chapter 1 Mind Control Internal or External?

Acknowledgements 1 chapter 1 Mind Control — Internal or External? 1 1.0 Chapter Overview 2 1.1 Our Special Intelligence 3 1.2 Rodents that Engineer ...
Author: Chad Hancock
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Acknowledgements

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chapter 1 Mind Control — Internal or External? 1 1.0 Chapter Overview 2 1.1 Our Special Intelligence 3 1.2 Rodents that Engineer Wetlands 1.2.1 Castor canadensis 1.2.2 The Cognitive Beaver? 5 1.3 The Instincts of Insects 1.3.1 The Instinctive Wasp 1.3.2 Umwelt and Control 7 1.4 Paper Wasp Colonies and Their Nests 1.4.1 Colonies and Their Nests 1.4.2 Scaling Up

Contents

8 1.5 The Towers of Termites 1.5.1 Termite Mounds 1.5.2 The Thinking Termite? 10 1.6 The Rational Insect? 1.6.1 Computational Theory of Mind 1.6.2 Are Insects Representational? 11 1.7 Insect as Superorganism? 1.7.1 The Intelligent Whole 1.7.2 Colonial Intelligence 13 1.8 The Ultimate Democracy 1.8.1 Emerging Problems 1.8.2 From Whence Organization? 14 1.9 Programs for Nest Construction 1.9.1 An Inherited Program 1.9.2 Testing the Theory 16 1.10 The Environment as Program 1.10.1 A Complex Environment 1.10.2 Stigmergy 17 1.11 Stigmergy and the Synthetic Approach 1.11.1 The Synthetic Approach 1.11.2 Wasp Nest Examples 19 1.12 Stigmergy and the Parable of the Ant 1.12.1 Intelligence and Stigmergy 1.12.2 Are Mammals Stigmergic? 20 1.13 Embodiment and Posthumanism 1.13.1 Posthumanism 1.13.2 Embodiment 22 1.14 Stigmergy and Classical Cognition 1.14.1 Classical Control 1.14.2 Externalizing Control

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chapter 2 Classical Music and the Classical Mind 25 2.0 Chapter Overview 26 2.1 The Boolean Dream 2.1.1 Cognitive Science 2.1.2 Logicism 2.1.3 The Boolean Dream 28 2.2 Classical Cognitive Science 2.2.1 A Classical Device 2.2.2 Three Key Characteristics 29 2.3 Classical Views of Mind and Music 2.3.1 Mind and Music 2.3.2 A Classical Analogy 31 2.4 Musical Logicism 2.4.1 Musical Formalisms 2.4.2 Sonata-Allegro Form 32 2.5 A Harmonious Narrative 2.5.1 Representational Explanation 2.5.2 Musical Expressions 34 2.6 The Nature of Classical Composition 2.6.1 The Disembodied Mind 2.6.2 The Thoughtful Composer 35 2.7 Central Control of a Classical Performance 2.7.1 Central Control 2.7.2 Conductor as Central Controller 2.7.3 The Controlling Score 37 2.8 Disembodiment and the Classical Audience 2.8.1 Disembodiment 2.8.2 Audience and Composition 38 2.9 Classical Reactions 2.9.1 Reacting to Music 2.9.2 Classical Competitors 40 2.10 Modern Music 2.10.1 Out with the Old 2.10.2 In with the New 41 2.11 Dodecaphony 2.11.1 Tonality and Atonality 2.11.2 The Twelve-Tone Method 43 2.12 Reactions to Atonal Structure 2.12.1 From Structure to Structure 2.12.2 Reducing Central Control 45 2.13 Control and Emergence in Cage’s Music 2.13.1 Silence 2.13.2 Chance and Emergence 46 2.14 Emergence in Minimalist Music 2.14.1 Tape as Medium 2.14.2 It’s Gonna Rain

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48 2.15 A Minimalist Score 2.15.1 In C 2.15.2 Minimalism and Stigmergy 49 2.16 Musical Stigmergy 2.16.1 Musical Swarms 2.16.2 The ReacTable 51 2.17 From Hot to Cool 2.17.1 The Conduit Metaphor 2.17.2 Audible Processes 52 2.18 The Shock of the New 2.18.1 Classical Value 2.18.2 A Tradition of Improvisation 54 2.19 Musical Methods and the Mind 2.19.1 Characteristic Questions 2.19.2 The Synthetic Approach

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chapter 3 Situated Cognition and Bricolage 57 3.0 Chapter Overview 58 3.1 Three Topics to Consider 3.1.1 Review to This Point 3.1.2 New Headings 59 3.2 Production Systems as Classical Architectures 3.2.1 The Production System 3.2.2 Classical Characteristics 61 3.3 Sense–Think–Act with Productions 3.3.1 An Early Production System 3.3.2 The Next ACT 63 3.4 Logic from Action 3.4.1 Productions and Logicism 3.4.2 Logic as Internalized Action 65 3.5 An EPIC Evolution 3.5.1 Productions, Sensing, and Action 3.5.2 The EPIC Architecture 66 3.6 Productions and Formal Operations 3.6.1 Sense–Think–Act 3.6.2 Formal Operations 68 3.7 Evidence for Sensing and Acting Without Thinking 3.7.1 Classical Modularity 3.7.2 Visuomotor Modules 69 3.8 Action without Representation? 3.8.1 Multiple Visual Pathways 3.8.2 Blindsight 71 3.9 A Need for Action 3.9.1 Incorporating Action 3.9.2 Advantages of Action

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72 3.10 The External World and Computation 3.10.1 Worldly Support for Cognition 3.10.2 Scaffolding 74 3.11 Some Implications of Scaffolding 3.11.1 The Leaky Mind 3.11.2 Group Cognition 3.11.3 Specialized Cognition 76 3.12 Stigmergy of Thought 3.12.1 Environmental Import 77 3.13 Bricolage 3.13.1 Resource Allocation 3.13.2 Thought as Bricolage 79 3.14 The Power of Bricolage 3.14.1 The Savage Mind 3.14.2 Power from Non-linearity 80 3.15 The Society of Mind 3.15.1 Agents and Agencies 3.15.2 Explaining Mental Societies 82 3.16 Engineering a Society of Mind 3.16.1 Reverse Engineering 3.16.2 Forward Engineering 83 3.17 Synthesis in Action 3.17.1 Cricket Phonotaxis 3.17.2 Robot Phonotaxis 85 3.18 Verum-Factum 3.18.1 Synthetic Psychology 3.18.2 Vico’s Philosophy 87 3.19 Mind and Method 3.19.1 Mind 3.19.2 Method 88 3.20 Synthesis as Process, Not as Design 3.20.1 Synthesis Is Not Design 3.20.2 Synthesis as Process 90 3.21 Building Bricoleurs 3.21.1 Cartesian Alternatives 3.21.2 Students as Bricoleurs

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chapter 4 Braitenberg’s Vehicle 2 93 4.0 Chapter Overview 94 4.1 A Robot’s Parable 4.1.1 Path of a Robot 4.1.2 Analysis and Synthesis 95 4.2 Braitenberg’s Thought Experiments 4.2.1 A Thought Experiment 4.2.2 Goals

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97 4.3 Foraging for Parts 4.3.1 Parts and Foraging 4.3.2 Robot Bricolage 98 4.4 Chassis Design (Steps 1 through 4) 4.4.1 General Design 4.4.2 Initial Chassis Construction 99 4.5 Constructing the Chassis (Steps 5 through 7) 4.5.1 General Design 99 4.6 The NXT Interactive Servo Motor 4.6.1 The Evolution of LEGO Motors 4.6.2 The NXT Servo Motor 100 4.7 Adding Motors to the Chassis (Steps 8 and 9) 101 4.8 Adding a Front Slider (Step 10) 4.8.1 Passive Front Support 4.8.2 Constructing the Front Slider 102 4.9 Constructing Rear Axles (Step 11) 4.9.1 Wheel Axle Design 4.9.2 Constructing the Wheel Axles 103 4.10 Attaching the NXT Brick (Step 12) 4.10.1 The NXT Brick 4.10.2 Attaching the Brick 103 4.11 Attaching Light Sensor Supports (Step 13) 4.11.1 Sensor Mount Design 104 4.12 Adding Light Sensors (Step 14) 4.12.1 Mounting Light Sensors 105 4.13 Wheels and Cable Considerations 4.13.1 Completing the Robot 106 4.14 Sensing, Acting, and the NXT Brick 4.14.1 The NXT Brick 107 4.15 NXT Light Sensor Properties 4.15.1 The LEGO Light Sensor 109 4.16 Programming the NXT Brick 4.16.1 Programming Steps 4.16.2 Programming Environment 110 4.17 A Simple Main Task 4.17.1 The Main Task 4.17.2 Defining Variable Names 4.17.3 Miscellaneous Syntax 111 4.18 Linking Light Sensors to Motors 4.18.1 Two More Tasks 112 4.19 A Complete Program 114 4.20 Exploring Vehicle 2 Behaviour 4.20.1 Three Test Environments 4.20.2 A Simple World 4.20.3 A More Complex World 4.20.4 Complexities via Embodiment

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115 4.21 Further Avenues for Bricoleurs 4.21.1 Exploring Embodiment 4.21.2 Manipulating Environments 4.21.3 Modifying Code 4.21.4 Bricolage, Not Design

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chapter 5 Thoughtless Walkers 117 5.0 Chapter Overview 118 5.1 Analysis vs. Synthesis 5.1.1 Synthetic Methodology 5.1.2 Analytic Methodology 5.1.3 Complementary Methodologies 119 5.2 Biomimetics and Analysis 5.2.1 Natural Technology 5.2.2 Early Analysis of Locomotion 121 5.3 From Motion Analysis to Walking Robots 5.3.1 Modern Motion Analysis 5.3.2 Biologically Inspired Robots 122 5.4 Analysis That Constrains Synthesis 5.4.1 Passive Dynamic Walking 5.4.2 Search and Construct 124 5.5 A LEGO Passive Dynamic Walker 5.5.1 Synthesis after Analysis 5.5.2 Parts and Foraging 125 5.6 Building a Straight-Legged Hinge 5.6.1 Centre Post 5.6.2 Support Legs 126 5.7 Weighting the Walker 5.7.1 The Need for Weights 5.7.2 LEGO Weights 127 5.8 A Specialized Environment 5.8.1 The Need for Holes 5.8.2 Building a Ramp with Gaps 128 5.9 Raising the Ramp 5.9.1 Reinforced Ends 5.9.2 Elevating the Platform 129 5.10 From Talking the Talk to Walking the Walk 5.10.1 Passive Dynamic Walking 5.10.2 Implications 131 5.11 Synthesis in Aid of Analysis 5.11.1 The Opposite Direction 5.11.2 Analytic Intractability 132 5.12 Ashby’s Homeostat 5.12.1 Homeostat Design 5.12.2 Behaviour of the Homeostat

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134 5.13 The Great Pretender 5.13.1 Synthesis and Scaling Up 5.13.2 Strandbeest 135 5.14 A LEGO Strandbeest 5.14.1 Alternative Material 136 5.15 Segmented Design 5.15.1 Parts and Foraging 137 5.16 From the Ground Up 5.16.1 Ankles and Feet 5.16.2 Feet vs. Wheels 138 5.17 A Strandbeest Leg 5.17.1 Precise Proportions 139 5.18 LEGO Legs and Holy Numbers 5.18.1 Completing a Leg 5.18.2 The Holy Numbers 140 5.19 Reinventing the Wheel 5.19.1 Pairing Legs into a Module 141 5.20 Quadruped 5.20.1 Mounting the Modules 5.20.2 Gait Exploration 143 5.21 Manipulating Quadruped Gaits 5.21.1 Quadruped Gaits 5.21.2 Exploring Strandbeest Gaits 144 5.22 An Octapedal Strandbeest 5.22.1 Additional Legs 5.22.2 Walking with Eight Legs 146 5.23 Strandbeests in Action 5.23.1 Observing Strandbeest Gaits 5.23.2 Exploiting Stronger Situation 147 5.24 Alternative Gaits and Robotic Snakes 5.24.1 Snake-like Movement 5.24.2 Analyzing Snake Locomotion 149 5.25 The Wormeostat: A Synthetic Snake or Worm 5.25.1 Feedback and Motion 5.25.2 Motion from Friction 150 5.26 Foraging For Wormeostat Parts 5.26.1 Building the Wormeostat 5.26.2 Parts and Modules 151 5.27 Motor and Tire Assemblies 5.27.1 Motor Modules 5.27.2 Tire Assemblies 151 5.28 Preparing Two NXT Bricks 5.28.1 Control and Friction 152 5.29 Front End Friction 5.29.1 Motor Friction 5.29.2 Brick Friction 153 5.30 A Second Front End Motor 5.30.1 Reflected Construction

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153 5.31 Completing the Front Half 5.31.1 Connecting Three Components 154 5.32 Modules for the Rear Half 5.32.1 Replicating Components 154 5.33 Completing the Rear Half 5.33.1 A Second Chain 154 5.34 The Total Wormeostat 5.34.1 Linking the Halves 5.34.2 Programming Feedback 155 5.35 Wormeostat Code for Motor 1 5.35.1 Motor Behaviour 157 5.36 Wormeostat Code for Motor 2 5.36.1 Second Verse Same as First 158 5.37 Wormeostat Main Task 5.37.1 The Main Task 5.37.2 Modular Duplication 159 5.38 The Wormeostat’s Behaviour 5.38.1 Fireside Dogs 5.38.2 Wormeostat Movement 160 5.39 Implications 5.39.1 Two Cultures 5.39.2 Mending the Rift

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chapter 6 Machina Speculatrix 163 6.0 Chapter Overview 164 6.1 William Grey Walter 6.1.1 Biographical Highlights 6.1.2 A Very Public Robot 165 6.2 The Tortoise 6.2.1 Appearance 6.2.2 Behaviour 167 6.3 Speculation and Positive Tropisms 6.3.1 Exploration as Speculation 6.3.2 Phototropism 6.3.3 Inferring Internal Mechanisms 168 6.4 Not All Lights Are the Same 6.4.1 A Negative Phototropism 6.4.2 Analysis of Behaviour 170 6.5 Choice 6.5.1 Buridan’s Ass 6.5.2 Complicating the Environment 171 6.6 Additional Negative Tropisms 6.6.1 Avoiding Obstacles 6.6.2 Avoiding Slopes

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173 6.7 Dynamic Tropisms 6.7.1 Toys vs. Tools 6.7.2 Changing Light Sensitivity 174 6.8 Self-Recognition 6.8.1 Self, Not Machine 6.8.2 The Mirror Dance 175 6.9 Mutual Recognition 6.9.1 The Relative World 6.9.2 Social Environments 176 6.10 Internal Stability 6.10.1 Feedback and Cybernetics 6.10.2 Cybernetics and Simulation 178 6.11 Parsimony 6.11.1 Two Approaches to Stability 6.11.2 A Simple Machine 180 6.12 A LEGO Tortoise 6.12.1 A New Generation 6.12.2 Variations of Design 181 6.13 Parts for a Modular Design 6.13.1 Sophistication from Tweaking 182 6.14 The “Spine” of the Chassis 6.14.1 Building a Spine 182 6.15 Mirrored Motor Assemblies 6.15.1 Two Motor Assemblies 183 6.16 Attaching Motors to the Chassis 6.16.1 Motors and Steering Gear 184 6.17 A Small Stick for Big Obstacles 6.17.1 Stick-In-Ring Detector 184 6.18 Adding a Drive Gear and Stick-In-Ring Switch 6.18.1 Front Wheel Drive 6.18.2 Stick In the Stick-In-Ring 185 6.19 A Vertical Front Axle 6.19.1 Front Axle Gears 185 6.20 Preparing the NXT Brick 6.20.1 Readying the Brick 6.20.2 Stick-In-Ring Detector 186 6.21 Supporting Rear Wheels 6.21.1 Rear Wheel Supports 6.21.2 Brick and Wheel Attachment 188 6.22 Front Wheel Assembly and Attachment 6.22.1 Front Wheel Gear Gang 189 6.23 Pilot Light Assembly 6.23.1 A LEGO Pilot Light 190 6.24 Attaching Pilot Lights and Connecting Wires 6.24.1 Pilot Light Wiring 192 6.25 A Periscope Mirror 6.25.1 A 360° Rotating Mirror

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193 6.26 Sensing Light from the Periscope 6.26.1 Attaching the Periscope 6.26.2 Sensing Periscope Light 194 6.27 Adding More Cables 6.27.1 Periscope Wiring 6.27.2 Motor Wiring 194 6.28 A Surrounding Shell 6.28.1 Shell Design 196 6.29 Suspending the Shell 6.29.1 The Suspension System 197 6.30 Completing the Tortoise 6.30.1 Attaching the Shell 6.30.2 Next: Tortoise Programming 6.30.3 Embodiment Issues

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chapter 7 The Subsumption Architecture 199 7.0 Chapter Overview 200 7.1 A Sandwich of Vertical Modules 7.1.1 Cognitivism 7.1.2 The Classical Sandwich 201 7.2 The New Look and Its Problems 7.2.1 The New Look in Perception 7.2.2 Shakey Implications 203 7.3 Horizontal Layers in the Human Brain 7.3.1 Evidence from Action 7.3.2 Sandwich Alternative 205 7.4 Horizontal Links between Sense and Action 7.4.1 A Sandwich Alternative 206 7.5 The Subsumption Architecture 7.5.1 Modularity of Mind 7.5.2 Vertical Modules 208 7.6 Advantages of the Subsumption Architecture 7.6.1 Reasons for Revolution 7.6.2 Coping with Multiple Goals 7.6.3 Combining Multiple Sensors 7.6.4 Robustness 7.6.5 Speed with No Modeling 209 7.7 Concrete Examples 7.7.1 Walking Robots 7.7.2 The Tortoise 211 7.8 Level 0, Basic Movement 7.8.1 A Fundamental Function 212 7.9 Level 1, Steering 7.9.1 Exploration 212 7.10 Level 2, Sensing Ambient Light 7.10.1 Light Affects Lower Levels

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214 7.11 Level 3, Obstacle Avoidance 7.11.1 Sophistication from Tweaking 215 7.12 The Main Task 7.12.1 Modular Design 216 7.13 Observing Tortoise Behaviour 7.13.1 Level 0 7.13.2 Level 0 + Level 1 7.13.3 Level 0 + Level 1 + Level 2 7.13.4 All Four Levels 218 7.14 The Total Tortoise 7.14.1 Repeating History 7.14.2 Search for an Optimum 7.14.3 Free Will 7.14.4 Discernment 7.14.5 Self-Recognition 220 7.15 Tortoise Implications 7.15.1 Grey Walter’s Legacy 7.15.2 The LEGO Tortoise 7.15.3 Degrees of Embodiment

223 chapter 8

Embodiment, Stigmergy, and Swarm Intelligence 223 8.0 Chapter Overview 224 8.1 Travelling Salesmen 8.1.1 The Traveling Salesman Problem 8.1.2 Solving the TSP 226 8.2 Swarm Intelligence 8.2.1 Economical Ants 8.2.2 Emergent Intelligence 227 8.3 Collective Contributions 8.3.1 Swarm Advantages 8.3.2 Robot Collectives 228 8.4 Critical Numbers of Agents 8.4.1 When Is a Swarm Intelligent? 8.4.2 A Foraging Example 230 8.5 Coordination, Communication, and Cost 8.5.1 Costly Coordination 8.5.2 A Stigmergic Solution 232 8.6 Co-operative Transport 8.6.1 Robots that Push Boxes 8.6.2 Stigmergic Co-operation 234 8.7 Collective Sorting 8.7.1 Spatial Sorting by Ants 8.7.2 Stigmergic Sorting by Robots 235 8.8 Stigmergy and Degrees of Embodiment 8.8.1 Extending the Mind into the World 8.8.2 Degrees of Embodiment

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237 8.9 The Lemming 8.9.1 Lemming Situation 8.9.2 Lemming Embodiment 238 8.10 Foraging for Robot Parts and World Parts 8.10.1 Robot Parts 8.10.2 Bricks to Move 239 8.11 Chassis and Rear Wheels 8.11.1 NXT Brick as Chassis 240 8.12 Mounting Motors 8.12.1 Motors and Cables 240 8.13 Upper Ultrasonic Sensor and Front Wheels 8.13.1 The Upper Ultrasonic 8.13.2 Front Wheel Drive 241 8.14 Mounting the Lower Ultrasonic Sensor 8.14.1 Angled Ultrasonics 242 8.15 Designing the Brick Catcher 8.15.1 Important Embodiment 243 8.16 Brick Catcher, Brick Processor 8.16.1 Embodiment and Situation 244 8.17 Completing the Lemming 8.17.1 Final Construction 245 8.18 Level 0: Drive and Calibrate 8.18.1 Driving 8.18.2 Calibration 247 8.19 Level 1: Dodge Obstacles 8.19.1 The Lemming’s Umwelt 8.19.2 Avoiding Obstacles 248 8.20 Level 2: Seek Bricks 8.20.1 Brick Attraction 8.20.2 Using the Lower Ultrasonic 249 8.21 Level 3: Process Brick Colours 8.21.1 Bricks and Behaviour 250 8.22 Level -1: Integrate Levels to Control Motors 8.22.1 Multiple Motor Influences 251 8.23 Putting All the Levels Together 8.23.1 The Main Task 253 8.24 The Lonely Lemming 8.24.1 Lemming Behaviour 255 8.25 Collective Collecting 8.25.1 Two Lemmings 8.25.2 Three Lemmings 256 8.26 Explaining Sorting Into Corners 8.26.1 Corner Analysis 8.26.2 Corners for Free 259 8.27 Do Lemmings Have Collective Intelligence? 8.27.1 “Speed” of Work

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259 8.28 Explaining Collective Intelligence 8.28.1 Brick Dynamics 8.28.2 Interaction and the Middle 261 8.29 Implications and Future Directions 8.29.1 Implications 8.29.2 Future Directions

263 chapter 9

Totems, Toys — Or Tools? 263 9.0 Chapter Overview 264 9.1 Are Our Robots More Than Totems? 9.1.1 Uncanny Machines 265 9.2 Are Our Robots More Than Toys? 9.2.1 The Tortoise as Toy 9.2.2 LEGO Is a Toy! 267 9.3 From Totems and Toys to Tools 9.3.1 Tortoise as Tool 9.3.2 Pedagogical and Scientific Tools 268 9.4 Animal Navigation and Representation 9.4.1 Navigational Organisms 9.4.2 Sense–Think–Navigate 270 9.5 Representation and Robot Navigation 9.5.1 Animals to Animats 9.5.2 SLAM and AntiSLAM 271 9.6 Spatial Behaviour and the Reorientation Task 9.6.1 Navigational Cues 9.6.2 The Reorientation Task 273 9.7 Basic Findings with the Reorientation Task 9.7.1 Rotational Error 9.7.2 Mandatory Geometry 275 9.8 Representational Theories of Reorientation 9.8.1 The Geometric Module 9.8.2 Geometry and Representation 277 9.9 Whither the Geometric Module? 9.9.1 Modifying Modularity 9.9.2 Non-modular Reorientation 278 9.10 Reactive Robots and Their Evolution 9.10.1 New Wave Robotics 9.10.2 Evolving Robots 280 9.11 Reactive Robots and Rotational Errors 9.11.1 Reactive Reorientation 9.11.2 Representative Reaction 282 9.12 Reorienting LEGO Robots 9.12.1 Motivating AntiSLAM 9.12.2 Ultrasonic Sensors 283 9.13 AntiSLAM Overview 9.13.1 Modifying Vehicle 2

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284 9.14 From Vehicle 2 Onward 9.14.1 Foraging for Parts 285 9.15 A Spine for AntiSLAM 9.15.1 Creating a Chassis 286 9.16 Structure from Motors 9.16.1 Motors and Axles 286 9.17 Sensor Supports and Front Wheels 9.17.1 Creating Sensor Supports 9.17.2 Front Wheels 288 9.18 Sensor Arrays 9.18.1 Mounting Sensors 289 9.19 AntiSLAM’s Rear Wheels and Cables 9.19.1 Rear Wheels 9.19.2 Connecting Cables 290 9.20 AntiSLAM Level 0: Drive 9.20.1 Subsumption Architecture 291 9.21 Level 1: Escape 9.21.1 Importance of Escaping 292 9.22 Level 2: Following Walls 9.22.1 Biasing Lower-level Behaviour 293 9.23 Level 3: Using Light as a Local Feature 9.23.1 Local Feature Sensitivity 295 9.24 Level -1: Determining Motor Speeds 9.24.1 Finally, Level -1 295 9.25 The Main Task 9.25.1 Putting It Together 297 9.26 Primitive Behaviours 9.26.1 Levels -1 + 0 9.26.2 Levels -1 + 0 + 1 298 9.27 Bias and Reorientation 9.27.1 Levels -1 + 0 + 1 + 2 9.27.2 Rotational Error and AntiSLAM 300 9.28 Beyond Rotational Error 9.28.1 Nolfi and Beyond 9.28.2 Feature Sensitivity 302 9.29 Moving the Local Feature 9.29.1 Moving the Light 304 9.30 All Levels with No Local Feature 9.30.1 Turning Lights Off 305 9.31 Reorienting Reorientation 9.31.1 Building a Better Mouse 9.31.2 Different Views of Reorientation 307 9.32 Hard Fun and Hard Science 9.32.1 Hard Fun 9.32.2 Hard Science

309 References 329 Index

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