers at a new learning center for young children. Challenge them to write a list of “Dos” and “Do Nots” on a poster titled “Creating Creativity.” Next, assign students to develop a list of activities and/or games that might encourage creativity. Have a member from each group share its plan with the class. BLOCK SCHEDULING

Figure 11.1

A more complex unit of thought is a rule, a statement of a relation between concepts. The following are examples of rules: a person cannot be in two places at the same time; mass remains constant despite changes in appearance. Images, symbols, concepts, prototypes, and rules are the building blocks of mental activity. They provide an economical and efficient way for people to represent reality, to manipulate and reorganize it, and to devise new ways of acting. For example, a person can think about pursuing several different careers, weigh their pros and cons, and decide which to pursue without having to try every one of them.

Kinds of Thinking

Using Imagery

Rotate pairs of images of the patterns below in your mind to make them match. Do the drawings in each pair represent the same object, or are they different objects? (Check with your teacher to find out which pairs match.) How do we use images when we are thinking about something?

a

People think in several ways. Directed thinking is a systematic and logical attempt to reach a specific goal or answer, such as the solution to a math problem. This kind of thinking, also called convergent thinking, depends on symbols, concepts, and rules. Directed thinking is deliberate and purposeful. It is through directed thinking that we solve problems; formulate and follow b rules; and set, work toward, and achieve goals. In contrast, another type, called nondirected (or divergent) thinking, consists of a free flow of thoughts with no particular plan and depends more on images (see Figure 11.2). Nondirected thinking is usually rich with imagery and feelings such as daydreams, fantasies, and reveries. People often engage in nondirected thought when they are relaxing or c escaping from boredom or worry. This kind of thinking may provide unexpected insights into one’s goals and beliefs. Scientists and artists say that some of their best ideas emerge from drifting thoughts that occur when they have set aside a problem for the moment. A third type of thinking is metacognition, or thinking about thinking. When you tackle an algebra problem and cannot solve it, thinking about your strategy may cause you to change to another strategy.

One of the main functions of directed thinking is to solve problems— to bridge the gap mentally between a present situation and a desired goal. The gap may be between hunger and food, a column of figures and a

Section 1, pages 295–302 Figure 11.1 Visual Instruction Explain to students that they must create mental images to solve this puzzle. Roger Shepard and Jacqueline Metzler used similar images in an experiment in 1971 and concluded that imagined vision (mental imagery) is very similar to real vision. Pairs (a) and (b) are the same objects, whereas the objects in (c) do not match. Caption Answer We use images to represent events or objects. The images are not usually exact copies of the original.

Reading Check What is the difference between a symbol and a concept? An image and a prototype?

rule: a statement of relation between concepts

PROBLEM SOLVING

CHAPTER 11

metacognition: the awareness of or thinking about one’s own cognitive processes

Chapter 11 / Thinking and Language 297

MEETING SPECIAL NEEDS Learning Style: Logical/Mathematical Provide students with various types of paperbased puzzles or brainteasers. Students may work individually or in pairs to solve them, keeping a copy of each attempted solution. Direct students to use storyboards to record each attempt at a solution. For each attempt, have students write down the strategies or approaches used to solve the problem. Ask: Did thinking about problem-solving strategies and approaches help you solve the puzzle more quickly? Explain. L2 BLOCK SCHEDULING

Tell students that our boundaries for concepts can be fuzzy. Many items may be classified in more than one category. For example, visit a convenience store and survey the variety of beverages offered for sale. Which ones would you classify as soft drinks? Do you see any beverages that one person may think of as a soft drink and another think of as a fruit drink or some other category of beverage? Ask students to think of another concept that may have fuzzy boundaries and have them set up an experiment to test their theories.

Reading Check Answer A symbol is an abstract unit of thought that represents an object or quality, while a concept is a label for a class of objects that share at least one common attribute. An image is a visual, mental representation of an event or object, while a prototype is a representative example of a concept.

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities in the TCR for strategies for students with different learning styles.

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CHAPTER 11 Section 1, pages 295–302

Figure 11.2

Directed vs. Nondirected Thinking

A

n old money-lender offered to cancel a merchant's debt and keep him from going to prison if the merchant would give the money-lender his lovely daughter. Horrified yet desperate, the merchant and his daughter agreed to let Providence decide. The money-lender said he would put a black pebble and a white pebble in a bag and the girl would draw one. The white pebble would cancel the debt and leave her free. The black one would make her the money-lender's, although the debt would be canceled. If she refused to pick, her father would go to prison. From the pebble-strewn path they were standing on, the money-lender picked two pebbles and quickly put them in the bag, but the girl saw he had picked up two black ones. What would you have done if you were the girl?

Figure 11.2 Visual Instruction Ask for a volunteer to read De Bono’s problem aloud. Then challenge students to solve it in two minutes. Have class members share their answers. Caption Answer People are most likely to engage in nondirected thinking when they are relaxing or trying to escape from stress or boredom.

This problem was devised by psychologist Edward De Bono, who believes that conventional directed thinking is insufficient for solving new and unusual problems. His approach to problem solving requires use of nondirected thinking to generate new ways of looking at the problem situation. (The answer to this problem is provided in Figure 11.7.) When are people most likely to engage in nondirected thinking?

PSYCHOLOGY Links and instructional guidelines can be found in the Web Activity Lesson Plan at glencoe.com.

total, a lack of money and bills to pay, or cancer and a cure. In all these examples, getting from the problem to the solution requires some directed thinking.

Strategies

Psychology Journal Ask students to list examples of problem-solving techniques that they have learned. For each, students should write an example of the type of problem for which they would use the strategy. Ask them to illustrate the relationship between intermediate goals and terminal goals during problem solving. ■

Vocabulary Activity 11–1 Name __________________________________

Vocabulary Activity

Date ______________

11-1

Class _______________

Thinking and Problem Solving

PSYCHOLOGY Student Web Activity Visit the Understanding Psychology Web site at glencoe.com and click on Chapter 11—Student Web Activities for an activity on thinking and problem solving.

Problem solving depends on the use of strategies, or specific methods for approaching problems. One strategy is to break down a complex problem into a number of smaller, more easily solved subgoals. Subgoals are intermediate steps toward a solution. For example, it is the end of the semester and your life is falling apart. You do not even have time to tie your shoelaces. You solve the problem by breaking it down into small pieces: studying for a science exam, finishing that overdue paper, canceling your dinner date, scheduling regular study breaks to maintain what is left of your sanity, and so forth. For some problems, you may work backward from the goal you have set. Mystery writers often use this method: They decide how to end the story (“who did it”) and then devise a plot leading to this conclusion. Another problem may require you to examine various ways of reaching a desired goal. Suppose a woman needs to be in Chicago by 11 A.M. on July 7 for a business conference. She checks train departures and arrivals, airline schedules, and car-rental companies. The only train to Chicago that morning arrives at 5 A.M. (too early), and the first plane arrives at 11:30 A.M. (too late). So she decides to rent a car and drive.

Directions: Use the clues below to find the hidden words.

R E C O M B I N A T I O N K H S L U S K P Y Z Z O M O Y A M T Y F L E X I B I L I T Y H G

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P P M W K M Q M J T I H T D F L C E B A X U E I V R I I W E X L Q G

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CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY

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Synthesizing Information Request volunteers to play a game of charades for the class. Each volunteer should think of a phrase to act out through the use of gestures. Ask them to choose a category, such as movies or song titles, from which to pick their phrases. The rest of the class should use the techniques of memory retrieval—such as recall and recognition—to solve the problem of interpreting wordless communication. When the exercise is done, ask: Did you devise a set of strategies to approach the charades? Did anyone experience a feeling of insight in figuring out the answer? L1 ELL

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To determine which strategy to use, most of us analyze the problem to see if it resembles a situation we have experienced in the past. A strategy that worked in the past is likely to work again. We tend to do things the way we have done them before, and often, we shy away from new situations that call for new strategies. The more unusual the problem, the more difficult it is to devise a strategy for dealing with it. Algorithms An algorithm is a fixed set of procedures that, if followed correctly, will lead to a solution. Mathematical and scientific formulas are algorithms. For example, to find the product of 345 and 23, we multiply the numbers according to the rules of multiplication to get a correct answer of 7,935. To play chess or checkers, we follow algorithms, or a fixed set of rules.

Section 1, pages 295–302 Figure 11.3 algorithm: a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem

Heuristics While algorithms can be useful in finding solutions, they are a time-consuming method. People often use shortcuts to solve problems, and these shortcuts are called heuristics. Heuristics are experimental strategies, heuristic: a rule-of-thumb or rules of thumb, that simplify a problem, allowing one to solve prob- problem-solving strategy lems quickly and easily (see Figure 11.3). For example, when watching the Wheel of Fortune game show, you might use what you already know about prefixes, suffixes, and roots of words to fill in the missing letters of mental set: a habitual strata word or phrase. If a friend comes to you with a problem, your advice egy or pattern of problem solving might include what has worked for you in the past. Although heuristics allow us to make quick deciTypes of Heuristics Figure 11.3 sions, they can result in bad decisions because we make Heuristics are mental shortcuts. Although they are not rules that the decisions using shortalways provide the correct answers, they are strategies that expericuts and sometimes ignore ence has taught us to apply. What is the availability heuristic? pertinent information.

Obstacles to Problem Solving There are times when certain useful strategies become cemented into the problem-solving process. When a particular strategy becomes a habit, it is called a mental set—you are set to treat problems in a certain way. For example, a chess player may always attempt to control the four center squares of the chessboard. Whenever her opponent attacks, she responds by looking for ways to

1. Availability Heuristic: We rely on information that is more prominent or easily recalled and overlook information that is available but less prominent. Example: In the news, we see people winning the lottery all the time and overestimate our chances at winning it also. 2. Representativeness Heuristic: We tend to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category, too. Example: I have flipped a coin 10 times and it has landed on tails every time. The odds are it will land on heads this time. (The odds are 50–50, as they are for each coin toss.) 3. Anchoring Heuristic: We make decisions based on certain ideas, or standards, that are important to us. Example: In my family, everyone gets up by 8:00 A.M. every day, including weekends. I believe that only lazy people sleep past 8:00 A.M. (I formed a judgment about other people based on a standard in my family.)

Visual Instruction Remind students that although heuristics are faster than algorithms, they are not always as reliable. Caption Answer the mental shortcut we use when we rely on information that is more prominent or easily recalled and overlook information that is available but less prominent

Mathematics Write the following on the board: 1. H 2. H

H T

H T

H H

H T

H H

Ask: What would you predict the next flip to be in each sequence? Most students will predict tails as the next flip for both. They are using a heuristic known as representativeness, in which they compare an event to a prototype. Students don’t expect a coin toss to repeatedly turn up heads, so they predict tails for the next toss. According to probability rules, however, each flip is an independent action, meaning that there is a 50 percent chance for either outcome regardless of previous results. Thus, while representativeness can be useful, it can lead to illogical decisions.

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PSYCHOLOGY LAB EXPERIMENT Directed and Nondirected Thinking Use the following demonstration to determine if a person is a directed thinker. On a sheet of paper, have participants quickly write down the answer to these questions: What is the color of snow? (white) What do cows drink? (The answer is “water,” but a surprising number of people will say “milk.”) Explain to participants that directed thinkers may not answer the question spontaneously. Instead they will think it through and come up with the correct answer—water. Participants who respond with their first free association will probably say milk because they will link milk and white with cows. This is an example of nondirected thinking. Ask: Which method of thinking do you think is most creative? Why? L1 BLOCK SCHEDULING

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CHAPTER 11 Section 1, pages 295–302 Figure 11.4 Visual Instruction Have students draw nine dots on a separate sheet of paper. Ask them to work out the solution and put their pencils down when they have completed the activity. After one minute, provide the following hint: the lines can extend beyond the dots. Give students a few more minutes to complete the activity, then have a volunteer share the solution.

Connecting

Figure 11.4 the Dots

Connect all nine dots shown by drawing four straight lines without lifting your pencil from the paper or retracing any lines. (The answer appears in Figure 11.7.) How does following a mental set sometimes interfere with problem solving?

Caption Answer Our mental sets make us see the nine dots as a closed shape and we think that we must stay within its boundaries.

Figure 11.5 Visual Instruction Have students work in pairs, with one as the participant and the other the observer. The participant should talk through the process that he or she is performing to solve this problem. The observer should write down how the participant solved the problem.

functional fixedness: the inability to imagine new uses for familiar objects creativity: the capacity to use information and/or abilities in new and original ways

regain control of those four squares. She has a set for this strategy. If this set helps her win, fine. Sometimes, however, a set interferes with problem solving, and then it is called rigidity. You probably know the old riddle “What is black, white, and read all over? A newspaper.” When you say the riddle, the word read sounds like red, which is why some people cannot guess the answer. Read is heard as part of the black and white set—it is interpreted as being a color. If you asked, “What is black and white and read by people every day?” the correct answer would be obvious— and boring. One form of set that can interfere with problem solving is functional fixedness—the inability to imagine new uses for familiar objects. In experiments on functional fixedness, people are asked to solve a problem that requires them to use a familiar object in an unfamiliar way (Duncker, 1945). Because they are set to use the object in the usual way, people tend to pay attention only to the features of the object that relate to its everyday use (see Figures 11.4 and 11.5). They respond in a rigid way. Another type of rigidity occurs when a person makes a wrong assumption about a problem. In Figure 11.6, for example, the problem is to arrange the six matches into four equilateral triangles. Most people have trouble solving this puzzle because they falsely assume that they must stay within a two-dimensional figure. People trying to solve the kind of problem described in the Psychology and You feature on page 301 experience a third kind of rigidity. Most people look for direct methods of solving problems and do not see solutions that require several intermediate steps. Rigidity can be overcome if the person realizes that his or her strategy is not working and looks for other ways to approach the problem. The more familiar the situation, the more difficult this will be. Rigidity is less likely to occur with unusual problems. Many individuals are trained, through formal education, to think of only one way to do things. Rigidity can be overcome by thinking about—or being taught to think about—and analyzing situations from many perspectives.

CREATIVITY Caption Answer Functional fixedness may prevent the participant from seeing the boxes as having functions other than holding candles and matches.

3 ASSESS Assign Section 1 Assessment as homework or as an in-class activity.

Figure 11.5

Overcoming Functional Fixedness

Given the materials pictured here, how would you go about mounting a candle vertically on a wooden wall in such a way that it can be lit? (The solution is presented in Figure 11.7.) How might functional fixedness make it difficult to solve this problem?

The ability to use information in such a way that the result is somehow new, original, and meaningful is creativity. All problem solving requires some creativity. Certain ways of solving problems, however, are simply more brilliant or beautiful or efficient than others. Psychologists do not know exactly why some people are able to think more creatively than others, although they have identified some of the characteristics of creative thinking, including flexibility and the ability to recombine elements to achieve insight.

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INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITY History Remind students of Copernicus’s radical assumption. Assign them to research other famous inventors or geniuses. Examples include Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Thomas Edison, or Henry Ford. Have students write a short biography that presents the original solution, idea, or invention developed by each person. Then have them assess some of the character traits that encouraged creativity in the individual. In a follow-up discussion, share the following statements from John Dryden (“Genius must be born, and never taught”) and Thomas Edison (“Genius is 10 percent inspiration and 90 percent perspiration”). Ask: In terms of psychology, which statement do you agree with? Which is more valid? L2 BLOCK SCHEDULING

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Flexibility The ability to overcome rigidity is flexibility. Psychologists have devised a number of ingenious tests to measure flexibility. In one test, psychologists ask people how many uses they can imagine for a single object, such as a brick or a paper clip. The more uses a person can devise, the more flexible he or she is said to be. Whether such tests actually measure creativity is debatable. Nevertheless, it is obvious that inflexible, rigid thinking leads to unoriginal solutions or no solutions at all.

Figure 11.6

CHAPTER 11

Overcoming Wrong Assumptions

Arrange these six matches so that they form four equilateral triangles. (The solution appears in Figure 11.7.) What are two characteristics of creative thinking?

Section 1, pages 295–302 Figure 11.6 Visual Instruction Provide matches or sections of wooden sticks for students to manipulate into triangles.

Recombination When the elements of a problem are familiar but the required solution is not, it may be achieved by recombination, a new mental arrangement of the elements. In football and basketball, for example, there are no new moves—only recombinations of old ones. Such recombination seems to be a vital part of creativity. Many creative people say that no truly great poem, no original invention, has ever been produced by someone who has not spent years studying his or her subject. The creative person is able to take the information that he or she and others have compiled and put it together in a totally new way. The brilliant philosopher and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton, who discovered the laws of motion, once said, “If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” In other words, he was able to recombine the discoveries of the great scientists who had preceded him to uncover new and more far-reaching truths.

Caption Answer Creative thinking requires flexibility and recombination.

flexibility: the ability to overcome rigidity, to remain open to alternate strategies

recombination: rearranging the elements of a problem to arrive at an original solution

Insight The sudden emergence of a solution by recombination of elements is called insight. Insight usually occurs when problems have proved resis- insight: the apparent sudden tant to all problem-solving efforts and strategies. The scientist, artist, or, realization of the solution to a in fact, anyone can reach a point of high frustration and temporarily problem abandon a task. Yet the recombination process seems to continue on an unconscious level. When the person is absorbed in some other activity, the answer seems to appear out of nowhere. This sudden insight has appropriately been called the “aha” experience. Certain animals appear to experience this same cycle of frustration, temporary diversion (during which time the problem incubates), and then sudden insight. For example, Wolfgang Köhler (1976) placed a chimpanzee in a cage where a cluster of bananas was hung out of its reach. Also in the cage were several wooden boxes. At first the chimpanzee tried various unsuccessful How would you go about solving this problem? A man and ways of getting at the fruit. Finally it sat his two sons want to get across a river. The boat they have down, apparently giving up, and simply available can hold a maximum of only 200 pounds. The stared straight ahead for a while. Then father weighs 200 pounds and the sons weigh 100 pounds suddenly it jumped up, piled three boxes each. How can all three people cross the river? (You’ll find on top of one another, climbed to the the answer in Figure 11.7.) top of the pile, and grabbed the bananas.

Solve This Problem

Use the following questions to direct a class discussion after students have read the Psychology and You feature. Ask: What creative processes did you use to solve this problem? How is this a good test of creativity?

Section Quiz 11–1 Name __________________________________

Section Quiz

11-1

Date ______________

Class _______________

SCOR

Thinking and Problem Solving

E

Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B. Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each) Column A 1. habitual strategy or pattern of problem solving 2. label for a class of objects or events that share common attributes 3. awareness of one’s own cognitive process

Column B A. metacognition B. concept C. creativity D. image E.

mental set

4. the capacity to use information and/or abilities in a new and original way 5. mental representation of an event or object

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EXTENDING THE CONTENT Functional Fixedness Arrange two rulers and a number of distracter objects (such as a small ball, coins, and toy blocks) on a table. Using masking tape, create a border around the objects. Next to the table, place two desks so that there is approximately one and one-half feet beyond arm’s length between them. Place a peg and a ring on one desk. Ask a volunteer to sit at the second desk. Give the student the following task: place the ring over the peg without leaving or moving the desk. The problem can be solved by using the tape border to connect the two rulers, which can then be used to complete the task. Explain that the activity demonstrates the concept of functional fixedness—the tape’s function as a border inhibits its recognition as a potential tool. L2 ELL

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CHAPTER 11 Section 1, pages 295–302 Figure 11.7 Visual Instruction Point out to students that the answers to Figures 11.2, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, and the Psychology and You feature are included in Figure 11.7.

Answers to Pages 298, 300, and 301

Figure 11.7

W

hen the girl put her hand into the bag to draw out the fateful pebble, she fumbled and dropped it, where it was immediately lost among the others. “Oh,” she said, “well, you can tell which one I picked by looking at the one that’s left.” The girl’s lateral thinking saved her father and herself.

Reteach

page 300

page 298

Have students share instances when a solution to a seemingly unsolvable problem came out of nowhere. Ask students how the solution demonstrates insight.

4 CLOSE Assign groups of students to list common algorithms and heuristics that are used in different academic disciplines, such as mathematics, geography, history, and chemistry.

SS

F F

“F” represents “Father,” and each “S” represents a “Son.”

Enrich Write the following quote by Sidney Sugarman on the board: “Teach the young people how to think, not what to think.” Ask students to write a onepage essay explaining the difference between learning how to think and learning what to think.

start

FSS

page 301

page 300

S S

S F

S

S S

F

SS

F

finish

FSS

page 301

Assessment 1. Review the Vocabulary Describe two obstacles to problem solving. 2. Visualize the Main Idea In a diagram similar to the one below, describe the characteristics of creative thinking. Characteristics of Creative Thinking

3. Recall Information What is the difference between convergent and divergent thinking? Give specific examples. 4. Think Critically If you were a teacher, would you allow students to solve math problems using different approaches if they reached the same answer? Why? 5. Application Activity Focus on a favorite board game. Provide a written description of problemsolving techniques you would use to win the game. Compare your strategies with those of your classmates.

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SECTION

1 Assessment Answers

1. A mental set is a strategy that has been used repeatedly and has become a habit. Functional fixedness is the inability to imagine new uses for objects. 2. Flexibility is the ability to overcome rigidity and functional fixedness. Recombination is the ability to group items in new and different ways. Insight is the apparent sudden realization of the solution to a problem. 3. Convergent thinking is a systematic, logical approach to problem solving that relies on symbols, concepts, and rules. Most people use convergent thinking to balance

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their checkbooks. Nondirected thinking involves free association of ideas in random order with no particular goal or plan. A person may create a layout for a new flower bed using nondirected thinking. 4. Teachers should allow different approaches as long as the approach does not lead to faulty thinking or incorrect solutions when applied to other types of problems. 5. Students’ answers will vary. Recommend board games like Monopoly that involve some element of skill, not simply chance.

Case Studies

Checkmate Period of Study:

1997

Introduction: On May 11, 1997, the final match of a rematch took place in the contemplative game of chess. The champion of the previous match, which had taken place a year earlier, was Garry Kasparov, a former scientist. Many consider Kasparov to be the best chess player to have ever lived. Kasparov’s opponent was Deep Blue, a computer. Hypothesis: The idea of a human versus a machine fascinated experts in a wide range of scientific studies. Most of them had the highest confidence in Kasparov’s chances to defeat the computer for the second time. Psychologists believed that a computer preprogrammed with information of any kind would prove no match for the thought capacity and perceptions of the human mind. Even though Deep Blue was programmed to play the game of chess with perfection, a nonfeeling and nonthinking machine could not defeat the ability of the human mind to think abstractly. A machine could also not match the human mind’s feelings of determination and desire.

of the 1997 model. A victory for Deep Blue could mean computers would not have to operate like a human brain to surpass it. For his rematch with Deep Blue, Kasparov planned to copy his strategy from the previous year. This would involve using the early match (in a series of matches) to inspect the mighty computer for weaknesses and then to exploit those weaknesses (Anand, 1997).

Results:

Deep Blue, the computer, defeated Kasparov. Experts explained that Kasparov’s defeat was the result of comparing Deep Blue too much to the version he had played against the year before. The new and improved Deep Blue seemed to use moves that were very human-like. For every seemingly well-conceived move Kasparov made, the computer countered in devastating ways. The time-consuming chess game robbed Kasparov of much of his concentration, whereas Deep Blue displayed no fatigue, frustration, or other human weaknesses. Now that psychologists know a human’s mental capacity can be outmatched by a computer’s programming, what assumptions can they make? Can a machine really prove to be more intelligent than the person who creates it? Do the physical limitations or the emotions of humans prevent us from using our full brain capacity? These questions and others like them may not be answered for years to come. This situation is new, and further testing in this area is needed to assess the issues accurately.

Method: As we know, computers are not thinkers––they can only do what they are programmed to do. Deep Blue, however, has amazing capacities. It can consider 300 million possible chess moves per Analyzing the Case Study second. With each of these 300 million 1. Why was Kasparov favored to win the rematch? possibilities, Deep Blue is programmed to assess the situation these moves will 2. What advantages did each opponent bring to the put it in. The human brain can evaluate contest? only a very small fraction of moves 3. Critical Thinking Why were psychologists interested compared to what Deep Blue can do. in the rematch between these two opponents? The Deep Blue defeated by Kasparov the previous year was an earlier version

Going Further Kasparov vs. the World In a unique chess match via the Internet that began in June 1999 and continued for several months, Kasparov squared off against all the players in the world who wanted to participate. A panel of grand masters suggested the world team’s possible moves. An estimated 10,000 players worldwide then cast their votes on the world team’s moves. The move that received the greatest number of votes was used. The game lasted four months, longer than most experts expected. Kasparov won the hardfought battle, retaining the title of the world’s greatest human chess player.

Discussing the Case Study Ask: What did psychologists learn from this match? (Psychologists learned that a computer can be programmed to defeat the human ability to think abstractly and creatively.) Do you think computers can be more intelligent than the humans who make them? In what ways? (In this scenario, computers can process more information and arrive at the best solution to a given set of problems. This computer would still require human programming to use its processing power in other ways.) What are the possible consequences to society if computers can be made more intelligent than humans? (Society may benefit if the intelligence is geared toward solving complex problems.)

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Answers for Analyzing the Case Study 1. Kasparov was believed to have greater thought power and creativity. Experts believed that a computer preprogrammed with information would prove no match for the abstract thought capacity and perceptions of the human mind. In addition, Kasparov had defeated a previous version of Deep Blue one year earlier. 2. Kasparov brought experience, ability to spot and exploit weaknesses, and passion. Deep Blue brought the

capacity to process 300 million possible moves per second. Deep Blue also would not become fatigued or frustrated. 3. Psychologists wanted to know if computers could be more intelligent than their human makers. They also sought to understand how emotions and physical limitations affect human behavior.

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CHAPTER 11

Language

Section 2, pages 304–308

1 FOCUS Section Objectives 1. Explain the structure of language. 2. Describe how children develop language.

BELLRINGER Motivational Activity

Reader’s Guide Language and thought are closely related. Language requires the learning of a set of complex rules and symbols, yet most people have little difficulty learning their native language. ■ Vocabulary

Project Daily Focus Transparency 11–2 and have students answer the questions.

• • • • •

Available as blackline master

■ Objectives

Daily Focus Transparency 11–2

Exploring Psychology

■ Main Idea

language phoneme morpheme syntax semantics

• Explain the structure of language. • Describe how children develop language.

What Language Do You Understand? Listen to someone speaking a language you do not know. You hear an unsung song, ever changing, rising and falling, occasionally illuminated by flashes of feeling. The sounds themselves are little more than vocal noises. If there are words, you cannot disentangle them; if there is a message, you cannot understand it. Interest evaporates. You might as well stare at a brick wall. Now listen to a good friend. It is the same kind of vocalization, but you cannot hear it in the same way. The noises are there, but they are totally transparent. Your mind passes right through the sounds, through the words, through the sentences, and into the mind of your friend. Your experience is totally different. —from The Science of Words by George A. Miller, 1991

f all the things we do, nothing seems as complex and as important as understanding and speaking a language. We must learn thousands of words and a limited number of rules of grammar to make sense of those words to communicate and share ideas.

O

Reader’s Guide Use the Reader’s Guide to introduce concepts and vocabulary. ■

Exploring Psychology

Ask students to read the Exploring Psychology feature and then discuss: Why are the experiences of hearing your own language spoken so different from hearing another language spoken? ■

THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE language: the expression of ideas through symbols and sounds that are arranged according to rules

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Vocabulary Precheck

Have students read the Glossary definition of each word. Then have students create a list of at least three examples for each of the terms. Use the Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROM to create crossword and word search puzzles.

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Do you ever talk to yourself? Some people talk to themselves when they are thinking or solving a problem. When we are talking or thinking, we are using language. What is language? Language is a system of

SECTION RESOURCES Reproducible Masters • Guided Reading Activity 11–2 • Vocabulary Activity 11–2 • Section Quiz 11–2

Transparencies • Daily Focus Transparency 11–2

Multimedia Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROM ExamView ® Assessment Suite CD-ROM Presentation Plus! Software

CHAPTER 11

communication that involves using rules to make and combine symbols in ways that produce meaningful words and sentences. Language lets us communicate facts and ideas. It allows us to tell each other about the past, present, and future. We solve problems and make decisions based on learning that is transmitted through language. Language consists of three elements: phonemes (units of sound), morphemes (units of meaning), and syntax (units of organization). The study of meaning, or semantics, is the most complex aspect of language.

Section 2, pages 304–308

2 TEACH

Phonemes The smallest units of sound in human languages are phonemes. Phonemes can be represented by a single letter (such as consonants like t or vowels like e) or a combination of letters, such as sh (see Figure 11.8). We can produce about 100 different recognizable sounds, but not all sounds are used in all languages. For instance, the English language uses about 43 sounds while some languages use as few as 15 sounds and others use as many as 85 sounds.

phoneme: an individual sound that is a basic structural element of language

Morphemes A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning (see Figure 11.8). It is made up of one or more phonemes. Morphemes can be a word, a letter (s), a prefix (un- in uncertain), or a suffix (-ly in slowly). For example, the words book, love, and reason are single morphemes, while loves, relearn, and walked have two morphemes (love and -s, re- and learn, walk and -ed).

morpheme: the smallest unit of meaning in a given language

L1 Discussion Place several declarative sentences in an illogical order on the board or on an overhead projector transparency. For example: (1) store I to meet a to friend went Judy and the. (2) oldest world the today Russia lives person in the in. Make sure that at least two of the sentences have more than one possible recombination. Have students write the possible logical sentences from the words. Ask: What syntax rules did you use to determine the logical order? What differences in semantics can you identify among these sentences? ELL

Syntax Syntax refers to rules for combining words into meaningful phrases or sentences to express thoughts that can be understood by others. For example, the following string of words probably does not make sense: “Boy small bike large rode.” In English we follow grammatical rules, such as placing adjectives in front of nouns. If you applied these rules to the sentence above, it could read: “The small boy rode a large bike.” Every language has these rules, although the rules differ from language to language.

Guided Reading Activity 11–2 syntax: language rules that govern how words can be combined to form meaningful phrases and sentences

Guided Reading Activity

Date ______________

11-2

Class _______________

Language

For use with textbook pages 304–308

Directions: Recalling the Facts Use the information in your textbook to answer the questions. 1. What four rules make up language? __________________________________________________________

semantics: the study of meaning in language

Semantics

Name __________________________________

2. How many morphemes are in the words book, love, and reason? ________________________________ 3. A complete sentence must have a subject and verb. This is an example of what language rule?

4. The word produce can be used as a noun or a verb. What language rule allows you to understand

The study of meaning or extracting meaning from morphemes, words, sentences, and context is semantics. The same word can have different meanings. Consider the following sentences: “A mind is a terrible thing to waste. Do you mind if I sit next to you? ” The word mind is understood differently in the two sentences. How did you

the meaning of this word in a sentence? ______________________________________________________

Figure 11.8

Phonemes and Morphemes

The word fearlessness has nine phonemes and three morphemes. What is the difference between phonemes and morphemes? Phonemes (units of sound):

Morphemes (units of meaning):

FEARLESSNESS

5

How did B F Skinner believe children learn language?

Figure 11.8 Visual Instruction Have students who are taking a foreign language share phonemes that are different from the phonemes in English. Caption Answer A phoneme is only a sound; a morpheme has meaning.

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COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITY American Sign Language Organize students into small groups to prepare a multimedia presentation on American Sign Language (ASL). Tell students that ASL is the preferred method of communication in the hearing-impaired community. Explain that it does not use the same syntax as English. Suggest the following areas of research to find information needed for the presentation: history of signing; ASL grammar rules; differences between ASL and finger spelling; variations in signs based on region of the country, age, or ethnicity; and whether ASL should be considered a separate language. Encourage students to use any multimedia resources available in a creative and informative way.

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CHAPTER 11 Section 2, pages 304–308

Profiles In Psychology Noam Chomsky

Profiles In Psychology

1928–

Ask students to read the Profiles In Psychology feature and then discuss the following questions: 1. What does Noam Chomsky think is inborn? (the mechanism to learn the rules of language) 2. Is the language-acquisition device (LAD) of an American the same as the LAD of a Spaniard? Explain. (Yes, the mechanism is the same, but the language learned depends on the one that the infant hears spoken.)

Psychology Journal Ask students to—if possible— find a letter, paper, or report that they wrote when they were in elementary school. Have them compare it to a similar document that they have written in the last year. Tell students to write an essay in their journal explaining how their writing has changed. They should consider the following questions: Has the syntax changed? How do the changes reflect changes in your thinking and reasoning abilities? ■

Readings and Case Studies in Psychology Have students read the Chapter 11 Reading selection in Readings and Case Studies in Psychology and answer the questions that follow the reading.

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“[A] human being is a biological organism like any other. It’s a biological organism with a very unique intellectual capacity that we are only barely beginning to understand. I think our intellectual capacities are very highly structured.”

know what the word mind meant in each sentence? From your knowledge of semantics, you knew that in the first sentence mind was a noun, while in the second sentence it was a verb. Your knowledge of a word’s meaning depends partly on context.

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

vram Noam Chomsky created the idea of transformational grammar. Transformational grammar is a system for describing the rules that determine all the sentences that can possibly be formed in any language. Chomsky claims that each of us is born with brain structures that make it relatively easy to learn the rules of language. Chomsky called those innate brain structures the language-acquisition device, or LAD. The LAD includes inborn mechanisms that guide a person’s learning of the unique rules of his or her native language.

A

For many years a debate over exactly how children learn language raged. B.F. Skinner believed that children learned language as a result of operant conditioning. When children utter sounds that are similar to adult speech patterns, their behavior is reinforced through smiles and extra attention; therefore, children repeat those sounds. Eventually children learn to produce speech. Critics state that children understand language before they speak—and before they receive any reinforcement. They also believe that children learn the rules of language before they receive any feedback on speaking correctly. Some psychologists argue that children learn language through observation, exploration, and imitation. These social learning advocates point out that children use language to get attention, ask for help, or to gain other forms of social contact. Parents can stimulate language acquisition by responding to and encouraging language development. These psychologists believe that both innate and environmental factors play a part in how a child learns language. Although Noam Chomsky believed that reinforcement and imitation do contribute to language development, he did not believe that all the complex rules of language could be learned that way. Chomsky (1957) theorized that infants possess an innate capacity for language; that is, children inherit a mental program that enables them to learn grammar.

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MEETING SPECIAL NEEDS Learning Style: Intrapersonal Assign students to write two letters to a good friend. Tell them that the letters are private and no one else will see them. In the first letter, the students should write about a recent event that was exciting or interesting. The second letter should be about the same event, but they should assume that things turned out badly. Tell them to compare the two letters and make a list of the words used in each letter that express emotion or feeling. The list should have two headings: Positive and Negative. Ask students to write one paragraph beneath the list expressing which letter was more difficult to compose and why. L2 BLOCK SCHEDULING

CHAPTER 11

HOW LANGUAGE DEVELOPS If Chomsky is right, then we would expect that all children go through similar stages of language Bilingualism is the ability to speak and understand two development, no matter what culture languages. How do bilingual people, though, keep the two or language group they belong to. languages separate? They do not. Try this experiment. Say Infants, in fact, do go through four the ink color of the following words aloud. stages of language development. Beginning at birth, infants can cry and produce other sounds indicating YELLOW GREEN RED BLUE VERDE AZUL AMARILLO ROJO distress. Around 2 months of age, infants begin to coo. Cooing refers to long, drawn-out sounds such as oooh If you speak only English, you probably had a little or eeeh. At around 4 months of age, trouble with the first four and had less trouble with the last infants reach the first stage of lanfour. If you speak Spanish, though, you knew that verde, guage development and begin to babazul, amarillo, and rojo are the Spanish words for green, blue, ble. Babbling includes sounds found in yellow, and red. You had difficulty with all the items. all languages, such as dadada and Although it takes children longer to master two lanbababa. When babbling, infants learn guages rather than just one, bilingual people can express to control their vocal cords and to their thoughts in a wide variety of ways. Bilingual children make, change, repeat, and imitate the also learn early that there are different ways of expressing sounds of their parents. At around 9 the same idea. months of age, infants refine their babbling to increasingly include sounds that are part of their native language. Whereas in children who can hear, babbling is oral, deaf children babble by using hand signals. They repeat the same hand signals over and over again. At around 12 months of age, infants begin to utter single words. They use these words to describe familiar objects and people, such as da-da or doggie. At this stage, children use single words to describe longer thoughts. For example, a child may say “da” to mean “Where is my father?” or “I want my father.” Toward the end of their second year, children place two words together to express an idea. Children may say “Milk gone” to indicate that the milk has spilled or “Me play” to mean “I want to play.” This stage indicates that the child is beginning to learn the rules of grammar. The child’s vocabulary has expanded to about 50 to 100 words and continues to expand rapidly, as was discussed in Chapter 3. By age 2–3, children form sentences of several words. These first Reading Check What is the nature versus sentences follow a pattern called telegraphic speech. This is a pattern of speaking in which the child leaves out articles such as the, prepositions nurture debate concerning the development of language? such as with, and parts of verbs. For example, a child may say, “I go park,” to mean, “I am going to the park.” By age 5, language development is largely complete, although vocabulary and sentence complexity continue to develop.

Section 2, pages 304–308

Bilingualism

Vocabulary Activity 11–2 Name ___________________________________

Vocabulary Activity

Date ______________

11-2

Class ________________

Language

Directions: Unscramble the following vocabulary terms and enter the terms on the lines provided. Then match each numbered term to the correct lettered definition by placing the number of the term on the line to the right of the definitions. 1. EMPEHON

2. ASNXT Y

A. the combination of ideas through symbols and sounds that are arranged according to rules B. the smallest unit of meaning in a given language

3. AENGUL AG

4. EANTSCIMS

5. PEEMRHOM

C. language rules that govern how words can be combined to form meaningful phrases and sentences D. the study of meaning in language E.

an individual sound that

Use the following question to direct a class discussion after students have read the Psychology and You feature. Ask: Why would someone who spoke Spanish have difficulty with some of the words?

Reading Check Answer The nurture argument assumes that we learn language through reinforcement. The nature argument assumes that the capacity for language is inborn.

3 ASSESS Assign Section 2 Assessment as homework or as an in-class activity.

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CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY Distinguishing Fact From Opinion Have students use the Internet or the local library to review the studies that have been done on chimpanzees and their abilities to acquire language. From their research, students should answer the following questions: What distinguishes language from communication? Have chimpanzees learned to communicate in a meaningful way? Have chimpanzees demonstrated an ability to learn language? Ask students to write an essay that offers an answer to these questions. Students should include examples from the studies they research. Encourage students to share their research with the class. L3

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CHAPTER 11

DO ANIMALS LEARN LANGUAGE?

Section 2, pages 304–308

Animals communicate with one another. We have all seen dogs bark or growl at each other. Do animals, though, learn language? Language involves more than just communicating—it involves rules of grammar. It involves combining words or phrases into meaningful sentences. Although animals do not possess the ability to use grammatical rules, they have been taught to communicate with humans. (Refer to Chapter 3 for an in-depth discussion.)

Section Quiz 11–2 Name __________________________________

Date ______________

Class _______________

SCOR

Section Quiz

11-2

E

Language

GENDER AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES People use language to communicate their culture and express their ideas. Do people who speak different languages actually think differently from one another? Benjamin Whorf (1956) argued that language affects our basic perceptions of the physical world. Whorf used the term linguistic relativity to refer to the idea that language influences thoughts. For instance, consider the word snow. Whorf estimated that the Inuit have many words for snow (including separate words for damp snow, falling snow, and melting snow) because their survival depends upon traveling and living in snow. According to Whorf ’s theory, different terms for snow help the Inuit see the different types of snow as different. On the other hand, Whorf claimed that Americans have one word for snow. Critics have pointed out that Americans actually have many words for snow. Whorf ’s theory of linguistic relativity still claims supporters, but it is difficult to separate culture from language when studying the use of language and the perceptions it influences. Does the English language express a particular value system? Some people argue that certain words in language create gender stereotypes. For example, a chairman may be a man or a woman. The use of pronouns also affects our thinking. Nurses, secretaries, and schoolteachers are often referred to as she, while doctors, engineers, and presidents are often referred to as he. Many organizations have instituted guidelines for the use of nonsexist language.

Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B. Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each) Column A

Column B

1. communication of ideas through symbols and sounds that are arranged according to rules

A. syntax

2. individual sound that is the basic structural element of language

C. language

3. study of meaning in language

E.

B. morpheme

D. phoneme semantics

4. language rules that govern how words can be combined to form meaningful phrases and sentences 5. smallest unit of meaning in a given language

Reteach Tell students that context determines the meaning of the word. Ask for volunteers to use the word “square” as an adjective, a verb, an adverb, and a noun. Write each sentence on the board.

Enrich Have students write an essay titled “Language Expresses My Values.”

Assessment

4 CLOSE

1. Review the Vocabulary How many phonemes are in the word “thoughtfully”? How many morphemes?

Have students draw a time line showing the progression of language development in children from birth through age 4.

2. Visualize the Main Idea Using a flowchart similar to the one below, list the stages of language development.

3. Recall Information How might we express gender values in our use of language? 4. Think Critically You have taught your pet parrot to speak perfect English and understand several commands. Have you taught it language? Explain. 5. Application Activity In ordinary English, there is no resemblance between the written appearance of a word and the idea for which it stands. Write the following words in such a way that the word illustrates the idea: war, empty, fly, kick, Mommy.

Stages of Language Development 4 3 2 1

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SECTION

2 Assessment Answers

1. 7 phonemes (th ough t f u ll y), 3 morphemes (thought ful ly) 2. (1) babble at about 4 months, (2) single words at around 1 year, (3) place two words together, (4) telegraphic speech in which words are omitted but meaning is clear at about 2 years of age. 3. Gender values are expressed by the use of male and female pronouns to refer to people in certain roles

308

(nurse, she; doctor, he) and by use of gender-biased language such as chairman, salesman, and saleslady. 4. No, it is simply mimicking what it has been taught. For example, it cannot form new sentences from words it knows and it cannot use grammatical rules. 5. Students’ answers will vary. Have students share their answers with the class and discuss the similarities and differences among the answers.

Summary and Vocabulary Solving problems, creating ideas, and expressing our ideas through language are some of the most important skills that we acquire in our lives.

Thinking and Problem Solving Main Idea: Thinking involves changing, reorganizing, and recombining the information stored in memory to create new or transformed information, such as creative problemsolving strategies.





■ ■







Thought depends on several processes or components: images, symbols, concepts, prototypes, and rules. There are several kinds of thinking: directed, or convergent, thinking; nondirected, or divergent, thinking; and metacognition. Problem solving depends upon the use of strategies or specific methods for approaching problems. People use algorithms, or fixed sets of procedures, and heuristics, or mental shortcuts, to solve problems. At times certain useful strategies become so cemented into the problem-solving process that they actually interfere with problem solving. When a particular strategy becomes a habit, it is called a mental set. Functional fixedness, or the inability to imagine new functions for familiar objects, can interfere with problem solving. Some characteristics of creative thinking include flexibility and the ability to recombine elements to achieve insight.

11

Using the Chapter 11 Summary and Vocabulary Chapter Vocabulary thinking (p. 296) image (p. 296) symbol (p. 296) concept (p. 296) prototype (p. 296) rule (p. 297) metacognition (p. 297) algorithm (p. 299) heuristic (p. 299) mental set (p. 299) functional fixedness (p. 300) creativity (p. 300) flexibility (p. 301) recombination (p. 301) insight (p. 301) language (p. 304) phoneme (p. 305) morpheme (p. 305) syntax (p. 305) semantics (p. 305)

Language Main Idea: Language and thought are closely related. Language requires the learning of a set of complex rules and symbols, yet most people have little difficulty learning their native language.

■ ■ ■





Summary and Vocabulary

Language consists of three parts: phonemes, morphemes, and syntax. According to B.F. Skinner, children learn language as a result of operant conditioning. Noam Chomsky theorized that children inherit a mental program that enables them to learn grammar. Infants go through four stages of language development—babbling at around 4 months of age, uttering single words at around 12 months of age, placing words together to express ideas at around 2 years of age, and forming complex, compound sentences by 4 years of age. People use language to communicate their culture and express their ideas.

Use the Chapter 11 Summary and Vocabulary to preview, review, condense, or reteach the chapter.

Preview/Review Use the Chapter Vocabulary list to help students review and study. Activity Have students create a matching game by placing the term on one card and an example of the term on another card. Ask students to trade games with a classmate and match all the terms with their examples. Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROM reinforces the vocabulary terms used in Chapter 11.

Condense Have students read the Chapter 11 Summary. Chapter 11 Guided Reading Activities

Reteach Reteaching Activity 11

Chapter 11 / Thinking and Language 309

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY Creating a New Product New products are invented by people who see a need and figure out a way to satisfy it. Brainstorm as a class various needs that students have. Have students work in groups and use this list to create a plan for a new or improved product. Tell them to keep a written record of how they selected the need and will create the product, showing how they used flexibility, recombination, or insight during the process. BLOCK SCHEDULING Refer to the Authentic Assessment booklet for additional activities and information about evaluating student performance.

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Assessment

Assessment

PSYCHOLOGY

PSYCHOLOGY

Have students visit the Web site at glencoe.com to review Chapter 11 and take the Self-Check Quiz.

Self-Check Quiz Visit the Understanding Psychology Web site at glencoe.com and click on Chapter 11—Self-Check Quizzes to prepare for the Chapter Test.

Reviewing Vocabulary Choose the letter of the correct term or concept below to complete the sentence.

For a review of Chapter 11 content, see MindJogger Checkpoint on Presentation Plus!

Reviewing Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

b g i d h

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

f j a e c

Recalling Facts 1. Images are mental representations of events or objects. Symbols are abstract units of thought that represent objects or qualities. Concepts are symbols used for classes of objects or events that share at least one common attribute. Prototypes are representative examples of concepts. Rules are statements of relations between concepts. In order of increasing complexity, the units of thought are image, symbol, concept, prototype, and rule. 2. Creativity is the ability to use information in new and original ways. Three characteristics of creative thinking are flexibility, recombination, and insight. Students’ answers will vary. 3. Phonemes are the smallest units of sound. Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning. Syntax is the set of rules for expressing thoughts with words and sentences. Semantics is the meaning of words or phrases as they appear in context. 4. People solve problems by (1) breaking the problem into smaller, more easily solved subgoals, (2) using algorithms, and (3) using heuristics. Students’ answers will vary but should demonstrate an understanding of problem-solving strategies. 5. Skinner believed that language developed as a result of reinforcement—through nurture. Chomsky believes that the ability to acquire language is innate and will develop naturally.

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a. b. c. d. e.

prototype algorithm functional fixedness insight phonemes

f. g. h. i. j.

syntax semantics mental set thinking metacognition

1. A(n) __________ is a fixed set of procedures that, if followed correctly, will lead to a solution. 2. __________ is the study of the meaning of words or phrases when they appear in sentences or contexts. 3. Changing or reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new or transformed information is __________. 4. A person experiences __________ when he or she comes upon a solution to a problem by creating a new mental arrangement of the elements of the problem. 5. The strategy of problem solving that you use over and over again is your ________. 6. __________ is a set of rules for combining words, phrases, and sentences to express thoughts that can be understood by others. 7. Thinking about thinking is called ____________. 8. When you think of a car as an example of a vehicle, you are thinking of a(n) __________. 9. The smallest units of sound in the human language are called __________. 10. The inability to imagine new functions for familiar objects is called __________.

Recalling Facts 1. Define the five units of thought. Then list the five units of thought in order of increasing complexity. 2. What is creativity? What are the three characteristics of creative thinking? Give an example of one of the three characteristics. 3. Using a graphic organizer similar to the one below, identify and explain the structures of language. Structures of Language

4. What are three strategies people often use to solve problems? Explain how you have used one of these strategies to solve a problem. 5. How did B.F. Skinner and Noam Chomsky differ in their ideas about how children learn language?

Critical Thinking 1. Applying Concepts Do you think using algorithms rather than heuristics is always the best way to solve problems? Why or why not? 2. Making Inferences What kind of thinking— directed or nondirected—do you think is required for creativity? Why do you think so? 3. Analyzing Concepts Based on what you have learned about language development, do you think all students in elementary school should be taught a foreign language? Why or why not? 4. Synthesizing Information According to the theory of linguistic relativity, a person’s language influences his or her thoughts. Do you believe that bilingual people have more complex thought processes than people who speak only one language? Explain your answer. 5. Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment What theory of language development do you agree with the most? Why?

310 Chapter 11 / Thinking and Language

Critical Thinking 1. No one problem-solving strategy is appropriate for all situations. Algorithms are quite effective for some types of problems like multiplication. Heuristics may be more appropriate for solving problems quickly. 2. Students’ answers will vary. Both types of thinking can be used in creativity. Students should support their viewpoints with examples from their own life or from the lives of others. 3. Students’ answers will vary. Language development may be slowed by the introduction of a second language, but many will support the benefits of learning a second language. For example, bilingual people can express their

thoughts in a wide variety of ways. 4. Students’ answers will vary. In general, the larger one’s vocabulary, the greater his or her thinking capacity. Bilingual individuals have a larger vocabulary and may have more complex thought processes. 5. Students’ answers will vary. Those who support Skinner will likely point to experiences in which a child has responded to encouragement (reinforcement) from others. Those who support Chomsky will state that the pattern of language development appears much the same across languages, indicating an inborn brain structure that makes it easy to acquire language skills.

Assessment

Assessment

Building Skills 30 25

Psychology Projects

15 10 5 0

1. Problem Solving Suppose you wanted to put together a jigsaw puzzle. What are the problemsolving strategies you might use? Which one do you think would work best? Present your strategies in an illustrated “how-to” pamphlet for others to refer to. 2. Language Listen to the speech of a child between the ages of 2 and 4. Pay special attention to the child’s language skills. Then write a report explaining what parts of language structure the child is exhibiting. 3. Thinking Ask 15 to 20 people to give you directions to a specific location, such as the school gym. Notice how they describe the directions (by using only words, creating a map, or using their hands). After they have finished, ask them to describe the mental imagery they used. In a brief report, summarize your findings.

The Internet has several sites designed for parents of preschool children. Locate some of these sites to find out what suggestions parents can obtain to improve language development in their young children. Report and evaluate the suggestions in light of the information about language development you have learned in this chapter.

Psychology Journal Consider how language shapes your thinking and how language and thought are integrated processes. Recall an episode in your life in which you used language (your communication skills) to solve an important problem. Describe the event and analyze why you were equipped to resolve this particular issue.

Parent Involvement in Language Development

Building Skills

1,800

Interpreting a Graph Many factors contribute to a child’s language development. Review the graph, then answer the questions that follow. 1. What does the graph illustrate? 2. What conclusion can you draw about the relationship of the number of words that a parent says to a child and the size of the child’s vocabulary? 3. What theory of language development does the information in this graph best support?

Technology Activity

20

1. It shows the relationship between the number of words said by a parent to a child and the child’s vocabulary at age 3. 2. There is a positive relationship between the number of words a parent says to a child and the size of that child’s vocabulary. Usually, the more words a child hears from the parent, the larger that child’s vocabulary will be. 3. The information presented in this graph best supports B.F. Skinner’s theory of language development. The child’s vocabulary can be expanded through parental reinforcement.

CD-ROM Glencoe Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook, Level 2 This interactive CD-ROM is designed to reinforce student mastery of essential social studies skills.

1,600 1,400 1,200 The number of words in the child’s recorded vocabulary at age 3

Practice and assess key social studies skills with Glencoe Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook CD-ROM, Level 2. See the Skills Handbook, page 628, for an explanation of interpreting graphs.

1,000 800

Chapter Bonus Test Question

600 400 (

200

= individual child) r = .58

r = .58

0

600

1,200

1,800

2,400

3,000

3,600

The average number of words said per hour by the parent to the child before the child was 3 years old

This question may be used for extra credit on the Chapter Assessment. Answer the following question:

I transmit learning and communicate facts and ideas. What am I? Answer: language

Source: Robert S. Feldman, Understanding Psychology, 1999.

Chapter 11 / Thinking and Language 311

Psychology Projects

Technology Activity

1. Answers will vary. Students might mention associating puzzle pieces by color, shape, and so on. 2. Answers will vary. Students should note the use of telegraphic speech, incorrect grammar that follows logical rules, and the use of expressions that the children have mimicked from adults. 3. Answers will vary. The sample size of 15 should allow for a wide variety of responses. The reports should indicate the different ways that people express themselves.

Students should find a wealth of information on the Web. By searching under “early childhood development,” several of the search engines will respond with recommended sites. Some of these deal directly or indirectly with language development.

Psychology Journal Answers will vary. Challenge students to think about how they would have solved the problem if the other people involved spoke a different language.

311